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1.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 21(1): 199-199, ene.-abr. 2021. graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-1884

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) is an attentional disorder characterized by the symptoms of slowness in behavior or thinking, a lack of en.ergy, difficulty initiating and sustaining effort, daydreaming, and drowsiness. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distinctive attentional characteristics of SCT as compared to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). METHOD: A total of 110 adults were recruited and divided into four groups: SCT+ADHD, SCT, ADHD, and healthy controls. The Revised version of Attention Networks Test was used to investigate each group's attentional profile. RESULTS: The results revealed that the two SCT groups (SCT+ADHD and SCT) showed a significantly weaker orienting network due to the problems of engaging and disengaging attention than the other two groups. Additionally, the two ADHD groups (SCT+ADHD and ADHD) showed a significantly weaker executive control network than the other two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate an attentional distinction between the SCT and the ADHD groups with a greater dysfunction in the orienting network in the SCT group as compared to the ADHD group. Furthermore, a greater executive control dysfunction was observed in the ADHD group as compared to the SCT group


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: El Tiempo Cognitivo Lento (TCL) es un trastorno atencional caracterizado por síntomas de lentitud en el comportamiento o pensamiento, falta de energía, dificultad para iniciar y mantener el esfuerzo, soñar despierto y somnolencia. El propósito de este estudio es investigar las características únicas de la atención de TCL en comparación con el Trastorno por Déficit de Atención/Hiperactividad (TDAH). MÉTODO: Se reclutaron 110 participantes y se dividieron en cuatro grupos: TCL+TDAH, TCL, TDAH y controles sanos. Se empleó la versión revisada del Attention Networks Test para investigar el perfil de atención de cada grupo. RESULTADOS: Los dos grupos de TCL (TCL+TDAH y TCL) mostraron una red de orientación significativamente más débil debido a los problemas de atraer y desconectar la atención que los otros dos grupos. Los grupos de TDAH (TCL+TDAH y TDAH) mostraron una red de control ejecutivo significativamente más débil que los otros dos grupos. CONCLUSIONES: Se demuestra una distinción atencional entre los grupos TCL y TDAH con mayor disfunción en la red de orientación en TCL en comparación con TDAH. Además, se observó una mayor disfunción del control ejecutivo en el grupo TDAH en comparación con el grupo TCL


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Déficit de la Atención y Trastornos de Conducta Disruptiva/psicología , Función Ejecutiva , Orientación , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Pruebas de Inteligencia , Valores de Referencia , Estudios de Casos y Controles
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806257

RESUMEN

Obesity and cardiorespiratory fitness exhibit negative and positive impacts, respectively, on executive function. Nevertheless, the combined effects of these two factors on executive function remain unclear. This study investigated the combined effects of obesity and cardiorespiratory fitness on response inhibition of executive function from both behavioral and neuroelectric perspectives. Ninety-six young adults aged between 18 and 25 years were recruited and assigned into four groups: the high cardiorespiratory fitness with normal weight (NH), high cardiorespiratory fitness with obesity (OH), low cardiorespiratory fitness with normal weight (NL), and low cardiorespiratory fitness with obesity (OL) groups. The stop-signal task and its induced P3 component of event-related potentials was utilized to index response inhibition. The participants with higher cardiorespiratory fitness (i.e., the NH and OH groups) demonstrated better behavioral performance (i.e., shorter response times and higher accuracy levels), as well as shorter stop-signal response times and larger P3 amplitudes than their counterparts with low cardiorespiratory fitness (i.e., the NL and OL groups). The study provides first-hand evidence of the substantial effects of cardiorespiratory fitness on the response inhibition, including evidence that the detrimental effects of obesity might be overcome by high cardiorespiratory fitness.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Potenciales Evocados , Función Ejecutiva , Humanos , Obesidad , Aptitud Física , Tiempo de Reacción , Adulto Joven
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806358

