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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 997-1004, 2020 Feb 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608762

RESUMEN

This study sets out to understand the evolution of the microbial community structure in industrial composting with livestock manure and peach branches. Pig manure, peach branches, and decomposed organic fertilizer were used as materials for composting. Changes in physical and chemical indicators and the evolution in the structure of the compost microbial community, determined by high-throughput sequencing, were analyzed. The results of physical and chemical parameters show that the pile reached the high-temperature stage on day 2, and the thermophilic period lasted for 30 days. The changes in total carbon were volatile, and there was an overall decline in the amount of TOC in the whole process of composting; The final content of TN was 20.58 g·kg-1, which was 5.90% lower compared to the initial compost. Alpha analysis indicated that a different microbial community diversity existed at different times during aerobic composting periods. At the bacterial phyla level, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla, and the proportion of relative abundance were 79.31%-95.09% and 2.98%-19.70%, respectively, in the entire compost. The relative abundance of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were 87.36% and 9.66%, respectively, and their respective relative abundances were 79.38% and 19.70% at the end of composting. At the bacterial genus level, the dominant group changed from Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Terrisporobacter, and Bacillus to norank_f_Bacillaceae, Bacillus, Oceanbacillus, and Pseudogracilibacillus; Regarding the fungus phyla, the Ascomycota was the dominant phylum. For the fungus genus, the relative abundance of norank_c_Sordariomycetes gradually increased during composting, and finally was predominant group. The redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the correlation rank between environmental factors and microbial community structure was:pH > NH4+-N > T > TOC > TN, where pH had the greatest impact on the microbial community composition. norank_c_Sordariomycetes, norank_o_Sordariales, and norank_c_Agaricomycetes may be related to the volatilization of ammonium nitrogen.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Estiércol , Microbiota , Prunus persica , Animales , Ganado , Suelo , Porcinos
2.
Vaccine ; 38(33): 5123-5130, 2020 07 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563608

RESUMEN

The current pandemic of COVID-19 has set off an urgent search for an effective vaccine. This search may well benefit from the experiences of the animal health profession in the development and use of coronavirus vaccines in domestic animal species. These animal vaccines will in no way protect humans against COVID-19 but knowledge of the difficulties encountered in vaccinating animals may help avoid or minimize similar problems arising in humans. Diverse coronaviruses can infect the domestic species from dogs and cats, to cattle and pigs to poultry. Many of these infections are controlled by routine vaccination. Thus, canine coronavirus vaccines are protective in puppies but the disease itself is mild and self-limiting. Feline coronavirus infections may be mild or may result in a lethal immune-mediated disease - feline infectious peritonitis. As a result, vaccination of domestic cats must seek to generate- protective immunity without causing immune-mediated disease. Vaccines against bovine coronavirus are widely employed in cattle where they protect against enteric and respiratory disease in young calves. Two major livestock species suffer from economically significant and severe coronavirus diseases. Thus, pigs may be infected with six different coronaviruses, one of which, porcine epidemic diarrhea, has proven difficult to control despite the development of several innovative vaccines. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus undergoes frequent genetic changes. Likewise, infectious bronchitis coronavirus causes an economically devastating disease of chickens. It too undergoes frequent genetic shifts and as a result, can only be controlled by extensive and repeated vaccination. Other issues that have been encountered in developing these animal vaccines include a relatively short duration of protective immunity, and a lack of effectiveness of inactivated vaccines. On the other hand, they have been relatively cheap to make and lend themselves to mass vaccination procedures.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Ganado , Mascotas , Vacunación/veterinaria , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico , Animales , Gatos , Bovinos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Perros , Aves de Corral , Porcinos
3.
J Environ Manage ; 269: 110762, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560990

RESUMEN

Rangelands cover one third of the earth's land area, provide livelihoods for one billion persons, and most have been degraded by overgrazing of domestic livestock. Recent debate about best management practices often has centered on comparison of continuous grazing and rotational grazing. Resolution to this debate may lie in viewing rangelands as complex adaptive systems. We describe a spatially-structured, individual-based model of rangelands that embodies this perspective, and simulate forage dynamics and cattle production under semi-arid rangeland conditions typical of the southern Great Plains of the USA employing both continuous and rotational grazing. Relative "success" of simulated grazing schemes depended primarily on the evaluation metric used (e.g., rangeland ecological condition, sale weight of cattle, secondary production efficiency) and the particular manage scheme employed, and neither continuous nor rotational grazing schemes were uniformly more successful. Our results demonstrate that solution of the grazing systems debate is unlikely to be found in a single group of grazing schemes, but, rather, in adaptive management of feedbacks among system components. The present work provides an example of how modeling rangelands as complex adaptive systems can aid in the evaluation of management schemes.


