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1.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3296, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578752

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to assess risk related to drug use in men admitted to a psychiatric hospital and to identify associations with sociodemographic, socioeconomic variables, and risk conditions. METHOD: a cross-sectional study with the application of a screening test in 209 participants hospitalized for mental and behavioral disorders due to the use of psychoactive substances. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and adjustment of a binary logistic regression model for moderate or high risk of drug use. The odds ratio measured the strength of association. RESULTS: high use in life was observed, with alcohol and tobacco experimentation in adolescence. A high prevalence of related risk was observed for alcohol, tobacco, smoked and inhaled cocaine, and marijuana. Moderate and elevated risks were found for tobacco (22.5% and 62.5%, respectively), alcohol (13.5% and 73%), marijuana (16% and 32.5%), smoked cocaine (3% and 41%) and inhaled cocaine (9% and 19.5%). CONCLUSION: the results showed high use in life, with an age of early experimentation. Tobacco and alcohol are the main drugs used by hospitalized men.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Hospitales Psiquiátricos/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230050, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469942

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exposure to tobacco, alcohol and fast-food use in films is associated with initiation of these behaviours. India is the world's largest film producer, but the extent of such imagery in Bollywood (Hindi cinema) films is unclear. We therefore aimed to describe the extent of and trends in tobacco, alcohol and fast-food imagery in Bollywood films, between 1994-2013. METHODS: For the 15 top-grossing films each year between 1994-2013, the number of five-minute intervals containing product images were determined separately for tobacco, alcohol and fast-food. Both the proportion of films containing at least one image occurrence, and occurrences per film, were described overall and by year. Negative binomial regression described associations between film rating and occurrences/film, and estimated time-trends in occurrences/film, adjusted for rating. RESULTS: We analysed 93 U-rated (unrestricted), 150 U/A-rated (parental guidance for children aged <12 years) and 55 A-rated (restricted to adult audience) films, containing 9,226 five-minute intervals (mean intervals/film 30.8, SD 4.0). 70% (n = 210), 93% (n = 278) and 21% (n = 62) of films contained at least one tobacco, alcohol and fast-food occurrence, respectively. Corresponding total mean occurrences/film were 4.0 (SD 4.9), 7.0 (4.7) and 0.4 (0.9). Tobacco occurrences were more common in U/A films (incidence rate ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.09) and A films (2.95; 1.95-4.48) than U-rated films. Alcohol occurrences were also more common in A-rated films than U-rated films (1.48; 1.15-1.85). Tobacco occurrences/film became less common over the observed period (adjusted trend -4% per annum; -2 to -7%; p <0.001), while alcohol (+2%; 0-3%; p = 0.02), and fast food (+8%; 2-14%; p = 0.01) occurrences/film became more common. CONCLUSIONS: Although the extent of tobacco imagery in Bollywood films fell over 1994-2013, it is still frequently observed. Alcohol imagery is widespread, even in U-rated films, and trends in both alcohol and fast-food imagery are upwards.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Películas Cinematográficas/ética , Fumar/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Comida Rápida , Femenino , Humanos , Imágenes en Psicoterapia , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Violencia/psicología
3.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 28(7): 780-783, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359882
4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231095, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348306

