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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147044, 2021 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088133

RESUMEN

An intensive study, applied to a site characterized by multiple sources of microorganisms, was aimed at understanding the best approach to study bioaerosol. Culture-based, molecular biological, and chemical methods were applied to Particulate Matter (PM) samples collected in a livestock facility, during spring and autumn seasons, in two different outdoor areas. The first one was close to a place where feed was stored and handled and the second next to an open cowshed. Qualitative analysis of bacteria was performed by sequencing techniques applied to DNA extracted from both isolated culturable bacteria and particulate matter samples. Quantification of microorganisms was achieved through three distinct approaches. Microorganism colonies were counted, after incubation at 28 °C, and expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per m3. Chemical method consisted in the identification of individual biomarkers, and their conversion to number of microorganisms per m3, using proper conversion factors. Finally, qPCR was applied to DNA extracted from PM samples, and the results were expressed as total amount of bacteria present in the bioaerosol (UG/m3). The presence of airborne sterols was also studied to broaden the knowledge of bioaerosol components in atmosphere. Small seasonal differences and major sampling site differences occurred. Obviously, culture-dependent method identified less and different bacteria, than culture-independent approach. The chemical approach and the culture independent metagenomic method were in good agreement. As expected, CFU/m3 accounted for not more than 0.3% of bacteria calculated as the average of chemical and culture independent metagenomic methods. The complexity of the obtained results shows that the different approaches are complementary to obtain an exhaustive description of bioaresol in terms of concentration, speciation, viability, pathogenicity.


Asunto(s)
Microbiología del Aire , Ganado , Aerosoles/análisis , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado/análisis
2.
Chemosphere ; 279: 130902, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134438

RESUMEN

Various veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are used in large quantities as an essential component for intensive livestock farming, and can flow into the environment from various pollution sources. In this study, VAs in surface water and groundwater in the Gwangcheon stream watershed, an intensive livestock farming area in Korea, were analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatograph-quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer with online solid phase extraction. Although the selected VAs are relatively mobile and have low KOW values it is significant to assess their fates and ecological risks in the environment. The concentration of VAs in the surface water was higher than that in groundwater by approximately 23-fold, indicating that the former were directly introduced from pollution sources such as livestock manure. An analysis of the correlation between livestock manure production and the residuals of VAs in the stream showed a high linearity (R2 > 0.70), confirming that livestock excreta significantly contributed to the VAs in the watershed. A combined evaluation of environmental behaviors and ecological risks of VAs was performed for the first time using persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity properties and risk quotient values of VAs. Trimethoprim showed persistence and a potential impact on the ecosystem. The cumulative risk quotient values at one sampling point exceeded 1 indicating that several VAs can cumulatively cause local risk. The risk assessment method considering pollution sources, different locations, and correlation analysis applied in this study will be useful in evaluating the impacts of trace pollutants in watersheds.


Asunto(s)
Ganado , Estiércol , Agricultura , Animales , Antibacterianos/análisis , Antibacterianos/toxicidad , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estiércol/análisis , República de Corea , Medición de Riesgo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146480, 2021 Jul 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030231

RESUMEN

We proposed a novel approach based on dual ammonium and nitrate nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15NNH4 and δ15NNO3, respectively) axes to identify nitrogen sources in intensive livestock farming watersheds, especially those with swine excreta treatment facilities. The δ15NNH4 and δ15NNO3 values in water samples were measured monthly in 2016-2017. Soil and mineral fertilizers, sewage, sewage effluent, manure, and swine effluents were the five sources considered to identify nitrogen sources. The results showed that nitrogen pollution from agricultural activities was well reflected by the seasonal δ15NNH4 and δ15NNO3 patterns in the river, and microbial nitrification was suggested as the dominant nitrogen transformation process in the river. This study revealed that δ15NNH4 and δ15NNO3 axes provided better results than the traditionally used nitrate oxygen (δ18ONO3) and δ15NNO3 axes for identifying nitrogen sources in agricultural watersheds with swine excreta treatment facilities. The mixing model results showed that stream water was severely contaminated with swine effluents (e.g., a mean minimum contribution of 31%), thus affecting the quality of the mainstream (p = 0.068 < 0.10). This study was the first successful application of dual δ15NNH4 and δ15NNO3 axes to better understand nitrogen sources in intensive livestock farming watersheds with swine excreta treatment facilities.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Amonio , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Agricultura , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ganado , Nitratos/análisis , Nitrógeno/análisis , Isótopos de Nitrógeno/análisis , Porcinos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 429, 2021 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962578