Asunto(s)
Ganado , Animales , Bovinos
4.
J Environ Manage ; 265: 110508, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421553

RESUMEN

The UN Sustainable Development Goals constitute a bench of directives with a universal scope to establish actions to mitigate poverty and protect the environment. Benefiting from the Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water recently published in Brazil, it is possible to harmonize the demand of water and the economic sectors. To this end, this study conducted an input-output analysis and structural decomposition analysis to explore the water consumption of the Brazilian Economy and its driving forces during an unprecedented drought and economic recession between 2013 and 2015. The results indicate that the total variation of the water consumption in the period is 15%. Between 2013 and 2014, the total effect was positive, causing an increase of 45% in the embodied water consumption, having as main driver the final demand and the intensity effect. In the second period, the total intensity effect was negative, provoking a decrease of -10% in the total water consumption. The "Agriculture, livestock, forestry and fishing" is the main sector responsible for these positive and negative results, while the "Energy and gas natural supply" sector has a strategic position to avoid a structural increase on the economic water demand.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Agua , Animales , Brasil , Ganado , Abastecimiento de Agua
5.
South Med J ; 113(5): 240-249, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358619

RESUMEN

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with symptoms in humans and animals, ranging from subclinical to serious and fatal. The disease occurs worldwide, but there is limited recognition of the public and animal health risks it poses in the southern United States. A systematic review of the frequency of animal leptospirosis in 17 states and jurisdictions covering the southern continental United States was performed to advance our understanding of the pathogen's distribution and identify transmission patterns that could be targeted for prevention efforts. Fifty-two articles, spanning >100 years, met the analysis criteria. A wide range of techniques were used to measure seroprevalence and isolate the bacteria. The assessment identified exposure to Leptospira spp and Leptospira spp infection among a diverse range of species, spanning 22 animal families within 14 states, suggesting that the pathogen is distributed throughout the southern region. Disease frequency trends were assessed among animals in various habitats (all habitats, nonwild habitats, and wild habitats). The frequency of Leptospira spp detection in animals in wild habitats increased slightly over time (<0.2%/year). We identified reports of 11 human leptospirosis illness clusters and outbreaks in the southern United States. Exposure to potentially contaminated surface waters were documented for at least seven of the events, and interactions with infected or likely infected animals were documented for at least six of the events. This analysis highlights the need for stronger partnerships across the public and animal health fields to enhance diagnostics, surveillance, and reporting. The early identification of leptospirosis in animals may serve as an indicator of environmental contamination and trigger prevention measures, such as vaccinating companion animals and livestock, use of potable water, and the wearing of waterproof protective clothing near water that may be contaminated.


Asunto(s)
Leptospirosis/epidemiología , Leptospirosis/veterinaria , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Animales , Animales Salvajes/microbiología , Gatos/microbiología , Bovinos/microbiología , Ciervos/microbiología , Perros/microbiología , Humanos , Ganado/microbiología , Mephitidae/microbiología , Mascotas/microbiología , Roedores/microbiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Sudeste de Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Porcinos/microbiología
6.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(6): 393-405, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374208