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Varenicline tartrate is superior for smoking cessation to other tobacco cessation therapies by 52 weeks, in the outpatient setting. We aimed to evaluate the long-term (104 week) efficacy following a standard course of inpatient-initiated varenicline tartrate plus Quitline-counselling compared to Quitline-counselling alone. METHODS: Adult patients (n = 392, 20-75 years) admitted with a smoking-related illnesses to one of three hospitals, were randomised to receive either 12-weeks of varenicline tartrate (titrated from 0.5mg daily to 1mg twice-daily) plus Quitline-counselling, (n = 196) or Quitline-counselling alone, (n = 196), with continuous abstinence from smoking assessed at 104 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 1959 potential participants were screened for eligibility between August 2008 and December 2011. The proportion of participants who remained continuously abstinent (intention-to-treat) at 104 weeks were significantly greater in the varenicline tartrate plus counselling arm (29.2% n = 56) compared to counselling alone (18.8% n = 36; p = 0.02; odds ratio 1.78; 95%CI 1.10 to 2.86, p = 0.02). Twenty-two deaths occurred during the 104 week study (n = 10 for varenicline tartrate plus counselling and n = 12 for Quitline-counselling alone). All of these participants had known or developed underlying co-morbidities. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine the efficacy and safety of varenicline tartrate over 104 weeks within any setting. Varenicline tartrate plus Quitline-counselling was found to be an effective opportunistic treatment when initiated for inpatient smokers who had been admitted with tobacco-related disease.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/tratamiento farmacológico , Fumar Tabaco/tratamiento farmacológico , Vareniclina/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Pacientes Internos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Agonistas Nicotínicos/administración & dosificación , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/psicología , Tabaco/efectos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Fumar Tabaco/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(1)2020 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253889

RESUMEN

We aimed to evaluate the effects of stage-matched repeated individual behavioural counselling (RIBCS) on the basis of the transtheoretical model (TTM) as an intervention to reduce and stop smoking. This study was conducted over a period of one year where all smokers presenting to a chest clinic in a tertiary centre were enrolled, each was classified on the basis of stage of readiness to change and underwent repeated counselling for a period of six months and each session was preceded and succeeded with filling of Fagerstorm test for nicotine dependence. Over the period of a year, 207 patients participated in this study, the mean age was 50.74±14.74 years; mean duration of tobacco use was 29.43±14.72 years; 64.3% were illiterate, 11.6% primary education, 14.1% were matric and while 10.1% were graduate. About 73% of smokers reported high level of nicotine dependence (FTND score >5/10). In the present study mean dependence score was 6.0±1.96; 44 (21.3%) were in pre-contemplation stage, 93 (44.9%) were in contemplation, 57 (27.5%) were in preparation and 13 (6.3%) were in action. The point prevalence excellence rate in follow up-I was 15%, follow up-II was 35.3% and follow up-III was 61.9% which was statistically significant. When we took both abstinence and reduction in smoking behaviour as one, p-value was <0.05. The point prevalence of abstinence rate (questionnaire validated) 1 month to 6 months was almost 4 times. Our intervention (RIBCS) succeeded in increasing the abstinence rates during the study period among smokers with a lower motivation to quit (pre-contemplators and contemplators) as well as those ready to quit (preparators). This is significant because of most existing smoking-cessation interventions target only motivated smokers, with few having a positive effect in smokers with a lower motivation to quit.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar/terapia , Tabaquismo/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Consejo/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Estudios Prospectivos , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tabaquismo/complicaciones , Tabaquismo/diagnóstico , Tabaquismo/psicología , Adulto Joven
6.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 31, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236302

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of cigarette use among adolescents and to identify associated health risk behaviors. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample, composed of 1059 adolescents between 13 and 19 years old, enrolled in primary and secondary public schools of Olinda, Pernambuco, in 2014. Information was obtained through self-administered questionnaires (validated version of YRBS 2007). Cigarette experimentation was defined as smoking at least once in life. Adolescents who smoked at least one day within 30 days prior to the survey were considered current smokers. Most students were female and 16 years old or older. RESULTS: Almost 30% used it in life and about 10% smoked within the 30 days before the survey. Suicidal ideation (PR = 1.51, 95%CI 1.25-1.82), alcohol use (PR = 1.41, 95%CI 1.03-1.92), marijuana (PR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.37-1.96), excessive alcohol consumption (PR = 1.57, 95%CI 1.15-2.16) and sexual experience (PR = 1.78, 95%CI 1.43-2.21) have increased the risk of using cigarettes. Feelings of sadness (PR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.22-2.36), alcohol use (PR=2.40, 95%CI 1.12-5.12), excessive alcohol consumption (PR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.24-5.38), marijuana (PR = 2.31, 95%CI.57-3.39) and cocaine (PR = 1.99, 95%CI.32-3.01) increased the risk of cigarette use within the 30 days before the survey. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette use among adolescents from Olinda was high, being considered higher than the national prevalence. Possible factors associated with cigarette use were drug use (alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine) and behaviors related to sexual experience, feelings of sadness and suicidal ideation.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Fumar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Tristeza , Conducta Sexual , Fumar/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Ideación Suicida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Tiempo , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(3): e1003031, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119668