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hydatidosis is a zoonotic disease and has a great general and economic health importance in both developed and developing countries. Therefore, this systematic and meta-analytic study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered livestock in Iran. METHODS: The present study was conducted as a systematic review and meta-analysis. The SID & Magiran, MEDLINE (PubMed), ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were searched with a view to selecting relevant research works. As a result, 31 articles published from April 1970 to April 2020 were selected. The heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using the I2 index. Data analysis was conducted within the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (CMA) v.3.0 (Biostat, Englewood, NJ, USA) and Arc map (ArcGIS 10.3) software. RESULTS: The heterogeneity of the studies was evaluated using the I2 test which value was 99% showing a high heterogeneity in the studies. The results of publication bias in studies were evaluated by the Egger test, which were not statistically significant (P = 0.144). The overall prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered livestock in Iran is 13.9% (95%CI: 10.7-17.7%). The results of the meta-regression analysis indicate the increasing trend of the hydatid cyst prevalence with the increase of sample size and publication year (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study and the relatively high prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered livestock in Iran, health policy makers should make effective decisions in this regard, and implement careful inspections and interventions by experts and health authorities.


Asunto(s)
Equinococosis/epidemiología , Equinococosis/veterinaria , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Irán/epidemiología , Ganado , Prevalencia , Ovinos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología , Zoonosis/epidemiología
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(2): 120-126, 2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008357

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To understand the morbidity due to Schistosoma japonicum in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2015 to 2019, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control and elimination and provide the scientific evidence for formulating the new scheme for schistosomiasis surveillance in China. METHODS: According to the requirements of National Scheme for Schistosomiasis Surveillance in China (2014 Edition), national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) and the potential endemic counties (cities, districts) in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas, and S. japonicum infections were monitored in local residents, mobile populations and livestock according to different epidemic types. The sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections, adjusted prevalence of human S. japonicum infections, characteristics of egg-positive individuals and prevalence of S. japonicum infections livestock were analyzed. RESULTS: S. japonicum infections were monitored in 453 schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) from 13 provinces (municipalities, autonomous regions) and 4 potential endemic counties (cities, districts) from the Three Gorges Reservoir areas in China from 2015 to 2019. During the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019, the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections reduced from 3.35% to 1.63% among local residents and from 1.15% to 0.75% among mobile populations, while the adjusted prevalence of infections reduced from 0.05% to 0 among local residents and from 0.20% to 0.001 03% among mobile populations. There were significant differences in the sero-prevalence of S. japonicum infections among local residents and mobile populations in terms of province, occupation and age (all P values < 0.05). A total of 132 egg-positives were identified during the 5-year period, including 97 local residents (inter-quartile range for ages, 47 to 61 years), and 35 mobile populations (inter-quartile range for ages, 26 to 48 years), and there was a significant difference in the age distribution between local residents and mobile populations (P < 0.05). There were totally 6 bovines (5 in 2015 and 1 in 2016) identified with S. japonicum infections in national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China, with no S. japonicum infections detected in bovines from 2017 to 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of schistosomiasis is very low in China. Further surveillance including more mobile surveillance sites seems justified to identify the risk of schistosomiasis as soon as possible and interrupt the transmission route, so as to facilitate the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.