RESUMEN

The driver's attentional state is a significant human factor in traffic safety. The executive control process is a crucial sub-function of attention. To explore the relationship between the driver's driving performance and executive control function, a total of 35 healthy subjects were invited to take part in a simulated driving experiment and a task-cuing experiment. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their driving performance (aberrant driving behaviors, including lapses and errors) by the clustering method. Then the performance efficiency and electroencephalogram (EEG) data acquired in the task-cuing experiment were compared among the three groups. The effect of group, task transition types and cue-stimulus intervals (CSIs) were statistically analyzed by using the repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc simple effect analysis. The subjects with lower driving error rates had better executive control efficiency as indicated by the reaction time (RT) and error rate in the task-cuing experiment, which was related with their better capability to allocate the available attentional resources, to express the external stimuli and to process the information in the nervous system, especially the fronto-parietal network. The activation degree of the frontal area fluctuated, and of the parietal area gradually increased along with the increase of CSI, which implied the role of the frontal area in task setting reconstruction and working memory maintaining, and of the parietal area in stimulus-Response (S-R) mapping expression. This research presented evidence of the close relationship between executive control functions and driving performance.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil , Función Ejecutiva , Atención , Cognición , Humanos , Memoria a Corto Plazo , Tiempo de Reacción
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808399

RESUMEN

Acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy to improve physical health; however, the effect of acute HIIT on executive function (EF) is unclear. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing evidence and quantify the effect of acute HIIT on overall EF and the factors affecting the relationship between acute HIIT and EF. Standard databases (i.e., the PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and CENTRAL databases) were searched for studies that examined the effect of acute HIIT on EF and were published up until January 2021. The overall EF and factors grouped by three categories, namely, EF assessment characteristics, exercise intervention characteristics, and sample and study characteristics, were analyzed by percentage of comparison for positive or null/negative effects. Overall, 35 of 57 outcomes (61%) across 24 studies revealed that acute HIIT has a positive effect on overall EF. In terms of factors, the results indicated that among EF assessment characteristics, groups, inhibition, updating, and the assessment occurring within 30 min may moderate the effect of acute HIIT on EF, while among exercise intervention characteristics, total time within 11 to 30 min may moderate the effect. Finally, among sample characteristics, age under 40 years may moderate the effect. Acute HIIT is generally considered a viable alternative for eliciting EF gains, with factors related to EF components, timing of the assessment, exercise total time, and age potentially moderating the effect of HIIT on EF.


Asunto(s)
Entrenamiento de Intervalos de Alta Intensidad , Adulto , Función Ejecutiva , Ejercicio Físico , Terapia por Ejercicio , Humanos , Inhibición Psicológica
5.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 185, 2021 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883015

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dementia is among the most common chronic noncommunicable neurodegenerative diseases. In the long term, it causes disability and loss of autonomy and independence. It is estimated that there are 35.6 million people with Alzheimer's disease worldwide. Several clinical aspects of this disease have been widely studied, but the main focus of study has been memory loss, which is one of the first symptoms. The present study proposes an innovative intervention that combines cognitive training and multisite transcranial direct current stimulation, which interferes with other clinical aspects of the subject. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study, we present two subjects diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease. Subject 1 is an 82-year-old Brazilian Latin American woman with a high school education who was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease 8 years ago and uses an Exelon patch. Subject 2 is an 88-year-old Brazilian Latin American woman with an incomplete primary education who was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease 1 year ago and received medical orientation to temporarily discontinue medications for Alzheimer's disease. Both participants were subjected to intermittent cognitive training sessions and concomitant transcranial stimulation in three weekly 30-minute sessions in which a brain area was stimulated every 10 minutes for a total of 24 sessions, with a 2-month follow-up. Transcranial stimulation was applied to six different regions of the cortex: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex bilaterally, the somatosensory association cortex bilaterally and Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Comparing the results of tests performed before and after the treatment period, a 1-point improvement was observed for both subjects on the Word Recall task of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale, which evaluates symptoms related to the decline of episodic memory. Improvement in the executive functions domain was also observed through the results of the Stroop test, Victoria version. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the two presented cases show that multisite transcranial stimulation associated with cognitive training is an effective adjuvant method for the treatment of patients diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease. Its effects can benefit patients' daily routines by reducing cognitive deficits by keeping intact areas active and/or compensating for lost functions. Trial registration NCT02772185. Registered 13 May 2016, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02772185 . Retrospectively registered.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer/terapia , Cognición/fisiología , Memoria Episódica , Memoria/fisiología , Estimulación Transcraneal de Corriente Directa , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil , Función Ejecutiva , Femenino , Humanos , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 65, 2021 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910642