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Experiencing multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is a risk factor for many adverse outcomes. We explore associations of ACEs with educational attainment and adolescent health and the role of family and socioeconomic factors in these associations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a prospective cohort of children born in southwest England in 1991-1992, we assess associations of ACEs between birth and 16 years (sexual, physical, or emotional abuse; emotional neglect; parental substance abuse; parental mental illness or suicide attempt; violence between parents; parental separation; bullying; and parental criminal conviction, with data collected on multiple occasions between birth and age 16) with educational attainment at 16 years (n = 9,959) and health at age 17 years (depression, obesity, harmful alcohol use, smoking, and illicit drug use; n = 4,917). We explore the extent to which associations are robust to adjustment for family and socioeconomic factors (home ownership, mother and partner's highest educational qualification, household social class, parity, child's ethnicity, mother's age, mother's marital status, mother's depression score at 18 and 32 weeks gestation, and mother's partner's depression score at 18 weeks gestation) and whether associations differ according to socioeconomic factors, and we estimate the proportion of adverse educational and health outcomes attributable to ACEs or family or socioeconomic measures. Among the 9,959 participants (49.5% female) included in analysis of educational outcomes, 84% reported at least one ACE, 24% reported 4 or more ACEs, and 54.5% received 5 or more General Certificates of Secondary Education (GCSEs) at grade C or above, including English and Maths. Among the 4,917 participants (50.1% female) included in analysis of health outcomes, 7.3% were obese, 8.7% had depression, 19.5% reported smoking, 16.1% reported drug use, and 10.9% reported harmful alcohol use. There were associations of ACEs with lower educational attainment and higher risk of depression, drug use, and smoking. For example, odds ratios (ORs) for 4+ ACEs compared with no ACEs after adjustment for confounders were depression, 2.4 (1.6-3.8, p < 0.001); drug use, 3.1 (2.1-4.4, p < 0.001); and smoking, 2.3 (1.7-3.1, p < 0.001). Associations with educational attainment attenuated after adjustment but remained strong; for example, the OR after adjustment for confounders for low educational attainment comparing 4+ ACEs with no ACEs was 2.0 (1.7-2.4, p < 0.001). Associations with depression, drug use, and smoking were not altered by adjustment. Associations of ACEs with harmful alcohol use and obesity were weak. For example, ORs for 4+ ACEs compared with no ACEs after adjustment for confounders were harmful alcohol use, 1.4 (0.9-2.0, p = 0.10) and obesity, 1.4 (0.9-2.2, p = 0.13) We found no evidence that socioeconomic factors modified the associations of ACEs with educational or health outcomes. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) for the adverse educational and health outcomes range from 5%-15% for 4+ ACEs and 1%-19% for low maternal education. Using data from multiple questionnaires across a long period of time enabled us to capture a detailed picture of the cohort members' experience of ACEs; however, a limitation of our study is that this resulted in a high proportion of missing data, and our analyses assume data are missing at random. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates associations between ACEs and lower educational attainment and higher risks of depression, drug use, and smoking that remain after adjustment for family and socioeconomic factors. The low PAFs for both ACEs and socioeconomic factors imply that interventions that focus solely on ACEs or solely on socioeconomic deprivation, whilst beneficial, would miss most cases of adverse educational and health outcomes. This interpretation suggests that intervention strategies should target a wide range of relevant factors, including ACEs, socioeconomic deprivation, parental substance use, and mental health.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo del Adolescente , Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Maltrato a los Niños , Escolaridad , Relaciones Familiares , Estado de Salud , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Preescolar , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Salud Mental , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/diagnóstico , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Reino Unido/epidemiología
8.
Int J Behav Med ; 27(2): 247-254, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124245