RESUMEN

Problem: The emergence of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, in November 2019 and a growing body of information compel inquiry regarding the transmissibility of infection between humans and certain animal species. Although there are a number of issues to be considered, the following points are most urgent: The potential for domesticated (companion) animals to serve as a reservoir of infection contributing to continued human-to-human disease, infectivity, and community spread. The ramifications to food security, economy, and trade issues should coronavirus establish itself within livestock and poultry. The disruption to national security if SARS-CoV-2 and its fairly well-established effects on smell (hyposmia/anosmia) to critical military service animals including explosive detector dog, narcotics detector dog, specialized search dog, combat tracker dog, mine detection dog, tactical explosive detector dog, improvised explosive device detector dog, patrol explosive detector dog, and patrol narcotics detector dog, as well as multipurpose canines used by special operations such as used by the U.S. customs and border protection agency (e.g., Beagle Brigade). This article presents in chronological order data that both individually (as received independently from multiple countries) and collectively urge studies that elucidate the following questions. 1.What animal species can be infected with SARS-CoV-2, the likely sources of infection, the period of infectivity, and transmissibility between these animals and to other animal species and humans? 2.What are the best diagnostic tests currently available for companion animals and livestock? 3.What expressions of illness in companion and other animal species can serve as disease markers? Although it is recognized that robust funding and methodology need to be identified to apply the best scientific investigation into these issues, there may be easily identifiable opportunities to capture information that can guide decision and study. First, it may be possible to quickly initiate a data collection strategy using in-place animal gatekeepers, such as zookeepers, veterinarians, kennel owners, feed lots, and military animal handlers. If provided a simple surveillance form, their detection of symptoms (lethargy, hyposmia, anosmia, and others) might be quickly reported to a central data collection site if one were created. Second, although current human COVID-19 disease is aligning around areas of population density and cluster events, it might be possible to overlay animal species density or veterinary reports that could signal some disease association in animals with COVID-19 patients. Unfortunately, although companion animals and zoo species have repeatedly served as sentinels for emerging infectious diseases, they do not currently fall under the jurisdiction of any federal agency and are not under surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Pandemias/veterinaria , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/veterinaria , Zoonosis/transmisión , Animales , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/patología , Enfermedades de los Perros/virología , Perros , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Ganado/virología , Evaluación de Necesidades , Trastornos del Olfato/veterinaria , Trastornos del Olfato/virología , Pandemias/historia , Mascotas/virología , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Zoonosis/virología
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 732: 139235, 2020 Aug 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438176

RESUMEN

Globally, animal excreta (dung and urine) deposition onto grazed pastures represents more than half of anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. To account for these emissions, New Zealand currently employs urine and dung emission factor (EF3) values of 1.0% and 0.25%, respectively, for all livestock. These values are primarily based on field studies conducted on fertile, flatland pastures predominantly used for dairy cattle production but do not consider emissions from hill land pastures primarily used for sheep, deer and non-dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the most suitable urine and dung EF3 values for dairy cattle, non-dairy cattle, and sheep grazing pastures on different slopes based on a meta-analysis of New Zealand EF3 studies. As none of the studies included deer excreta, deer EF3 values were estimated from cattle and sheep values. The analysis revealed that a single dung EF3 value should be maintained, although the value should be reduced from 0.25% to 0.12%. Furthermore, urine EF3 should be disaggregated by livestock type (cattle > sheep) and topography (flatland and low sloping hill country > medium and steep sloping hill country), with EF3 values ranging from 0.08% (sheep urine on medium and steep slopes) to 0.98% (dairy cattle on flatland and low slopes). While the mechanism(s) causing differences in urine EF3 values for sheep and cattle are unknown, the 'slope effect' on urine EF3 is partly due to differences in soil chemical and physical characteristics, which influence soil microbial processes on the different slope classes. The revised EF3 values were used in an updated New Zealand inventory approach, resulting in 30% lower national N2O emissions for 2017 compared to using the current EF3 values. We recommend using the revised EF3 values in New Zealand's national greenhouse gas inventory to more accurately capture N2O emissions from livestock grazing.


Asunto(s)
Ganado , Animales , Bovinos , Ciervos , Nueva Zelanda , Óxido Nitroso , Ovinos , Suelo
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 734: 139023, 2020 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460066