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) is a valid but time-consuming and labour-intensive cognitive paper-and-pencil test. A digital RFFT was developed that can be conducted independently using an iPad and Apple Pencil and RFFT scores are computed automatically. We investigated the validity and reliability of this digital RFFT. METHODS: We randomly allocated participants to the digital or paper-and-pencil RFFT. After the first test, the other test was performed immediately (cross-over). Participants were invited for a second digital RFFT 1 week later. For the digital RFFT, an (automatic) algorithm and two independent raters (criterion standard) assessed the number of unique designs (UD) and perseverative errors (PE). These raters also assessed the paper-and-pencil RFFT. We used Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), sensitivity, specificity, %-agreement, Kappa, and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS: We included 94 participants (mean (SD) age 39.9 (14.8), 73.4% follow-up). Mean (SD) UD and median (IQR) PE of the digital RFFT were 84.2 (26.0) and 4 (2-7.3), respectively. Agreement between manual and automatic scoring of the digital RFFT was high for UD (ICC = 0.99, 95% CI 0.98, 0.99, sensitivity = 0.98; specificity = 0.96) and PE (ICC = 0.99, 95% CI 0.98, 0.99; sensitivity = 0.90, specificity = 1.00), indicating excellent criterion validity. Small but significant differences in UD were found between the automatic and manual scoring (mean difference: - 1.12, 95% CI - 1.92, - 0.33). Digital and paper-and-pencil RFFT had moderate agreement for UD (ICC = 0.73, 95% CI 0.34, 0.87) and poor agreement for PE (ICC = 0.47, 95% CI 0.30, 0.62). Participants had fewer UD on the digital than paper-and-pencil RFFT (mean difference: - 7.09, 95% CI - 11.80, - 2.38). The number of UD on the digital RFFT was associated with higher education (Spearman's r = 0.43, p < 0.001), and younger age (Pearson's r = - 0.36, p < 0.001), showing its ability to discriminate between different age categories and levels of education. Test-retest reliability was moderate (ICC = 0.74, 95% CI 0.61, 0.83). CONCLUSIONS: The automatic scoring of the digital RFFT has good criterion and convergent validity. There was low agreement between the digital RFFT and paper-and-pencil RFFT and moderate test-retest reliability, which can be explained by learning effects. The digital RFFT is a valid and reliable instrument to measure executive cognitive function among the general population and is a feasible alternative to the paper-and-pencil RFFT in large-scale studies. However, its scores cannot be used interchangeably with the paper-and-pencil RFFT scores.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Función Ejecutiva , Adulto , Humanos , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 198, 2021 04 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874911

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance and executive function impairment are common in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), though the relationship between the two remains unclear. We investigated this association in first-episode, treatment-naïve patients with MDD. METHODS: We analyzed data from 242 patients with MDD. We divided the patients into 2 groups based on sleep disturbance severity and compared the executive function odds ratios between the groups. RESULTS: A total of 121 pairs of patients were matched (age 39.4 ± 10.1, 70.2% female). After propensity score matching, the odds ratios for cognitive impairment in patients with MDD and severe sleep disturbance were 1.922 (1.068-3.459, P = 0.029, q = 0.044) in executive functioning; 2.023 (1.211-3.379, P = 0.007, q = 0.021) in executive shifting. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep disturbance is associated with executive functioning impairment in first-episode, treatment-naïve patients with MDD. Severe sleep disturbance can be a marker and aid in recognizing executive function impairment in patients with first-episode treatment-naïve MDD. Severe sleep disturbance can be a potential modifiable factor to improve executive function in MDD, as well as an effective measurement to improve cognition for sleep symptom management that should be enforced at initial treatment of first-episode MDD. Further study is required to confirm our results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02023567 ; registration date: December 2013.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia , Adulto , Cognición , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/complicaciones , Función Ejecutiva , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sueño , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/complicaciones
8.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 46(3): 240-248, 2021 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927070