Asunto(s)
Esquistosomiasis Japónica , Esquistosomiasis , Adulto , Animales , Bovinos , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Humanos , Ganado , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Caracoles
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(2): 195-199, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008368

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Zhejiang Province, so as to provide the scientific evidence for formulating the new schistosomiasis surveillance program and consolidating schistosomiasis elimination achievements. METHODS: A total of 54 to 55 national surveillance sites and 6 risk monitoring sites were assigned in historical endemic regions of Zhejiang Province from 2015 to 2019, where the Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans, livestock, snails and wild feces were monitored. All data pertaining to the surveillance results were descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: There were 34 530 person-time local residents receiving serological screening for S. japonicum infections in national surveillance sites of Zhejiang Province from 2015 to 2019, and the seroprevalance of S. japonicum infections were 0.29% to 0.68%; however, no egg-positives were detected. During the period from 2015 to 2019, there were 62 086 person-time mobile populations receiving serological screening for S. japonicum infections in national surveillance sites of Zhejiang Province, and the seroprevalance of S. japonicum infections were 0.32% to 0.56%; additionally, there were 27 egg-positives identified, including 3 imported cases with schistosomiasis haematobia and one case with acute schistosomiasis japonica, indicating that the adjusted prevalence of Schistosoma infections were 0.01% to 0.07% among mobile populations. A total of 829 livestock were examined for S. japonicum infections, with no positives detected. There were 10.55 hm2 and 2.89 hm2 snail habitats found in national surveillance sites and risk monitoring sites of Zhejiang Province during the 5-year period, respectively; however, no S. japonicum infections were identified in snails. Moreover, a total of 305 wild feces were tested for S. japonicum infections, and no egg-positives were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The schistosomiasis elimination achievement have been consolidated in Zhejiang Province; however, the risk factors of re-emerging schistosomiasis have not been completely eliminated, such as residual snails and imported schistosomiasis cases. Further surveillance and control activities of snails and the source of S. japonicum infections should be reinforced.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Endémicas , Esquistosomiasis Japónica , Animales , China/epidemiología , Ecosistema , Humanos , Ganado , Schistosoma , Esquistosomiasis Japónica/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis Japónica/prevención & control , Esquistosomiasis Japónica/veterinaria
7.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(2): 200-204, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008369

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in national surveillance sites of Sichuan Province, so as to provide the scientific evidence for formulating the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. METHODS: From 2015 to 2019, 63 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites were assigned in Sichuan Province, in which Schistosoma japonicum infections were monitored in humans, livestock, wild feces and snails. The monitoring data were descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 94 119 person-time local residents were serologically screened for S. japonicum infections in 63 national surveillance sites of Sichuan Province from 2015 to 2019, with sero-prevalence rates ranging from 1.28% to 3.11%, and the sero-positives were predominantly detected in local residents at ages of over 50 years and in farmers. A total of 94 119 person-time mobile populations were serologically screened for S. japonicum infections in the national surveillance sites during the 5-year period, with sero-prevalence of 1.10% to 1.59%. There were no egg-positives identified in either local residents or mobile populations. Among the 6 126 herd-time livestock detected, no egg-positives were identified, and no S. japonicum infection was detected in the 205 wild feces. Snail survey was performed covering an area of 8 484.08 hm2, and 724.80 hm2 snail habitats were identified, including 2.43 hm2 emerging snail habitats and 63.00 hm2 re-emerging snail habitats. The mean occurrence of frames with snails was 6.87% to 19.63%, and the mean density of living snails was 0.18 to 0.62 snails/0.1 m2 in the national surveillance sites of Sichuan Province from 2015 to 2019; however, no S. japonicum infection was detected in snails. CONCLUSIONS: The endemic situation of schistosomiasis has reduced to the lowest level in Sichuan Province; however, there is a rise in snail habitats, and there is still a risk of schistosomiasis resurgence. Further improvements of the surveillance system for schistosomiasis are required to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in Sichuan Province as soon as possible.


