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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1201-1205, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754992
2.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 67(7): 796-804, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812389

RESUMEN

Wet markets are a critical part of South-East Asian culture and economy. However, their role in circulation and transmission of both endemic and emerging disease is a source of concern in a region considered a hotspot of disease emergence. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos), live and dead wild animals are frequently found in wet markets, despite legislation against the bushmeat trade. This is generally considered to increase the risk of disease transmission and emergence, although whether or not wildlife vendors themselves have indeed increased incidence of zoonotic disease has rarely been assessed. In preparation for a future longitudinal study of market vendors investigating vendors' exposure to zoonotic pathogens, we conducted a pilot survey of Lao market vendors of wildlife meat, livestock meat and vegetables, to identify demographic characteristics and potential control groups within markets. We also investigated baseline risk perception for infectious diseases among market vendors and assessed the association between risk perception and risk mitigation behaviours. The surveys conducted with 177 vendors revealed similar age, sex, ethnic background and geographical origin between vendor types, but differences in professional background and work history for livestock meat vendors. The perception of disease risk was very low across all vendors, as was the reported use of personal protective equipment, and the two appeared unrelated. Personal risk discounting and assumptions about transmission routes may explain this lack of association. This information will help inform the development of future research, risk communication and risk mitigation policy, especially in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/virología , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Zoonosis/transmisión , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Laos/epidemiología , Ganado/virología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Carne/virología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/virología
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235969, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645097

RESUMEN

Decisions surrounding the presence of infectious diseases are typically made in the face of considerable uncertainty. However, the development of models to guide these decisions has been substantially constrained by computational difficulty. This paper focuses on the case of finding the optimal level of surveillance against a highly infectious animal disease where time, space and randomness are fully considered. We apply the Sample Average Approximation approach to solve our problem, and to control model dimension, we propose the use of an infection tree model, in combination with sensible 'tree-pruning' and parallel processing techniques. Our proposed model and techniques are generally applicable to a number of disease types, but we demonstrate the approach by solving for optimal surveillance levels against foot-and-mouth disease using bulk milk testing as an active surveillance protocol, during an epidemic, among 42,279 farms, fully characterised by their location, livestock type and size, in the state of Victoria, Australia.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/patogenicidad , Fiebre Aftosa/diagnóstico , Fiebre Aftosa/prevención & control , Ganado/virología , Modelos Teóricos , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Medición de Riesgo/normas , Animales , Australia/epidemiología , Fiebre Aftosa/epidemiología , Fiebre Aftosa/transmisión
4.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 20, 2020 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434544

RESUMEN

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals. Six (out of 7 that have been identified) different serotypes of the FMD virus continue to circulate in different parts of the world. Within each serotype there is also extensive diversity as the virus constantly changes. Vaccines need to be "matched" to the outbreak strain, not just to the serotype, to confer protection. Vaccination has been used successfully to assist in the eradication of the disease from Europe but is no longer employed there unless outbreaks occur. Thus the animal population in Europe, as in North America, is fully susceptible to the virus if it is accidentally (or deliberately) introduced. Almost 3 billion doses of the vaccine are made each year to control the disease elsewhere. Current vaccines are produced from chemically inactivated virus that has to be grown, on a large scale, under high containment conditions. The vaccine efficiently prevents disease but the duration of immunity is rather limited (about 6 months) and vaccination does not provide sterile immunity or block the development of carriers. Furthermore, the vaccine is quite unstable and a cold chain needs to be maintained to preserve the efficacy of the vaccine. This can be a challenge in the parts of the world where the disease is endemic. There is a significant interest in developing improved vaccines and significant progress in this direction has been made using a variety of approaches. However, no alternative vaccines are yet available commercially. Improved disease control globally is clearly beneficial to all countries as it reduces the risk of virus incursions into disease free areas.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Aftosa/prevención & control , Vacunación/veterinaria , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/normas , Animales , Fiebre Aftosa/virología , Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/inmunología , Ganado/virología , Vacunación/normas , Vacunación/tendencias
5.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(6): 393-405, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374208