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively analyze the characteristics of cognitive impairment of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and to explore the effects of different lateral patients' cognitive impairment and different clinical factors on cognitive impairment of TLE. METHODS: A total of 84 patients, who met the diagnostic criteria for TLE in the Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, were collected as a patient group, with 36 cases of left TLE and 48 cases of right TLE. A total of 79 healthy volunteers with matching gender, age and education level were selected as a control group. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the scores of Arithmetic Test, Information Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Block Design Test (BDT), Hayling Test and Verbal Fluency Test (VFT) of the revised Chinese Adult Wechsler Intelligence scale were retrospectively analyzed in the 2 groups.Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the clinical factors and the cognitive impairment score. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the TLE patient group had low scores in all neuropsychological tests, with significant difference (all P<0.05). Compared with the control group, there was significant difference in different neuropsychological tests in the patients with TLE on different sides (all P<0.05). In the left TLE, there were low scores in Information Test, arithmetic, VFT, the completion time of Hayling Test part A, the completion time of Hayling Test part B, the correct number of Hayling Test part A, the correct number of Hayling Test part B, BDT, Forward Digit Span Test (FDST) and Backward Digit Span Test (BDST). While in the right TLE, there were low scores in Information Test, arithmetic, DSST, VFT, the completion time of Hayling Test part A, the correct number of Hayling Test part A, the completion time of Hayling Test part B, the correct number of Hayling Test part B, BDT, FDST and BDST. CONCLUSIONS: There are multiple cognitive domain dysfunctions in TLE, including language, short-term memory, long-term memory, attention, working memory, executive function and visual space function. Left TLE has greater impairment of executive function and right TLE has greater damage in working memory. Long pathography of disease, hippocampal sclerosis and a history of febrile convulsions may lead to more severe cognitive impairment. Earlier identification and earlier intervention are needed to improve prognosis of patients.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Epilepsia del Lóbulo Temporal , Adulto , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Epilepsia del Lóbulo Temporal/complicaciones , Función Ejecutiva , Humanos , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Estudios Retrospectivos
9.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728849

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study the severity of disorders of executive functions in children with dyslexia and to assess the effectiveness of treatment of this pathology with cortexin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The main study group included 60 children, aged 8-11 years, with a specific reading disorder (F.81.0). Reading skills were assessed using methods of T.A. Fotekova, T.V. Akhutina. Diagnostic examination included neurological examination with dyspraxia test, electroencephalography with visual and quantitative analysis. To objectify the severity of memory impairments, the «Working memory¼ technique was used. Attention and impulsivity disorders were quantified using SNAP-IY and the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). The control group consisted of 60 children of the same age without symptoms of dyslexia. Cortexin was used to treat 30 patients from the study group, 30 patients received encephabol. A control study to analyze the effectiveness of the therapy was carried out one month after the end of therapy. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Children with dyslexia are characterized by a higher level of inattention and impulsivity, as well as significantly lower indicators of working memory compared to children from the control group. The decrease in attention and working memory as well as an increased level of impulsivity are manifestations of impaired executive functions in children with dyslexia. The results of the control study after treatment showed a significant increase in reading skills in both groups. In addition, there was an improvement in indicators of attention and working memory. However, the effectiveness of treatment with cortexin was slightly higher compared to encephabol (improvement was noted in 73.3% and 60.0%of patients, respectively). According to a comparative analysis of EEG results, after a course of treatment with cortexin, children with dyslexia have significant neurophysiological changes that indicate the activation of the brain regulatory systems.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Dislexia , Atención , Niño , Disfunción Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunción Cognitiva/tratamiento farmacológico , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Función Ejecutiva , Humanos , Memoria a Corto Plazo
10.
Occup Ther Int ; 2021: 6675680, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727902

RESUMEN

Objective: Instrumental activities of daily livings are important for independent living and active participation in the community. The present study is aimed at determining factors predicting instrumental activities of daily living performance in patients with stroke. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a convenient sample of 90 patients with stroke entered from five occupational therapy centers, which were selected based on the cluster randomization method. Lawton IADL scale, Barthel Index, Trail Making Test (A and B), Digit span subtest of Wechsler memory scale, Motorcity index, and Beck Depression Inventory-II were used to investigate the study's aim. Statistical analyses were performed using independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Age (r = -0.384, p < 0.001), memory (r = 0.565, p < 0.001), basic activities of daily living (r = 0.818, p < 0.001), depression (r = -0.758, p < 0.001), Trial Making Test (B-A) (r = -0.614, p < 0.001), and motoricity index (r = 0.670, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with instrumental activities of daily living performance. Conclusions: Basic activities of daily living were the strongest predictor of IADL's performance. Age, TMT (B-A), and depression were orderly the next strongest predictors. Stroke patients with more dependency in basic activities of daily living, older age, cognitive impairment, and depression are more opted to be dependent in instrumental activities of daily living and as a result, less participation in home and community affairs.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Disfunción Cognitiva/complicaciones , Función Ejecutiva/fisiología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular , Accidente Cerebrovascular/psicología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Femenino , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Terapia Ocupacional , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones
11.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 49(289): 35-39, 2021 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713091