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Distress intolerance, one's inability to withstand distressing emotional or physical states, is a transdiagnostic vulnerability implicated in affect-based health behaviors, including cigarette smoking and poor weight control. The current study evaluated associations between distress intolerance and the reliance on cigarettes for management of weight, appetite, or body dissatisfaction, which may pose a burden for cessation and increase risk of weight-related health problems. METHOD: Daily smokers (n = 577) completed an online survey assessing distress tolerance and reliance on cigarettes for weight and shape control with the four subscales of the Smoking and Weight Eating Episodes Test (SWEET). Four hierarchical regression models were constructed to test the association between distress intolerance and SWEET scores, accounting for the effect of relevant covarying factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for model covariates, distress intolerance was significantly incrementally associated with greater tendency to rely on cigarettes to suppress appetite (adjR2 = .040), prevent overeating (adjR2 = .034), cope with body dissatisfaction (adjR2 = .046), and cope with nicotine withdrawal-related appetite increases (adjR2 = .030). CONCLUSION: Distress intolerance may play an etiological role in maladaptive use of cigarettes to control appetite, weight, and body dissatisfaction among daily smokers, particularly those with weight- or shape-related concerns. Interventions aimed at increasing perceived ability to withstand distress could potentially reduce reliance on cigarettes for the aforementioned purposes.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Apetito/fisiología , Fumadores/psicología , Fumar/psicología , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229411, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142514

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Smoking among adolescents remains a global public health issue as youth continue to maintain high prevalence rates. The evidence for the efficacy of text messaging interventions to reduce smoking behavior is well established, yet there is still a need for studies targeting high school students. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a text-based smoking cessation intervention among high school students in Sweden. METHODS: The study was a two-arm randomized trial conducted from January 10 2018 to January 11 2019, data were analysed from April 12 2019 to May 21 2019. Inclusion criteria were high school students who were daily or weekly smokers willing to attempt to quit smoking and owned a mobile phone. The study invited all students at 630 high schools units throughout Sweden. The intervention group received text messages based on components of effective smoking cessation interventions for 12 weeks. The control group were offered treatment as usual. The primary outcomes were self-reported prolonged abstinence (not having smoked more than 5 cigarettes over the last 8 weeks) and 4-week point prevalence of smoking abstinence. FINDINGS: A total of 535 participants, with a median age of 17 (IQR 16-18), were randomized into the study; 276 (164 [59.4%] women) were allocated to the intervention and 259 (162 [62.5%] women) to the control group. The outcomes of the trial were analyzed on a total of 212 (76.8%) participants in the intervention group and 201 (77.6%) participants in the control group. Prolonged abstinence at the 3-month follow-up was reported by 49 (23.1%) individuals in the intervention group and 39 (19.4%) individuals in the control group (adjusted OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.73-2.01; P value, .46). Four-week point prevalence of complete smoking cessation was reported by 53 (25.0%) individuals in the intervention group and 31 (15.4%) individuals in the control group (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.12-3.17; P value, .018). CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of 4-week point prevalence of complete cessation was 10 percentage points higher in the group that were given access to the intervention compared to the control. Findings provide confirmation that text messaging-based smoking cessation programs can affect quit rates among adolescents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN15396225; registration date October 13, 2017, https://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13063-018-3028-2.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista , Teléfono Celular/estadística & datos numéricos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/epidemiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Autoinforme , Fumar/psicología , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Suecia/epidemiología , Envío de Mensajes de Texto/estadística & datos numéricos
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 151, 2020 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005218