RESUMEN

Problem: The emergence of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, in November 2019 and a growing body of information compel inquiry regarding the transmissibility of infection between humans and certain animal species. Although there are a number of issues to be considered, the following points are most urgent: The potential for domesticated (companion) animals to serve as a reservoir of infection contributing to continued human-to-human disease, infectivity, and community spread. The ramifications to food security, economy, and trade issues should coronavirus establish itself within livestock and poultry. The disruption to national security if SARS-CoV-2 and its fairly well-established effects on smell (hyposmia/anosmia) to critical military service animals including explosive detector dog, narcotics detector dog, specialized search dog, combat tracker dog, mine detection dog, tactical explosive detector dog, improvised explosive device detector dog, patrol explosive detector dog, and patrol narcotics detector dog, as well as multipurpose canines used by special operations such as used by the U.S. customs and border protection agency (e.g., Beagle Brigade). This article presents in chronological order data that both individually (as received independently from multiple countries) and collectively urge studies that elucidate the following questions. 1.What animal species can be infected with SARS-CoV-2, the likely sources of infection, the period of infectivity, and transmissibility between these animals and to other animal species and humans? 2.What are the best diagnostic tests currently available for companion animals and livestock? 3.What expressions of illness in companion and other animal species can serve as disease markers? Although it is recognized that robust funding and methodology need to be identified to apply the best scientific investigation into these issues, there may be easily identifiable opportunities to capture information that can guide decision and study. First, it may be possible to quickly initiate a data collection strategy using in-place animal gatekeepers, such as zookeepers, veterinarians, kennel owners, feed lots, and military animal handlers. If provided a simple surveillance form, their detection of symptoms (lethargy, hyposmia, anosmia, and others) might be quickly reported to a central data collection site if one were created. Second, although current human COVID-19 disease is aligning around areas of population density and cluster events, it might be possible to overlay animal species density or veterinary reports that could signal some disease association in animals with COVID-19 patients. Unfortunately, although companion animals and zoo species have repeatedly served as sentinels for emerging infectious diseases, they do not currently fall under the jurisdiction of any federal agency and are not under surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Pandemias/veterinaria , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/veterinaria , Zoonosis/transmisión , Animales , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/veterinaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/patología , Enfermedades de los Perros/virología , Perros , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Ganado/virología , Evaluación de Necesidades , Trastornos del Olfato/veterinaria , Trastornos del Olfato/virología , Pandemias/historia , Mascotas/virología , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Zoonosis/virología
6.
PLoS Biol ; 18(4): e3000673, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343693

RESUMEN

The mechanisms underlying virus emergence are rarely well understood, making the appearance of outbreaks largely unpredictable. Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8), an arthropod-borne virus of ruminants, emerged in livestock in northern Europe in 2006, spreading to most European countries by 2009 and causing losses of billions of euros. Although the outbreak was successfully controlled through vaccination by early 2010, puzzlingly, a closely related BTV-8 strain re-emerged in France in 2015, triggering a second outbreak that is still ongoing. The origin of this virus and the mechanisms underlying its re-emergence are unknown. Here, we performed phylogenetic analyses of 164 whole BTV-8 genomes sampled throughout the two outbreaks. We demonstrate consistent clock-like virus evolution during both epizootics but found negligible evolutionary change between them. We estimate that the ancestor of the second outbreak dates from the height of the first outbreak in 2008. This implies that the virus had not been replicating for multiple years prior to its re-emergence in 2015. Given the absence of any known natural mechanism that could explain BTV-8 persistence over this long period without replication, we hypothesise that the second outbreak could have been initiated by accidental exposure of livestock to frozen material contaminated with virus from approximately 2008. Our work highlights new targets for pathogen surveillance programmes in livestock and illustrates the power of genomic epidemiology to identify pathways of infectious disease emergence.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Lengua Azul/fisiología , Lengua Azul/virología , Genoma Viral , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Lengua Azul/epidemiología , Virus de la Lengua Azul/genética , Brotes de Enfermedades , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Francia , Ganado/virología , Mutación , Filogenia
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 243: 108614, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273026