RESUMEN

Humans have a remarkable ability to perceive, identify, recognize and interpret biological movements. Point-light diplays (PLD) is the only method used to represent trajectories of human movements in visual material. Biological movement recognition might be disturbed in some disorders. AIM: The aim of the study was to examine if people with central nervous system (CNS) tumors bear deficits in recognizing biological movement. In addition, authors of this study decided to examine whether these deficits are associated with cognitive functions (especially executive functions). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed at Neurosurgical Department of the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology in Warsaw, Poland. The patients who were admitted to Neurosurgical Department in the purpose of brain tumour removal were recruited to the study group. The control group consisted of healthy people. Neuropsychological tools (ACE-III, Rey figure, CTT, Ruff Figural Fluidity Test, WAIS-R Digit Span) and a program for biological motions recognition. RESULTS: In terms of age, education level and gender no statistical differences were observed between the control group and the research group. Our study revealed statistically significant differences in the recognition of biological movement in the control and study group. The correlation analysis between EF and biological movement recognition were found in the following domain of neurophysiological tests: RFFT unique combinations, M-ACE, ACE-III visual-spatial functions, CTT interference indicator. CONCLUSIONS: People affected by brain tumours have impaired ability to recognize biological movements.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Cognición , Función Ejecutiva , Humanos , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Polonia
12.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 215: 103295, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752141

RESUMEN

Recent studies have demonstrated that lying can affect memory and that such memory effects are based on the cognitive load required in performing the lie. The present study aimed to verify whether the impact of two deceptive strategies (i.e., false denials and fabrication) depends on individuals' cognitive resources in terms of Executive Functions (i.e., EF: Shifting, Inhibition, and Updating). A sample of 147 participants watched a video of a robbery and then were instructed to either fabricate (i.e., fabrication condition), deny (i.e. false denial condition), or tell the truth (i.e., truth-telling condition) to some questions about the crime. Two days later, all participants had to provide an honest account on a final memory test where they indicated their memory for having discussed details (i.e., fabricated, denied, or told the truth) and their memory for the video. Finally, their EF resources were also assessed. Our findings demonstrated that individual differences in EFs played a role in how the event was recalled and on the effects of lying on memory. That is, memory for the event after having lied depended especially on individuals' Shifting resources. We also found that the two deceptive strategies differentially affected individuals' memory for the interview and for the event: Denying affected memory for the interview while fabricating affected memory for the event. Our findings can inform legal professionals on the possibility to assess individuals' EF as an indicator of witnesses' credibility.


Asunto(s)
Decepción , Función Ejecutiva , Crimen , Humanos , Memoria , Recuerdo Mental
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669970

RESUMEN

(1) Background: COVID-19 may deteriorate some aspects among individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although some positive aspects were reported during the pandemic, it remains unclear how COVID-19 qualitatively influences their living context; (2) Methods: this study employed interviews with four participants with ADHD during the declaration of emergency issued in Japan. The study was a part of ongoing coaching as a psychosocial intervention for ADHD, which was initiated long before the pandemic. The data were the answers to the question: "how are things going with participants during this pandemic?". In a qualitative analysis, the researchers coded the data to identify different themes and sub-themes; (3) Results and Discussion: the qualitative data analysis yielded five themes: (1) Terrible feeling caused by frustration, stress, and anger; (2) Closeness due to the internal difficulties and conflict; (3) Deteriorating ADHD symptoms and executive function related matters; (4) Condition is the same as usual; and (5) Positive aspects associated with the self-lockdown. As a whole, these results show that the COVID-19 pandemic could be a factor in inducing psychological distress in the participants who adjust relatively better at work/school but did not do well at home before the pandemic; (4) Conclusions: this study indicates the need for special support for individuals with ADHD, especially those who originally had difficulties at home.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Adulto , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Emociones , Función Ejecutiva , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Pandemias , Investigación Cualitativa , Adulto Joven
14.
Brain Nerve ; 73(3): 217-222, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678613