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are few data available about hardcore smokers and their behavioral characteristics among the lung cancer screening (LCS) population. The study investigated the burden of hardcore smokers within the LCS population, and determine the characteristics of hardcore smokers using nationally representative data in South Korea. METHODS: We used data from 2007 to 2012 from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This study enrolled current male smokers aged 55-74 years. Among them, subjects eligible for LCS were defined as these populations with smoking histories of at least 30 PY. Hardcore smoking was defined as smoking >15 cigarettes per day, with no plan to quit, and having made no attempt to quit. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations between hardcore smokers and various sociodemographic and other variables. RESULTS: The proportion of hardcore smokers among those who met LCS eligibility criteria decreased from 2007 to 2012 (from 39.07 to 29.47% of the population) but did not change significantly thereafter (P = 0.2770), and that proportion was consistently 10-15% higher than that of hardcore smokers among all male current smokers. The proportion without any plan to quit smoking decreased significantly from 54.35% in 2007 to 38.31% in 2012. However, the smokers who had made no intentional quit attempt in the prior year accounted for more than half of those eligible for LCS, and the proportion of such smokers did not change significantly during the study period (50.83% in 2007 and 51.03% in 2012). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that hardcore smokers were older (OR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.09) than non-hardcore smokers. Hardcore smokers exhibited higher proportion of depression (OR = 6.55, 95% CI 1.75-24.61) and experienced extreme stress more frequently (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.13-3.29). Smokers who did not receive smoking cessation education within the past year were significantly more likely to be hardcore smokers (OR = 4.15, 95% CI 1.30-13.22). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to identify a subset of smokers unwilling or minimally motivated to quit within the context of lung cancer screening. Anti-smoking education should be enhanced to influence hardcore smokers' behavior.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Determinación de la Elegibilidad , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevención & control , Fumadores/psicología , Fumar/psicología , Anciano , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología
11.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(5): 581-590, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011186

RESUMEN

Introduction: Rates of tobacco smoking are high in people with schizophrenia with greater difficulty of quitting smoking compared to the general population, which also relate to the increased cardiovascular and cancer risks in this co-occurring disorder. Therefore, effective smoking cessation pharmacotherapies addressing tobacco co-morbidity are imperative.Areas covered: In this review, the authors performed an extensive systematic electronic literature review examining the efficacy and safety of first-line pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation, including varenicline, sustained-release bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) using continuous abstinence rates over 10-12-week periods in smokers with schizophrenia. Twelve trials reporting smoking cessation outcomes using interventions in schizophrenia were included and risk ratio (RR) was used.Expert opinion: Our findings support the efficacy and safety of first-line pharmacotherapies for the treatment of tobacco use disorder in smokers with schizophrenia. Further research on the long-term effectiveness and safety of these agents in community samples is warranted. Smoking cessation pharmacotherapies may warrant the consideration of the emerging use of electronic nicotine delivery systems while neuromodulation techniques also offer promise.


Asunto(s)
Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/tratamiento farmacológico , Benzazepinas/uso terapéutico , Bupropión/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Agonistas Nicotínicos/uso terapéutico , Quinoxalinas/uso terapéutico , Fumar/psicología , Dispositivos para Dejar de Fumar Tabaco , Vareniclina/uso terapéutico
12.
Jpn J Nurs Sci ; 17(1): e12264, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161725