RESUMEN

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which severely decreases livestock productivity. FMD virus (FMDV), the causative agent, initiates infection by interaction with integrin cellular receptors on pharyngeal epithelium cells, causing clinical signs one to four days after transmission to a susceptible host. However, some Southern African Territories (SAT) viruses have been reported to cause mild or subclinical infections that may go undiagnosed in field conditions and are likely to be more common than previously expected. The studies presented here demonstrate that not all SAT2 viruses are equally virulent in cattle. The two SAT2 viruses, ZIM/5/83 and ZIM/7/83, were both highly attenuated in cattle, as evidenced by the mild clinical signs observed after needle challenge, while two incongruent SAT2 viruses showed significantly different clinical signs in challenged cattle. We then explored the ability of the SAT2 viruses to infect different cell types with defined receptors that are utilised by FMDV and found differences in their ability to lyse cells in culture and to compete in a controlled cell culture environment. The population sequence variation between ZIM/5/83 and ZIM/7/83 revealed multiple sites of single nucleotide variants of low frequency between the predominant virus populations, as could be expected from the genome of an RNA virus. An assessment of the biophysical stability of SAT2 virions during acidification indicated that the SAT2 virus EGY/09/12 was more resilient to acidification than the ZIM/5/83 and ZIM/7/83 viruses; however, whether this difference relates to differences in virulence in vivo is unclear. This study is a consolidated view of the key findings of SAT2 viruses studied over a 14-year period involving many different experiments.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/genética , Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/patogenicidad , Fiebre Aftosa/virología , Variación Genética , Fenotipo , África Austral , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Línea Celular , Cricetinae , Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/clasificación , Aptitud Genética , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Ganado/virología , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Serogrupo , Temperatura
8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 8(2)2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220263

RESUMEN

Zoonotic and livestock diseases are very important globally both in terms of direct impact on human and animal health and in terms of their relationship to the livelihood of farming communities, as they affect income generation and food security and have other, indirect consequences on human lives. More than two-thirds of emerging infectious diseases in humans today are known to be of animal origin. Bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that originate from animals, including hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens, such as livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA), invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella of animal origin, hyperviruent Clostridium difficile, and others, are of major significance to public health. Understanding the origin, risk factors, transmission, prevention, and control of such strains has been a challenge for various reasons, particularly due to the transdisciplinary partnership between and among human, environment, and animal health sectors. MDR bacteria greatly complicate the clinical management of human infections. Food animal farms, pets in communities, and veterinary hospital environments are major sources of such infections. However, attributing such infections and pinpointing sources requires highly discriminatory molecular methods as outlined in other parts of this curated series. Genotyping methods, such as multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and several others, have been used to decipher sources of foodborne and other zoonotic infectious diseases. In recent years, whole-genome-sequence-based approaches have been increasingly used for molecular epidemiology of diseases at the interface of humans, animals, and the environment. This part of the series highlights the major zoonotic and foodborne disease issues. *This article is part of a curated collection.


Asunto(s)
Ganado/microbiología , Ganado/virología , Epidemiología Molecular/métodos , Zoonosis/microbiología , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , Campylobacter , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Granjas , Técnicas de Genotipaje/métodos , Hospitales Veterinarios , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/genética , Salmonella/genética , Virosis/veterinaria , Virosis/virología
9.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 19(1): 4, 2020 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969141