RESUMEN

It has been well recognized that patients with comparable dementia severity may show different levels of brain pathology. This is commonly explained by cognitive or brain reserve theory: patients with more reserve can tolerate more severe brain pathologies because the reserve can compensate for the neuropathological processes. Various life experiences contribute to the reserve, one of which may be multilingualism. Multilinguals need to select the appropriate language for a conversational partner and to keep other languages inactivated. Such experiences reinforce the multilingual executive functions, and change neuroanatomical and neurophysiological features of the brain, which some researchers propose can serve as a reserve and prevent dementia. The earliest such report was Bialystok et al.'s (2007) paper, which demonstrated multilinguals showing signs of dementia approximately four years later than monolinguals. This finding seemed to support the hypothesis of multilingualism as a reserve, and was followed by many other reports testing the same. Notwithstanding the initial excitement, the data obtained so far have been mixed at best in terms of the possibility of multilingualism influencing the neuropathological processes of dementia. This paper summarizes recent findings on multilingualism and the reserve theory, and discusses identified research issues that need to be resolved.


Asunto(s)
Reserva Cognitiva , Multilingüismo , Encéfalo , Función Ejecutiva , Humanos , Lenguaje
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668414

RESUMEN

There is a growing interest in determining which variables contribute to students' academic performance, since this performance is associated with their wellbeing and with the progress of the nation. This study analyzed whether different variables (executive functions and physical activity levels, gender and academic year) of 177 Spanish Compulsory Secondary School students contributed to their academic performance. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function 2 (BRIEF-2), Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) and an ad hoc questionnaire were used to determine the students' executive functioning, physical activity level, gender and academic year, respectively. Students' grades were considered to be indicators of their academic achievement. Seven multiple linear regression models were constructed using the R computing language to examine the association between academic achievement (considered in each of the 5 subjects: Language, Mathematics, Geography and History, English and Physical Education; the mean of the instrumental subjects-Language and Mathematics-and the mean of all the subjects) and the independent variables. The results indicated that executive functions, physical activity and gender contributed to academic performance, but academic year did not. This suggests that students with good executive functions, who perform physical activity and are female, would have better academic achievement. This information should be considered when designing interventions to improve student academic achievement.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Función Ejecutiva , Adolescente , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671754

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between burnout and cognitive functioning. The associations of depression, anxiety and family support with burnout and cognitive functioning were also examined both independently and as potential moderators of the burnout-cognitive functioning relationship. Seven different cognitive tasks were administered to employees of the general working population and five cognitive domains were assessed; i.e., executive functions, working memory, memory (episodic, visuospatial, prospective), attention/speed of processing and visuospatial abilities. Burnout, depression, anxiety and family support were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Family Support Scale respectively. In congruence with the first and fourth (partially) Hypotheses, burnout and perceived family support are significantly associated with some aspects of cognitive functioning. Moreover, in line with the third Hypothesis, perceived family support is inversely related to burnout. However, in contrast to the second and fourth Hypotheses, depression, anxiety and perceived family support do not moderate the burnout-cognitive functioning relationship. Additional results reveal positive associations between burnout depression and anxiety. Overall findings suggest that cognitive deficits, depression and anxiety appear to be common in burnout while they underpin the role of perceived family support in both mental health and cognitive functioning. Implications for practice are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Función Ejecutiva , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Agotamiento Psicológico , Cognición , Depresión/epidemiología , Humanos , Memoria a Corto Plazo , Estudios Prospectivos
17.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(2): 7502205080p1-7502205080p11, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657350

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Assessing people's executive function (EF) during addiction treatment makes it possible to design individualized occupational goals. OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) in the occupational assessment of people being treated for substance addiction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study to determine the EFPT's internal consistency as well as its convergent and discriminant validity with complementary tests. SETTING: A public, free addiction treatment center operated by Madrid Salud (Madrid City Council, Spain). PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-two people referred to an occupational therapy department for evaluation and intervention. Inclusion was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text revision) criteria for substance abuse or dependence; the exclusion criterion consisted of any circumstances that made it difficult for a person to understand or perform the test. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The EFPT, other occupational tests (Allen Cognitive Level Screen-5, Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment), and a battery of neuropsychological EF tests. RESULTS: The EFPT had an unequivocal unifactorial structure and showed strong correlations between its components and adequate consistency with the scales and the complete test. As expected, the EFPT correlated with the neuropsychological tests with a considerable effect size (-.40 < r < -.60). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The EFPT's psychometric properties are adequate to assess the EF of people being treated for substance addiction from an occupational perspective using real activities of daily living (ADLs). WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: The results show that the EFPT can be used to assess performance of ADLs without needing to use tests from disciplines other than occupational therapy. Further studies in different sociocultural settings are needed to generalize the results.