RESUMEN

AIM: Smokers with HIV/AIDS have lower success of quitting smoking than smokers with other chronic diseases. However, there have been no studies investigating characteristics and outcomes of success of quitting smoking among people living with HIV compared to HIV-negative people who received smoking cessation therapy. In addition, there have been no studies that investigated factors associated with success of quitting smoking among people living with HIV in Japan. The aim of this study was to elucidate characteristics, outcomes and factors associated with the success of quitting smoking in people living with HIV. METHODS: We previously conducted a prospective cohort study on patients who received Japanese smoking cessation therapy (SCT), which consists of smoking cessation intervention five times with nurses' counseling over a 12-week period. Among them, we compared 77 HIV-positive male individuals and 323 HIV-negative male individuals with complications. RESULTS: Smokers with HIV had a larger number of cigarettes smoked per day, and higher scores of nicotine dependence and depression compared with the HIV-negative group. The HIV-positive group had a significantly lower success rate of quitting smoking than the HIV-negative group (35.1 vs. 47.7%, p = .046). The subjects living with HIV who had higher self-efficacy showed a significantly higher quit rate compared with those who had lower self-efficacy (odds ratio 9.99, p < .01). CONCLUSION: Smokers with HIV had characteristics that made it difficult for them to quit smoking. Increasing their self-efficacy of quitting smoking through nurses' counseling will lead to success of quitting smoking in HIV-positive smokers receiving the SCT.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Autoeficacia , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/psicología , Adulto , Consejo , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos
13.
Health Psychol ; 39(2): 99-106, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682148

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Affective features of depression are uniquely involved in the depression-smoking relationship, and it follows that smokers with depression are likely to use cigarettes to alleviate negative affect. However, most ecological momentary assessment (EMA) studies demonstrate no relationship between mood and smoking, in general. Conversely, a small number of experimental studies suggest there is an association between mood and smoking and that the relationship is dependent on levels of depression. Researchers have yet to examine the impact of depression on the relationship between mood and smoking using EMA methodology. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between depression, mood, and ad lib smoking among adults in "real time." METHOD: Participants included 96 adult daily smokers (53% female, 67% non-Hispanic Black; age, M = 40.76, SD = 12.42) who completed baseline ratings of depressive symptoms and 7 consecutive days of in vivo data collection focused on cigarette smoking and associated mood and craving ratings. RESULTS: Results indicated that depression moderates the prospective relationship between mood and smoking (even when controlling for craving), such that participants with higher levels of depressive symptoms smoke more cigarettes in response to an improvement in mood (relative to their average mood), whereas participants with lower levels of depressive symptoms smoke more in response to worsening mood states (relative to their average mood). CONCLUSIONS: Attempting to maintain better mood may be a motivating factor for smoking among depressed individuals. These findings may be helpful in tailoring smoking cessation treatment programs for people exhibiting depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Afecto/fisiología , Depresión/psicología , Fumar/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos
14.
Res Nurs Health ; 43(1): 40-47, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788826

RESUMEN

As a part of Korea's smoking cessation policy, the price of tobacco was increased in January 2015. Initially, the smoking rate among adolescents began to decrease. The current data, however, show that the adolescent smoking rate is on the rise. Alongside price policies, there is a need to further understand additional preventive measures that promote successful smoking cessation by identifying the factors that influence maintenance of smoking cessation in adolescents. This study aimed to identify the factors that influence smoking cessation in adolescents after attempting smoking cessation after increase in tobacco price. The study used large-scale, nationwide, secondary data obtained from the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The sample included a total of 627 subjects who reported an attempt to quit smoking after the tobacco price increased. Descriptive statistics, t test, the χ2 test, and multiple logistic regression were used. The results showed that household economic status, school type, suicidal ideation, experience of exposure to secondhand smoke at home, and experience of witnessing teaching staff smoking were significant factors related to maintenance of smoking cessation among adolescents. To increase the success rate of smoking cessation, future intervention programs should include school environment structure and address emotional and psychological issues such as suicide.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Costos y Análisis de Costo/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/economía , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar/economía , Fumar/psicología , Productos de Tabaco/economía , Adolescente , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , República de Corea , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Nurse Educ Today ; 84: 104205, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734641

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Smoking is common among nursing students worldwide, but the reported prevalence is inconsistent across epidemiological studies. This is a meta-analysis of the prevalence of smoking in nursing students worldwide. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of observational studies. SAMPLE: A total of 46 studies were included in this meta-analysis. METHOD: Electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of science) were independently and systematically searched by two investigators from their commencement date up to 12 May 2018. Studies that reported the smoking rate of nursing students were included and analyzed using random-effects model. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of current smoking was 26.6% (95% CI: 22.9-30.4%), while pooled prevalence of previous smoking was 15.5% (95% CI: 11.8-19.3%). Subgroup analyses showed that smoking rate was higher in male compared with female students (39% vs 25.2%, P < .001), while survey time, sample size, age, study design and academic year did not moderate the smoking rate (all P > .05). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis confirmed that smoking is common in nursing students. Considering the negative impact of smoking on health, appropriate smoking cessation measures for nursing students should be developed.