RESUMEN

Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is an emerging zoonotic arbovirus with a complex cycle of transmission that makes difficult the prediction of its expansion. Recent outbreaks outside Africa have led to rediscover the human disease but it remains poorly known. The wide spectrum of acute and delayed manifestations with potential unfavorable outcome much complicate the management of suspected cases and prediction of morbidity and mortality during an outbreak. We reviewed literature data on bio-clinical characteristics and treatments of RVF human illness. We identified gaps in the field and provided a practical algorithm to assist clinicians in the cases assessment, determination of setting of care and prolonged follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Adhesión a Directriz , Fiebre del Valle del Rift , Animales , Vectores Artrópodos/virología , Bunyaviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Bunyaviridae/patogenicidad , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Humanos , Ganado/virología , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/diagnóstico , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/patología , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/terapia , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
10.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(4): 1595-1606, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984622

RESUMEN

The Southern African Territories (SAT)-type foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) are endemic to the greater Kruger National Park (KNP) area in South Africa, where they are maintained through persistent infections in African buffalo. The occurrence of FMDV within the Greater KNP area constitutes a continual threat to the livestock industry. To expand on knowledge of FMDV diversity, the genetic and antigenic relatedness of SAT2-type viruses isolated from cattle during a FMD outbreak in Mpumalanga Province in 2013 and 2014 were investigated. Cattle from twelve diptanks tested positive on polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and molecular epidemiological relationships of the viruses were determined by VP1 sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the SAT2 viruses from the FMD outbreak in Mpumalanga in 2013/2014 revealed their genetic relatedness to other SAT2 isolates from topotype I (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique), albeit genetically distinct from previous South African outbreak viruses (2011 and 2012) from the same topotype. The fifteen SAT2 field isolates clustered into a novel genotype with ≥98.7% nucleotide identity. High neutralization antibody titres were observed for four 2013/2014 outbreak viruses tested against the SAT2 reference antisera representative of viruses isolated from cattle and buffalo from South Africa (topotype I) and Zimbabwe (topotype II). Comparison of the antigenic relationship (r1 values) of the outbreak viruses with reference antisera indicated a good vaccine match with 90% of r1 values > 0.3. The r1 values for the 2013/2014 outbreak viruses were 0.4 and above for the three South African vaccine/reference strains. These results confirm the presence of genetic and antigenic variability in SAT2 viruses and suggest the emergence of new variants at the wildlife-livestock interface in South Africa. Continuous characterization of field viruses should be performed to identify new virus strains as epidemiological surveillance to improve vaccination efforts.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/virología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/aislamiento & purificación , Fiebre Aftosa/epidemiología , Animales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Variación Antigénica/inmunología , Búfalos/virología , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Fiebre Aftosa/virología , Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/genética , Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/inmunología , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Ganado/virología , Epidemiología Molecular , Pruebas de Neutralización , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Vacunación/veterinaria
11.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225250, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869335

RESUMEN

Vector borne diseases are a continuing global threat to both human and animal health. The ability of vectors such as mosquitos to cover large distances and cross country borders undetected provide an ever-present threat of pathogen spread. Many diseases can infect multiple vector species, such that even if the climate is not hospitable for an invasive species, indigenous species may be susceptible and capable of transmission such that one incursion event could lead to disease establishment in these species. Here we present a consensus modelling methodology to estimate the habitat suitability for presence of mosquito species in the UK deemed competent for Rift Valley fever virus (RVF) and demonstrate its application in an assessment of the relative risk of establishment of RVF virus in the UK livestock population. The consensus model utilises observed UK mosquito surveillance data, along with climatic and geographic prediction variables, to inform six independent species distribution models; the results of which are combined to produce a single prediction map. As a livestock host is needed to transmit RVF, we then combine the consensus model output with existing maps of sheep and cattle density to predict the areas of the UK where disease is most likely to establish in local mosquito populations. The model results suggest areas of high suitability for RVF competent mosquito species across the length and breadth of the UK. Notable areas of high suitability were the South West of England and coastal areas of Wales, the latter of which was subsequently predicted to be at higher risk for establishment of RVF due to higher livestock densities. This study demonstrates the applicability of outputs of species distribution models to help predict hot-spots for risk of disease establishment. While there is still uncertainty associated with the outputs we believe that the predictions are an improvement on just using the raw presence points from a database alone. The outputs can also be used as part of a multidisciplinary approach to inform risk based disease surveillance activities.