RESUMEN

The application of livestock and poultry manures was the predominant source of heavy metals in agricultural soils, particularly in China. It is important to systematically compare the pollution characteristics, emission situations and mass loads for heavy metals in the manures of different livestock and poultry in China. According to analysis and estimation based on the reported concentration levels of eight heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, As, and Ni) and the feed quantities of livestock (pig, cattle, and sheep) and poultry in 2017, the concentrations of Zn and Cu and the over-standard frequencies of Zn, Cu, Cd, and As were much higher than those of other heavy metals, especially in pig manure. In 2017, the total emission of livestock and poultry manure in China was 1.64 × 109 t (FW), which was mainly excreted from cattle (45.77%); while the total emission of heavy metals sourced from manures was 2.86 × 105 t (DW), with the predominant contribution originating from pig manure (71.52%). The highest mass loads of manures and heavy metals were observed in Shandong, Tianjin, Henan, and Shanghai, where heavy metal contamination may be occurring (especially for Zn and Cu). The heavy metal concentrations in livestock and poultry manures of China were similar to other countries; however, more heavy metals were discharged into agricultural land through manure (especially for Zn and Cu). For many countries, abundant Zn and Cu exist in agricultural soils, principally contributed by livestock and poultry manures. These heavy metals originate from their addition to livestock and poultry feeds. Therefore, reducing the addition of Zn and Cu in feeds is an effective measure to lower their input into agricultural soils.


Asunto(s)
Estiércol , Animales , China , Ganado , Metales Pesados , Aves de Corral , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo
9.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 236-241, 2020 Apr 27.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468784

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To predict the changes in the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and livestock in Hunan Province using the exponential smoothing model and the ARIMA model. METHODS: The data pertaining to S. japonicum infections in humans and livestock in Hunan Province from 1957 to 2015 were collected, and the exponential smoothing model and the ARIMA model were created using the software Eviews and PASW Statistics 18.0. In addition, the effectiveness of these two models for the prediction of S. japonicum infections in humans and livestock in Hunan Province from 2016 to 2018 was evaluated. RESULTS: The exponential smoothing model and the ARIMA model had a high goodness of fit for prediction of S. japonicum infections in humans and livestock in Hunan Province from 1957 to 2015. There was a linear trend in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans and livestock in Hunan Province from 1957 to 2015. The prevalence of S. japonicum infections in humans predicted with the Brown's linear trend and the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in livestock predicted with the Holt's linear trend in Hunan Province from 2016 to 2018 fitted better the actual data than the ARIMA model; however, prediction of the ARIMA model indicated that the endemic situation of schistosomiasis remained at a low level in Hunan Province. CONCLUSIONS: At a low epidemic level, development of highly sensitive tools for monitoring schistosomiasis is urgently needed in Hunan Province to fit the current endemic situation, and the schistosomiasis control measures should be intensified to consolidate the control achievements.


Asunto(s)
Ganado , Modelos Estadísticos , Schistosoma japonicum , Esquistosomiasis Japónica , Animales , China/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Ganado/parasitología , Prevalencia , Esquistosomiasis Japónica/epidemiología
10.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 242-247, 2020 May 07.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468785

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes in the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Hunan Province, so as to provide scientific basis for the development of the schistosomiasis elimination programme in the province. METHODS: According to the requirements of the National Guidelines for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 version), a total of 41 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all disease-endemic counties (districts) across Hunan Province. During the period between 2015 and 2019, Schistosoma japonicum infections were monitored in local residents, mobile populations and livestock, and snail status was monitored. The morbidity due to schistosomiasis and snail status was compared between years. RESULTS: The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 2.57% and 1.56% in local residents and mobile populations in national surveillance sites of Hunan Province from 2015 to 2019, respectively, and the sero-prevalence appeared a tendency towards a decline over years. A higher sero-prevalence rate of S. japonicum infections was seen in men than in women (P < 0.01). During the 5-year study period, the sero-prevalence rate of human S. japonicum infections appeared a tendency towards a decline in the marshland, embankment, inner embankment and hilly types of endemic areas over years. There were 44 and 19 egg -positives detected in local residents and 5 and 1 egg-positives in mobile populations in 2015 and 2016 respectively. A total of 9 346 domestic animals were monitored from 2015 to 2019, and 6 egg-positives were detected in 2015 and 2016 (all were bovine). A total of 0.155 billion m2 settings were surveyed from 2015 to 2019, and the mean density of living snails appeared a tendency towards a decline over years, with a 45.79% reduction in 2019 as compared to 2015. However, no S. japonicum infections were identified in snails during the 5-year period. A total of 1 469 mixed snail samples were detected using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and 6 positive snail samples were identified in 2015 (one sample) and 2017 (5 samples). CONCLUSIONS: The overall endemic situation of schistosomiasis appears a tendency towards a decline in Hunan Province, and the prevalence of S. japonicum infections is at a low level in humans and livestock; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission. Improvements of health education, intensification of schistosomiasis examinations in mobile populations and reinforcement of the surveillance-response system is required to consolidate the achievements of schistosomiasis control in Hunan Province.