Asunto(s)
Fumar/psicología , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Prevalencia , Fumar/epidemiología
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835828

RESUMEN

Background: Internet use is significant public health issue and can be a risk factor for other addictive behaviors, such as smoking. The present study examined the association between problematic Internet use (PIU) (i.e., Internet addiction (IA) and social networking addiction (SNA)) and smoking, and the mediating role of depressive symptomatology and family support played in such associations. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 5182 junior secondary students (grade 7 and 8) recruited from nine schools using stratified sampling. Results: A total of 3.6% of students had smoked in the past month, and 6.4% of students were identified as IA cases. Adjusted for significant background variables, PIU (ORa = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.48, 2.90 for IA, ORa = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.09, 1.47 for SNA), and probable depression (ORa = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.69) were significant risk factors, while family support (ORa = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77, 0.94) was a significant protective factor of smoking. The mediation effects of lower family support and probable depression on the association between score on IA scale and smoking, and the mediation effect of lower family support on the association between score on SNA scale and smoking were significant, while the mediation effect of probable depression on the association between score on SNA scale and smoking was marginally significant. Conclusions: PIU contributed to an increased risk of smoking through depressive symptomatology and decreasing family support among junior school students. Interventions to reduce smoking are warranted; they should seek to reduce problematic Internet use and depressive symptomatology, and promote family support.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Internet , Redes Sociales en Línea , Fumar/psicología , Adolescente , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Conducta Adictiva/epidemiología , Niño , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Protectores , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Fumar/epidemiología , Red Social , Estudiantes , Fumar Tabaco
17.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 2673-2679, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819400

RESUMEN

Background: Patients with diseases linked with smoking, such as COPD, report a health-related stigma on their smoking behavior, which is related to a poorer quality of life and psychological distress. According to patients with COPD, health-care professionals sometimes reinforce the sense of stigma. However, little is known about the physicians' attitudes on this topic towards the patient with COPD. Purpose: To explore attitudes of pulmonologists regarding the smoking behavior of their patients with COPD and if (and to what extent) a stigma is present in their attitudes towards their smoking patients. Patients and methods: Eighteen pulmonologists were interviewed using a semi-structured guide with prespecified topics. The interview transcripts were coded using Atlas.ti. Analysis of data from these interviews was performed using conventional content analysis. Results: We identified three themes: attitudes towards smoking in general, the interaction between patient and physician, and smoking cessation. All participants said patients are not fully responsible for their smoking behavior. Contrarily, smoking was also seen as a free choice by most physicians. Moreover, smoking cessation was mostly seen as the responsibility of the patient. Feelings of powerlessness, frustration and compassion were reported in the guidance of patients with COPD. Conclusion: The results of this study show an ambivalent attitude of pulmonologists regarding the smoking behavior of their patients with COPD. The outcomes of this study can form a base for further research and can be used as insights for interventions that aim to raise awareness of physicians' own attitudes and increase the quality of physician-patient communication.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/etiología , Neumólogos/psicología , Fumadores/psicología , Fumar/efectos adversos , Adulto , Conducta de Elección , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/fisiopatología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/psicología , Investigación Cualitativa , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Estereotipo
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817170