Asunto(s)
Esquistosomiasis Japónica , Esquistosomiasis , Animales , China/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas , Humanos , Ganado , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Esquistosomiasis Japónica/epidemiología , Caracoles
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 497, 2021 May 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049499

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: African tick bite fever (ATBF) caused by Rickettsia africae and transmitted by Amblyomma spp. ticks is one of the zoonotic tick-borne fevers from the spotted fever group (SFG) of rickettsiae, which is an emerging global health concern. There is paucity of information regarding the occurrence and awareness of the disease in endemic rural livestock farming communities living in livestock-wildlife interface areas in South Africa. METHODS: The purpose of the study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices on ticks and ATBF infection from a community living in livestock-wildlife interface areas in South Africa. A focus group discussion (FGD) was carried out followed by verbal administration of a standardized semi-structured questionnaire a month later to 38 rural livestock farmers (23 from Caquba area and 15 from Lucingweni area where A. hebraeum was absent). An FGD was conducted in Caquba (situated at the livestock-wildlife interface where Amblyomma hebraeum was prevalent on cattle and infected with Rickettsia africae) in the O.R. Tambo district of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. RESULTS: Results from the FGD and questionnaire survey showed that participants from the two rural communities were not aware of ATBF and were not aware that ticks are vectors of the disease. Respondents from Caquba reported of having frequent exposure to tick bites (91.3%, 21/23) specifically from the anthropophilic A. hebrauem which they were able to identify as Qwelagqibe in IsiXhosa (their vernacular). Thirteen out of 15 (86.7%) of respondents from Lucingweni reported that they had never been bitten by ticks, which corresponded with the absence of A. hebraeum from their locality as evidenced from results of a concurrent study on prevalence of ticks on livestock in the area. Both communities confirmed to being "very concerned" of tick bites and we presume this was more related to the localized wounds from the bites than to the diseases transmitted by the ticks. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend future studies encompassing seroprevalence of ATBF in Caquba and other communities at risk in South Africa including establishing surveillance systems to monitor the seasonal infection rates in ticks, cattle and humans.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Mordeduras y Picaduras de Insectos/prevención & control , Rickettsia , Rickettsiosis Exantemáticas/prevención & control , Enfermedades por Picaduras de Garrapatas/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Bovinos , Femenino , Grupos Focales/métodos , Humanos , Mordeduras y Picaduras de Insectos/microbiología , Ganado/microbiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Población Rural , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Rickettsiosis Exantemáticas/microbiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Enfermedades por Picaduras de Garrapatas/microbiología , Garrapatas/microbiología , Adulto Joven
9.
J Environ Manage ; 291: 112693, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962281

RESUMEN

Sustainable development in agriculture brings both environmental and economic benefits. Contemporary agriculture is also about increasing nutrient use efficiency, especially nitrogen, as the critical nutrient causing the most significant environmental pressure. This creates the need to produce highly digestible protein feed with high bioavailability, reducing losses of biogenic elements to feces. In this review, the latest trends and the potential for their implementation in sustainable agriculture have been compared, as well as the need to reduce the negative environmental impact of agriculture has been demonstrated. Applying local protein sources to feed animals reduces greenhouse gas emissions associated with transportation. The production of highly digestible fodder leads to a reduction in environmental pollution caused by excessive nitrogen outflows. Another approach indecreasing ammonia emissions from livestock farming is feed protein reduction and amino acid supplementation. All of the aforementioned approaches may result in beneficial long-term changes, contributing to environmental safety, animal welfare and human health.


Asunto(s)
Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Nitrógeno , Agricultura , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Ambiente , Humanos , Ganado
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1950): 20210190, 2021 05 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975474

RESUMEN

The early detection of health disorders is a central goal in livestock production. Thus, a great demand for technologies enabling the automated detection of such issues exists. However, despite decades of research, precision livestock farming (PLF) technologies with sufficient accuracy and ready for implementation on commercial farms are rare. A central factor impeding technological development is likely the use of non-specific indicators for various issues. On commercial farms, where animals are exposed to changing environmental conditions, where they undergo different internal states and, most importantly, where they can be challenged by more than one issue at a time, such an approach leads inevitably to errors. To improve the accuracy of PLF technologies, the presented framework proposes a categorization of the aim of detection of issues related to general welfare, disease and distress and defined disease. Each decision level provides a different degree of information and therefore requires indicators varying in specificity. Based on these considerations, it becomes apparent that while most technologies aim to detect a defined health issue, they facilitate only the identification of issues related to general welfare. To achieve detection of specific issues, new indicators such as rhythmicity patterns of behaviour or physiological processes should be examined.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Animal , Ganado , Agricultura , Animales , Granjas , Tecnología
12.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(3): 299-310, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906992