Asunto(s)
Ganado , Esquistosomiasis , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Ganado/parasitología , Masculino , Vigilancia de la Población , Prevalencia , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Caracoles/parasitología
11.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 301-303, 2020 Apr 29.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468795

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Anhui Province from 2015 to 2018, so as to provide scientific evidence for schistosomiasis control and prevention in Anhui Province. METHODS: According to the National Schistosomiasis Surveillance Programme (2014 version), a total of 51 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in Anhui Province in 2015, and Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and livestock and snail distribution were monitored from 2015 to 2018. RESULTS: A total of 89 638 local residents and 42 609 mobile populations received serological screening of schistosomiasis in 51 national surveillance sites of Anhui Province from 2015 to 2018, and the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections was 1.41% to 3.69% in local residents and 0.84% to 2.13% in mobile populations, respectively. There were 5 egg-positive local residents and 1 egg-positive mobile populations detected in 2015, with occupations of farmers and fishermen. There were 6 405 livestock detected for S. japonicum infections, and no egg-positives were identified. Among an area of 12 661 hm2 surveyed in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of Anhui Province from 2015 to 2018, the areas of snail habitats were 2 461.27 to 2 628.96 hm2, andthemeandensityoflivingsnailswas 0.3757 to 0.4330 snails/0.1 m2, with no S. japonicum infections identified in snails. CONCLUSIONS: The endemic situation of schistosomiasis is at a low level in Anhui Province; however, the risk of schistosomiasis transmission remains in local regions of the province. The construction of the surveillance-responsesystemshouldbereinforcedtoconsolidatetheachievementsofschistosomiasis control in Anhui Province.


Asunto(s)
Esquistosomiasis , Distribución Animal , Animales , China/epidemiología , Ecosistema , Enfermedades Endémicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Ganado/parasitología , Vigilancia de la Población , Prevalencia , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Caracoles/parasitología , Caracoles/fisiología
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 317-319, 2020 Apr 28.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468800

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Hunan Province in 2019, so as to provide insights into the achievement of transmission interruption of schistosomiasis in the province in 2020. METHODS: The data pertaining to Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and livestock and snail status were captured from Hunan Province in 2019 and analyzed. RESULTS: Schistosomiasis was endemic in 281 townships (towns) from 41 counties (districts) of 6 cities in Hunan Province by the end of 2019. A total of 991 900 persons received blood testing in Hunan Province in 2019, and 22 773 were positive for the blood testing, with sero-prevalence of 2.30%. All stool examinations were negative in 22 933 individuals detected. The high sero-prevalence was seen in Nanxian County, Anxiang County and Ziyang District. Currently, there were 5 034 cases with advanced schistosomiasis detected in Hunan Province, and they were predominantly identified in Yuanjiang City, Heshan District and Yueyang County. There were 44 963 bovines fenced in schistosomiasis-endemic villages in Hunan Province in 2019, which were predominantly distributed in Yuanjiang City, Hanshou County and Ziyang District, and no positives were detected in 1 996 bovines receiving blood testing or 20 684 bovines receiving stool examinations. In 2019, there were snail habitats of 1.73 billion m2 found in Hunan Province, which were mainly found in Yuanjiang City, Hanshou County and Yueyang County. CONCLUSIONS: The endemic situation of schistosomiasis further decreases in Hunan Province in 2019; however, there is still a risk of schistosomiasis transmission in local areas of the province.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Endémicas , Esquistosomiasis Japónica , Animales , Bovinos , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Humanos , Ganado/parasitología , Prevalencia , Esquistosomiasis Japónica/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis Japónica/prevención & control , Esquistosomiasis Japónica/transmisión , Caracoles/parasitología
13.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(3): 320-322, 2020 Apr 26.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468801