Asunto(s)
Función Ejecutiva , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Actividades Cotidianas , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , España
18.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(2): 7502345020p1-7502345020p7, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657357

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Psychometrically sound instruments are needed to evaluate executive functioning in the population of people with cancer. OBJECTIVE: To develop and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Executive Function Performance Test-Enhanced (EFPT-E) in women after being treated for breast cancer. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: University research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Women treated for breast cancer who had cognitive impairment (n = 12) and community control participants (n = 13). OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Evaluators (n = 8) independently scored a recorded administration of the EFPT-E to evaluate interrater reliability. An assessment battery, including the EFPT-E, was administered to evaluate the EFPT-E's known-groups validity and concurrent validity. RESULTS: Excellent interrater reliability was observed for the EFPT-E total score and each subtask score (intraclass correlation coefficient = .90-.98). Moderate effect sizes were noted for the EFPT-E total score (Cohen's d = 0.5) and the total number of cues (d = 0.4) between the breast cancer group and the control group, with the breast cancer group demonstrating poorer performance. A limited correlation was found between the EFPT-E and the other cognitive measures. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The results support the EFPT-E's interrater reliability and warrant continued investigation to further establish its reliability and validity. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: Assessments are needed to quantify the impact of cognitive processes within functional tasks. The EFPT-E has been developed to assess the functional impact of mild cognitive impairment; initial testing with women with cancer showed excellent agreement between raters and promising results for validity.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva , Neoplasias , Disfunción Cognitiva/etiología , Estudios Transversales , Función Ejecutiva , Femenino , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
20.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 48(2): 195-208, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664157

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The burden of post-stroke cognitive impairment, as well as affective disorders, remains persistently high. With improved stroke survival rates and increasing life expectancy, there is a need for effective interventions to facilitate remediation of neurocognitive impairments and post-stroke mood disorders. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of Therapeutic Instrumental Music Performance (TIMP) training with and without Motor Imagery on cognitive functioning and affective responding in chronic post-stroke individuals. METHODS: Thirty chronic post-stroke, community-dwelling participants were randomized to one of three experimental arms: (1) 45 minutes of active TIMP, (2) 30 minutes of active TIMP followed by 15 minutes of metronome-cued motor imagery (TIMP+cMI), (3) 30 minutes of active TIMP followed by 15 minutes of motor imagery without cues (TIMP+MI). Training took place three times a week for three weeks, using a selection of acoustic and electronic instruments. Assessments, administered at two baselines and post-training, included the Trail Making Test (TMT) - Part B to assess mental flexibility, the Digit Span Test (DST) to determine short-term memory capacity, the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist - Revised (MAACL-R) to ascertain current affective state, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) to assess perceived self-efficacy. The Self-Assessment Maniqin (SAM) was also administered prior to and following each training session. RESULTS: Thirty participants completed the protocol, ten per arm [14 women; mean age = 55.9; mean time post-stroke = 66.9 months]. There were no statistically significant differences between pooled group baseline measures. The TIMP+MI group showed a statistically significant decrease in time from pre-test 2 to post-test on the TMT. The TIMP group showed a significant increase on MAACL sensation seeking scores, as well as on the Valence and Dominance portions of the SAM; TIMP+cMI showed respective increases and decreases in positive and negative affect on the MAACL, and increases on the Valence, Dominance, and Arousal portions of the SAM. No statistically significant association between cognitive and affective measures was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: The mental flexibility aspect of executive functioning appears to be enhanced by therapeutic instrumental music training in conjunction with motor imagery, possibly due to multisensory integration and consolidation of representations through motor imagery rehearsal following active practice. Active training using musical instruments appears to have a positive impact on affective responding; however, these changes occurred independently of improvements to cognition.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Imágenes en Psicoterapia/métodos , Musicoterapia/métodos , Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular/métodos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Señales (Psicología) , Función Ejecutiva/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Imágenes en Psicoterapia/tendencias , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Música/psicología , Musicoterapia/tendencias , Accidente Cerebrovascular/psicología , Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular/psicología , Prueba de Secuencia Alfanumérica , Resultado del Tratamiento
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