RESUMEN

Animal disease surveillance encompasses systematic collection of long-term data on disease events, risk factors and other relevant parameters followed by analyzing the same with reference to temporal and spatial characteristics to arrive at a conclusion so that necessary preventive measures can be taken. In India, the animal disease surveillance is done through National Animal Disease Reporting System, which is a web-based information technology system for disease reporting from States and Union Territories with the aim to record, monitor livestock disease situation and to initiate the preventive and curative action in a swift manner during disease emergencies. National Animal Disease Referral Expert System is a dynamic geographic information system and remote sensing-enabled expert system that captures an incidence of 13 economically important livestock diseases from all over the country and also provides livestock disease forecasting. The laboratories under State and Central governments, several research institutes under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and veterinary colleges are involved in livestock disease diagnosis including zoonotic diseases. An integrated surveillance system is necessary for early detection of emerging/zoonotic diseases in humans. This review provides information on disease reporting and surveillance systems in animal health sector and the need for One Health approach to improve and strengthen the zoonotic disease surveillance system in India.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Animales , Salud Única , Enfermedades de los Animales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Animales/epidemiología , Animales , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Ganado , Vigilancia de la Población , Zoonosis
13.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(3): 394-400, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907004

RESUMEN

Background & objectives: Anthrax is a zoonotic disease of public health concern in India. One of the key predisposing factors is linked to the behaviour of the community. This study was nested within a baseline survey to understand the risk perception, attitude, socio-cultural and behavioural practices among different communities in an anthrax endemic tribal district of Odisha, India. It was aimed to explore the systemic gaps from the officials of different departments while addressing the animal and human anthrax cases and the knowledge, attitude, and behavioural practices among the tribal communities with regards to both animal and human anthrax signs, symptoms, and transmission from animal to human. Methods: A qualitative exploratory study was carried out in the district of Koraput, Odisha. Insights from eight focus group discussions (FGDs) and 42 in-depth-interviews (IDIs) with the stakeholders from health, veterinary, forest, general administrative departments and community were collected and analyzed thematically. Results: Major themes that emerged were inter-departmental coordination, livestock vaccination, surveillance network, laboratory facilities, prevention and control strategies with regards to the animal and human anthrax cases. The study also emphasized setting up the surveillance system as per the standard guidelines, and strengthening the diagnostic facilities for timely detection of confirmed cases. It also highlighted the current needs and the gaps among inter-sectoral coordination, collaboration, and sensitization among Health, Veterinary, Forest, Education, Nutrition, and Tribal Welfare Departments at various levels to reduce the prevalence and control the outbreaks of anthrax in the district and State. Interpretation & conclusions: The coordination gaps, financial burden, insufficient relevant knowledge and information among the concerned stakeholders were the issues found in this study in addition to non-availability of proper diagnostic facility. The coordination among different departments adapting One Health approach may be one of the best possible ways for the elimination of anthrax cases in an endemic region.


Asunto(s)
Carbunco , Salud Única , Animales , Carbunco/epidemiología , Carbunco/prevención & control , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Ganado , Zoonosis/epidemiología
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(8)2021 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920437

RESUMEN

Understanding the behaviour of grazing animals at pasture is crucial in order to develop management strategies that will increase the potential productivity of grazing systems and simultaneously decrease the negative impact on the environment. The objective of this review was to summarize and analyse the scientific literature that has addressed the site use preference of grazing cattle using global positioning systems (GPS) collars in the past 21 years (2000-2020) to aid the development of more sustainable grazing livestock systems. The 84 studies identified were undertaken in several regions of the world, in diverse production systems, under different climate conditions and with varied methodologies and animal types. This work presents the information in categories according to the main findings reviewed, covering management, external and animal factors driving animal movement patterns. The results showed that some variables, such as stocking rate, water and shade location, weather conditions and pasture (terrain and vegetation) characteristics, have a significant impact on the behaviour of grazing cattle. Other types of bio-loggers can be deployed in grazing ruminants to gain insights into their metabolism and its relationship with the landscape they utilise. Changing management practices based on these findings could improve the use of grasslands towards more sustainable and productive livestock systems.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Ganado , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Bovinos , Rumiantes , Agua , Tiempo (Meteorología)
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(8)2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924135