RESUMEN

As an ancient parasitic disease, schistosomiasis has been endemic in Dongting Lake areas for more than 2 100 years. In the early 20th century, the first human case of schistosomiasis in China was reported in Dongting Lake areas, which was paid extensive attention. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, large-scale schistosomiasis control activities were launched promptly in Dongting Lake areas, and great successes have been achieved following the three stages of control efforts, including the snail control-based stage, synchronous chemotherapy for humans and livestock-based control stage and infectious source control-based control stage. In 2015, transmission control of schistosomiasis was achieved in Hunan Province. This paper comprehensively describes the discovery and control of schistosomiasis, analyzes the challenges for the current schistosomiasis control programs and proposes the emphasis for future control activities in Dongting Lake areas, so as to provide insights into the schistosomiasis control program in this area.


Asunto(s)
Esquistosomiasis , Animales , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Lagos , Ganado/parasitología , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Caracoles/parasitología
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(21): 26694-26701, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378103

RESUMEN

The present investigation was performed in different district of Punjab to determine the chromium level in soil, forages, and blood plasma of the small ruminants (goat and sheep). The results showed that the mean concentrations of chromium in the soil of Sargodha, Mianwali, and Bhakkar districts were ranged from 1.8 to 2.3, 3.01 to 4.99, and 2.04 to 2.87 mg/kg, respectively. The chromium level was higher in Mianwali compared with Sargodha and Bhakkar. The mean concentrations of chromium in forages which were used for feeding purposes were found between 0.672 and 1.631, 1.493 and 2.612, and 0.7804 and 1.047 mg/kg for Sargodha, Mianwali, and Bhakkar, respectively. The mean concentrations of chromium in blood plasma of goat which consumed the contaminated forages were between 0.666 and 1.269 mg/L in Sargodha, 0.657 and 0.752 mg/L in Mianwali, and 1.39 and 2.37 mg/L in Bhakkar. In blood plasma of sheep, the residual levels of chromium in the districts Sargodha, Mianwali, and Bhakkar were ranged from 0.673 to 1.384, 0.83 to 1.086, and 1.496 to 3.611 mg/L, respectively. In the present research, there was a higher concentration of chromium in blood plasma of sheep from Bhakkar and the lowest was in Sargodha. The chromium level in blood samples was found to be higher than the tolerable level of 1.0 mg/L in all districts. In light of these results, it was concluded that chromium levels in the soil and forages of all sites were present within the safe limit while in blood samples of sheep and goats were found to be above the acceptable limit. Sheep and goats also consume water from river, streams, and ponds and other contaminated water sources. So it might be the reason of higher level of chromium in their blood plasma. Hence, the proper monitoring of study sites will be necessary to prevent the excessive accumulation of chromium in ruminants in the near future.


Asunto(s)
Cromo , Ganado , Animales , Cabras , Pradera , Pakistán , Ovinos , Suelo
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 731: 139157, 2020 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428753

RESUMEN

This study investigated the interplay effects of key operational factors on maturity, gaseous emissions, and energy efficiency during composting of livestock manure digestate. Orthogonal experiments were conducted with three factors: digestion duration (15, 30, 45 days), corn stalk addition (15%, 25%, 35%, wet weight based), and aeration rate (0.12, 0.24, 0.48 L kg-1 dry matter (DM) min-1). Results showed that digestion duration was the main factor influencing the compost germination index (GI), greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission, and net energy. Digestion duration of 30 days was favored for compost GI and GHG reduction, while digestion duration of 45 days exhibited 18% higher daily net energy. Increasing corn stalk addition and aeration rates improved compost GI, but increased energy consumption. Corn stalk addition of 25% and aeration rate of 0.24 L kg-1 DM min-1 could ensure desirable compost maturity and save energy consumption. Thus, digestion for 30 days, 25% corn stalk addition, and aeration rates of 0.24 L kg-1 DM min-1 can be potentially implemented in industry for environmental and cost efficient composting of digestate.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Animales , Gases , Ganado , Estiércol , Nitrógeno/análisis , Suelo
16.
Ecol Lett ; 23(8): 1298-1309, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369874