RESUMEN

This study sought to estimate the prevalence of maternal smoking and its association with exclusive breastfeeding vs. formula feeding. A cross-sectional study was performed on postpartum women at a public hospital in Spain, between January and August 2018. The main variables studied were their age, level of study, smoking habits, and chosen mode of infant feeding. In total, 948 postpartum women were included. Of these, 12.45% were smokers who smoked a mean of 7.23 cigarettes/day. Among the group of smokers, the probability of feeding the newborns with formula milk was multiplied by 2.32 ([95%CI 1.50-3.58] p < 0.001). When stratifying tobacco use into mild, moderate and severe, we found a statistically significant dose-response pattern. These associations and their statistical significance were maintained when adjusting by age and level of study. In conclusion, in the group of postpartum mothers who smoked, the probability of feeding the newborns with formula milk doubled. Our data highlight the need to improve health education programs in women of childbearing age, especially during pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Artificial/psicología , Lactancia Materna/psicología , Fórmulas Infantiles , Conducta Materna , Fumar/psicología , Adulto , Alimentación Artificial/estadística & datos numéricos , Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Madres/educación , Periodo Posparto , Prevalencia , Fumar/epidemiología , España/epidemiología
19.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 31(7_suppl): 22S-31S, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802718

RESUMEN

Smoking cessation significantly reduces risk of smoking-related diseases and mortality. This study aims to determine the prevalence and factors associated with attempts to quit and smoking cessation among adult current smokers in Malaysia. Data from the National E-Cigarette Survey 2016 were analyzed. Forty nine percent of current smokers had attempted to quit at least once in the past 12 months and 31.4% of the respondents were former smokers. Multivariable analysis revealed that current smokers with low nicotine addiction and aged below 45 years were more likely to attempt to quit smoking. Being married, older age group, and having tertiary education were significantly associated with smoking cessation. Only half of the current smokers ever attempted to quit smoking and only a third of smokers quit. Stronger tobacco control policies are needed in Malaysia to encourage more smokers to quit smoking. Improved access to cessation support for underprivileged smokers is also needed.


Asunto(s)
Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1594, 2019 Nov 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783832

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the clustering of behavioral health risk factors (HRFs), namely the occurrence of 16 specific combinations of tobacco smoking, at-risk alcohol use, overweight and physical inactivity in general hospital patients. Furthermore, social inequalities in HRFs, health and life expectancy are a major concern in public health. In order to establish the need for screening and intervention in general hospital care, the study aimed to determine the co-occurrence of HRFs in patients in four medical departments, and to investigate differences by gender, age and socio-economic characteristics. METHODS: Over 17 months, a systematic multiple HRF screening was conducted at one general hospital in northeastern Germany. In total, 6251 18-64 year old patients (92% of eligibles) participated. Proportions and confidence intervals were calculated for all 16 HRF profiles stratified by department, gender, age group, school education, and employment status. RESULTS: In total, 92.2% of the participants (58.6% male) reported ≥1 HRF, and 65.7% ≥2 HRFs. Men (71.2%), patients aged 35-49 (67.9%) and 50-64 years (69.5%), lower educated (79.0%), and unemployed (77.8%) patients had larger proportions of ≥2 HRFs than their counterparts. In all departments, the most common HRF profiles included overweight. HRF profiles that included alcohol and/ or smoking were more common in ear-nose-throat and trauma surgery than in internal medicine and general surgery patients. Men had higher rates concerning almost all HRF profiles including ≥2 HRFs and alcohol; women concerning profiles that included ≤2 HRFs and inactivity. In older patients, profiles with ≥2 HRFs including overweight; and in younger patients, profiles with smoking and/or alcohol were more common. In lower educated patients, profiles with ≥2 HRFs including inactivity; and in higher educated patients profiles with ≤2 HRFs including alcohol were more common. Compared to others, unemployed patients had higher rates of profiles with ≥3 HRFs including smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Two in three patients require interventions targeting two or more HRFs. The findings help to develop screening and brief intervention for patients with specific health risk profiles, that can reach most patients, including those most in need and those most hard to reach, with socio-economically disadvantaged people in particular. REGISTRY: clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01291693.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Generales/estadística & datos numéricos , Pacientes Internos/psicología , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sedentaria , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/psicología , Desempleo/psicología , Adulto Joven
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