RESUMEN

This paper presents a water intake monitoring system for animal agriculture that tracks individual animal watering behavior, water quality, and water consumption. The system is deployed in an outdoor environment to reach remote areas. The proposed system integrates motion detectors, cameras, water level sensors, flow meters, Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) systems, and water temperature sensors. The data collection and control are performed using Arduino microcontrollers with custom-designed circuit boards. The data associated with each drinking event are water consumption, water temperature, drinking duration, animal identification, and pictures. The data and pictures are automatically stored on Secure Digital (SD) cards. The prototypes are deployed in a remote grazing site located in Tucumcari, New Mexico, USA. The system can be used to perform water consumption and watering behavior studies of both domestic animals and wild animals. The current system automatically records the drinking behavior of 29 cows in a two-week duration in the remote ranch.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Ganado , Animales , Conducta Animal , Bovinos , Ingestión de Líquidos , Femenino , Calidad del Agua
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801224

RESUMEN

Measurements of ammonia with inexpensive and reliable sensors are necessary to obtain information about e.g., ammonia emissions. The concentration information is needed for mitigation technologies and documentation of existing technologies in agriculture. A flow-based fluorescence sensor to measure ammonia gas was developed. The automated sensor is robust, flexible and made from inexpensive components. Ammonia is transferred to water in a miniaturized scrubber with high transfer efficiency (>99%) and reacts with o-phthalaldehyde and sulfite (pH 11) to form a fluorescent adduct, which is detected with a photodiode. Laboratory calibrations with standard gas show good linearity over a dynamic range from 0.03 to 14 ppm, and the detection limit of the analyzer based on three-times the standard deviation of blank noise was approximately 10 ppb. The sampling frequency is 0.1 to 10 s, which can easily be changed through serial commands along with UV LED current and filter length. Parallel measurements with a cavity ring-down spectroscopy analyzer in a pig house show good agreement (R2 = 0.99). The fluorescence sensor has the potential to provide ammonia gas measurements in an agricultural environment with high time resolution and linearity over a broad range of concentrations.


Asunto(s)
Amoníaco , Ganado , Agricultura , Animales , Análisis Espectral , Porcinos
17.
Environ Pollut ; 282: 116976, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839615

RESUMEN

The industrial production of insects for waste management or as a protein source is becoming vital to our society. Large volumes of manure are produced by concentrated animal facilities around the globe that must be managed, utilized, and disposed of properly. Flies offer a partial solution with their abilities to reduce these wastes and heavy metal pollutants. Meat and crop proteins are being supplemented by insect proteins for many feeds across the globe, yet science-based studies behind the mass-rearing of insects are still in their infancy. In the current study, the percent change in the composition of nutrients, heavy metals, and fiber, in dairy, poultry, and swine manure degraded by either black soldier fly (BSF) or house fly (HF) larvae was explored. Pre-digested and post-digested manure samples were collected from four independent studies that differed in production scale (number of larvae and feeding regimen): 1) BSF small-scale (100 larvae fed incrementally), 2) HF small-scale (100 larvae fed incrementally), 3) BSF large-scale (10,000 larvae fed a single time), and 4) HF large-scale (4,000 larvae fed a single time). Results indicate that nitrogen is a key nutrient impacted by larval digestion of manure by both species, regardless of scale. However, scale significantly impacted reductions of other nutrients, as did the type of manure in which the insects were reared. Ultimately, this study demonstrated that manure type and rearing scale impact the ability of BSF and HF larvae to reduce nutrients and heavy metals in manure, and thus insect management procedures need to be congruent with production emphases of the insects for waste management or protein products. Failure to take scale into consideration could lead to inaccurate assumptions related to industrialized efforts on this topic.