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic disturbance has generated a significant loss of biodiversity worldwide and grazing by domestic herbivores is a contributing disturbance. Although the effects of grazing on plants are commonly explored, here we address the potential multi-trophic effects on animal biodiversity (e.g. herbivores, pollinators and predators). We conducted a meta-analysis on 109 independent studies that tested the response of animals or plants to livestock grazing relative to livestock excluded. Across all animals, livestock exclusion increased abundance and diversity, but these effects were greatest for trophic levels directly dependent on plants, such as herbivores and pollinators. Detritivores were the only trophic level whose abundance decreased with livestock exclusion. We also found that the number of years since livestock was excluded influenced the community and that the effects of grazer exclusion on animal diversity were strongest in temperate climates. These findings synthesise the effects of livestock grazing beyond plants and demonstrate the indirect impacts of livestock grazing on multiple trophic levels in the animal community. We identified the potentially long-term impacts that livestock grazing can have on lower trophic levels and consequences for biological conservation. We also highlight the potentially inevitable cost to global biodiversity from livestock grazing that must be balanced against socio-economic benefits.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ganado , Animales , Ecosistema , Herbivoria , Estado Nutricional , Plantas
17.
APMIS ; 128(6): 451-462, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358920

RESUMEN

Bacteria and viruses were analysed in the upper respiratory tract of symptomatic pig farmers and their domestic pigs. Eighty six human nasal and 495 (50 pools) porcine snout swabs were collected in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (62.8%, 54/86), human rhino- and coronaviruses (HRV, 29.1%, 25/86; HCoV, 16.3%, 14/86) were frequently detected in humans, while Haemophilus parasuis (90.0%, 45/50), Mycoplasma hyorhinis (78.6%, 11/14), Enterovirus G (EV-G, 56.0%, 28/50) and S. aureus (36.0%, 18/50), respectively, were highly prevalent in pigs. The detection of S. aureus in human follow-up samples indicates a carrier status. The methicillin-resistant phenotype (MRSA) was identified in 33.3% (18/54) of nasal swabs and in one of 18 (5.6%) pooled snout swabs that were tested positive for S. aureus. Strains were indicative of the livestock-associated clonal complex CC398, with t011 being the most common staphylococcal protein A type. Enterobacterales and non-fermenters were frequently isolated from swabs. Their detection in follow-up samples suggests a carrier status. All were classified as being non-multiresistant. There was no example for cross-species transmission of viruses. In contrast, transmission of S. aureus through occupational contact to pigs seems possible. The study contributes to the 'One Health' approach.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/veterinaria , Sus scrofa/microbiología , Sus scrofa/virología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Animales , Portador Sano , Humanos , Ganado , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/genética , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Mucosa Nasal/microbiología , Mucosa Nasal/virología , Enfermedades Profesionales/microbiología , Prevalencia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/transmisión , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/transmisión , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Virosis/epidemiología , Virosis/transmisión , Virosis/veterinaria
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 262, 2020 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245373

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease causing serious health problems in both humans and animals in different endemic regions across the world. There are two different forms of human echinococcosis: Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) and Alveolar Echinococcosis (AE). CE is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and AE by the larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis. Geographically, CE is universally distributed, while AE is prevalent in the northern hemisphere. Although the disease is endemic in neighboring countries (China, Iran and India) of Pakistan, there are limited reports from that country. Besides, there are no comprehensive data on the genotyping of Echinococcus species in humans based on sequence analysis. This study aimed to detect the presence of human CE and to identify Echinococcus spp. in human isolates through genetic characterization of hydatid cysts in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. METHODS: Genetic analysis was performed on 38 human hydatid cyst samples collected from patients with echinococcosis using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), cytochrome b (cytb) and NADH subunit 1 (nad1). Patient data including age, epidemiological history, sex, and location were obtained from hospital records. RESULTS: According to the sequence analysis we detected E. granulosus sensu stricto (n = 35), E. canadensis (G6/G7) (n = 2), and E. multilocularis (n = 1). Thus, the majority of the patients (92.1%, 35/38) were infected with E. granulosus s.s. This is the first molecular confirmation of E. canadensis (G6/G7) and E. multilocularis in human subjects from Pakistan. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that E. granulosus s.s. is the dominant species in humans in Pakistan. In addition, E. canadensis (G6/G7) and E. multilocularis are circulating in the country. Further studies are required to explore the genetic diversity in both humans and livestock.


Asunto(s)
Equinococosis/epidemiología , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Análisis de Secuencia/métodos , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Ciclooxigenasa 1/genética , Citocromos b/genética , Equinococosis/parasitología , Echinococcus granulosus/aislamiento & purificación , Echinococcus multilocularis/aislamiento & purificación , Complejo I de Transporte de Electrón/genética , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Ganado/parasitología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pakistán/epidemiología , Filogenia , Adulto Joven , Zoonosis/parasitología
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0007618, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226029

RESUMEN

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a disease of cattle that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected animal or ingestion of contaminated food or water. This study seeks to explore the local knowledge on bTB, obtain information on social and cultural practices regarding risk of bTB transmission to cattle and humans (zoonotic TB) in a traditional livestock farming community with a history of bTB diagnosis in cattle and wildlife. Information was collected using a qualitative approach of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) targeting household members of livestock farmers that owned bTB tested herds. We conducted fourteen FGDs (150 individuals) across four dip tanks that included the following categories of participants from cattle owning households: head of households, herdsmen, dip tank committee members and women. The qualitative data was managed using NVivo Version 12 Pro software. Social and cultural practices were identified as major risky practices for bTB transmission to people, such as the consumption of undercooked meat, consumption of soured /raw milk and lack of protective measures during slaughtering of cattle. The acceptance of animals into a herd without bTB pre-movement testing following traditional practices (e.g. lobola, 'bride price', the temporary introduction of a bull for 'breeding'), the sharing of grazing and watering points amongst the herds and with wildlife were identified as risky practices for M. bovis infection transmission to cattle. Overall, knowledge of bTB in cattle and modes of transmission to people and livestock was found to be high. However, the community was still involved in risky practices that expose people and cattle to bovine TB. An inter-disciplinary 'One Health' approach that engages the community is recommended, to provide locally relevant interventions that allows the community to keep their traditional practices and socio-economic systems whilst avoiding disease transmission to cattle and people.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Ganado , Tuberculosis Bovina/prevención & control , Tuberculosis/prevención & control , Adolescente , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Masculino , Sudáfrica , Tuberculosis Bovina/transmisión , Adulto Joven
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 723: 138166, 2020 Jun 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224410

RESUMEN

Vultures have evolved adaptive mechanisms to prevent infections associated with their scavenging lifestyle. However, food-borne exposure to antimicrobial pharmaceuticals can promote opportunistic infections with adverse outcomes. Here, we used multivariate and network analyses to increase understanding of the behavior of the yeast communities causing oral mycosis outbreaks recently reported in wild nestling cinereous (Aegypius monachus), griffon (Gyps fulvus) and Egyptian (Neophron percnopterus) vultures (CV, GV and EV, respectively) exposed to antibiotics from livestock farming. Common and unique yeast signatures (of Candida, Debaromyces, Diutina, Meyerozyma, Naganishia, Pichia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Yarrowia species) associated with oral mycoses were identified in the three vulture species. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) highlighted that oral lesions from CV and GV shared similar yeast signatures (of major causative pathogens of opportunistic mycoses, such as Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis), while EV had a distinct yeast signature (of uncommon pathogenic species, such as Candida dubliniensis, Candida zeylanoides, Pichia fermentans and Rhodotorula spp.). Synergistic interactions between yeast species from distinct fungal phyla were found in lesions from CV and GV, but not in EV. These formed co-occurrence subnetworks with partially or fully connected topology. This study reveals that the composition, assembly and co-occurrence patterns of the yeast communities causing oral mycoses differ between vulture species with distinct feeding habits and scavenging lifestyles. Yeast species widely pathogenic to humans and animals, and yeast co-occurrence relationships, are distinctive hallmarks of oral mycoses in CV and GV. These vulture species are more exposed to antibiotics from intensively medicated livestock carcasses provided in supplementary feeding stations and show higher incidence of thrush-like oral lesions than EV. These findings may be useful for development of new initiatives or changes in the conservation of these avian scavengers affected by anthropogenic activities.


Asunto(s)
Aves , Levaduras , Animales , Antibacterianos , Egipto , Humanos , Ganado
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