Asunto(s)
Dípteros , Moscas Domésticas , Muscidae , Animales , Larva , Ganado , Estiércol , Nutrientes , Porcinos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805113

RESUMEN

According to Darwin's theory, endless evolution leads to a revolution. One such example is the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system, an adaptive immunity system in most archaea and many bacteria. Gene editing technology possesses a crucial potential to dramatically impact miscellaneous areas of life, and CRISPR-Cas represents the most suitable strategy. The system has ignited a revolution in the field of genetic engineering. The ease, precision, affordability of this system is akin to a Midas touch for researchers editing genomes. Undoubtedly, the applications of this system are endless. The CRISPR-Cas system is extensively employed in the treatment of infectious and genetic diseases, in metabolic disorders, in curing cancer, in developing sustainable methods for fuel production and chemicals, in improving the quality and quantity of food crops, and thus in catering to global food demands. Future applications of CRISPR-Cas will provide benefits for everyone and will save countless lives. The technology is evolving rapidly; therefore, an overview of continuous improvement is important. In this review, we aim to elucidate the current state of the CRISPR-Cas revolution in a tailor-made format from its discovery to exciting breakthroughs at the application level and further upcoming trends related to opportunities and challenges including ethical concerns.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edición Génica/métodos , Ingeniería Genética/métodos , Animales , Archaea/metabolismo , Bacterias/metabolismo , Repeticiones Palindrómicas Cortas Agrupadas y Regularmente Espaciadas , Productos Agrícolas/genética , Ingeniería Genética/historia , Genoma , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Ganado
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 120, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912290

RESUMEN

Introduction: anthrax is endemic in some parts of Kenya causing mortalities in livestock and morbidity in humans. On January 20th, 2018, news media reported suspected anthrax in a remote southern Kenyan village after villagers became ill following consumption of meat from a dead cow that was confirmed, by microscopy, to have died of anthrax. We assessed community knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) to identify intervention gaps for anthrax prevention. Methods: we conducted a KAP survey in randomly selected households (HHs) in villages from selected wards. Using multi-stage sampling approach, we administered structured questionnaire to persons aged ≥15 years to collect KAP information from February 11th-21st, 2018. From a set of questions for KAP, we scored participants' response as "1" for a correct response and "0" for an incorrect response. Univariate analysis and Chi-square tests were performed to explore determinants of KAP. Concurrently, we gathered qualitative data using interview guides for thematic areas on anthrax KAP from key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Qualitative data were transcribed in Ms Word and analyzed along themes by content analysis. Results: among 334 respondents: 187/334 (56%) were male; mean age, 40.7±13.6 years; 331/334 (99.1%) had heard of anthrax and 304/331 (91.8%) knew anthrax to be zoonotic. Transmission was considered to be through eating dead-carcasses by 273/331 (82.5%) and through contact with infected tissue by 213/331 (64.4%). About 59% (194/329) regularly vaccinated their livestock against anthrax, 53.0% (174/328) had slaughtered or skinned a dead-animal and 59.5% (195/328) practiced home slaughter while 52.9% (172/325) treated sick-animals by themselves. Sex (p≤0.001), age (p=0.007) and livestock-rearing years (p≤0.001) were significantly associated with knowledge and practice. Conclusion: there were differences in knowledge and practices towards anthrax by age-group and sex. Enhanced public health education and targeted interventions by relevant government agencies is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra el Carbunco/administración & dosificación , Carbunco/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Animales , Carbunco/epidemiología , Carbunco/veterinaria , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Ganado , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven , Zoonosis/epidemiología
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 333: 125069, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894445

RESUMEN

Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) contamination has been considered as a worldwide environmental and health concern in recent decades. This paper reviewed the variability of contents of VAs and their release from the animal breeding industry into the surrounding environment along with the performance of the manure treatment technologies. The data collected revealed that VAs were mostly excreted in animal feces and observed in manure, soil, water, and sediment. The findings illustrate the disparity of VAs in excretion rates, consumption, and their residues in the environment with relatively high distribution for tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, and sulfonamides. Anaerobic digestion has a capacity to remove of 73% VAs while manure composting and constructed wetlands can remove 84.7%, and 90% VAs. Due to the profound effect of antibiotics on the environment, further research and intensive management strategies for livestock manure need to be designed to improve the removal efficiency and manure management technologies.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Estiércol , Animales , Antibacterianos , Ganado , Tetraciclinas
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