Asunto(s)
Distribución Animal , Ganado/virología , Modelos Teóricos , Mosquitos Vectores/virología , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/epidemiología , Virus de la Fiebre del Valle del Rift , Animales , Clima , Brotes de Enfermedades , Vectores de Enfermedades , Reino Unido
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(11): e0007774, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770384

RESUMEN

Urban livestock provides an important source of food and income, but it may increase the risks for disease transmission. Vectors, such as mosquitoes, might increase and thereby cause an enhanced transmission of infectious diseases, such as dengue fever; considered the most important mosquito-borne viral disease globally. This cross-sectional study evaluated the awareness of dengue fever and investigated how the presence of dengue vectors is affected by the keeping of livestock in urban households in the city of Hanoi, Vietnam. From February to March 2018, during the season of lowest occurrence of dengue in Hanoi, 140 households were interviewed, of which 69 kept livestock. A general trend was observed; respondents living in the Dan Phuong district, a peri-urban district, had better knowledge and practice regarding dengue as compared to the urban Ha Dong district. In total, 3899 mosquitoes were collected and identified, of which 52 (1.33%) were Aedes species. A significant difference between the two districts was observed, with more households in Ha Dong having Aedes spp. mosquitoes (p = 0.02) and a higher incidence of dengue fever (p = 0.001). There was no significant association between livestock-rearing and the presence of Aedes spp. mosquitoes (p = 0.955), or between livestock-rearing and the incidence of dengue fever (p = 0.08). In conclusion, this study could not find any indication that households keeping livestock were at higher risk of dengue virus infections in Hanoi during the season of lowest occurrence of dengue, but clearly indicated the need of more information provided to urban inhabitants, particularly on personal protection.


Asunto(s)
Dengue/epidemiología , Ganado/virología , Población Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Aedes/clasificación , Aedes/virología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Dengue/transmisión , Virus del Dengue , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mosquitos Vectores/virología , Estaciones del Año , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vietnam/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
13.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2258, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611874

RESUMEN

Pork has become the number one meat consumed worldwide. Meeting the demand for pork has forced the revolution of swine production from traditional husbandry practices that involved a few pigs or small herds to intensive concentration of swine raised in multisite production systems. This dramatic change has made the production of pork very efficient, but it has also changed the ecology of many swine diseases, may encourage the emergence of new diseases, and amplifies the economic impact of swine diseases. Sustained treatment of diseases in livestock production is not feasible making prevention of disease a priority. Prevention of livestock diseases involves eliminating exposure to pathogens and anti-viral strategies to prevent or reduce clinical disease. For some swine diseases, efficacious vaccines can be made, however, for other diseases the host/pathogen relationship is more complex and efficacious vaccines are not available. Given the increasing demand for pork, the development of new approaches to improve swine anti-viral immunity is critical. Rate-limiting steps to improving vaccines are understanding how the pathogen interacts with the host's immune system, any immunopathology resulting from such interactions and how the host's immune system resolves the infection. Solving this puzzle will require sustained research and may require new technologies to battle contemporary diseases now wreaking havoc in swine production systems around the world. This Special Issue will focus on current swine viral diseases that are the most challenging to the global production of pork with contributions focusing on anti-viral immunity.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/inmunología , Sistema Inmunológico/inmunología , Ganado/inmunología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Virosis/inmunología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Animales , Humanos , Ganado/virología , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Virosis/veterinaria
14.
Viruses ; 11(10)2019 09 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569721

RESUMEN

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a Culicoides-borne pathogen infecting both domestic and wild ruminants. In Europe, the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) (RD) is considered a potential BTV reservoir, but persistent sylvatic cycle has not yet been demonstrated. In this paper, we explored the dynamics of BTV1 and BTV8 serotypes in the RD in France, and the potential role of that species in the re-emergence of BTV8 in livestock by 2015 (i.e., 5 years after the former last domestic cases). We performed 8 years of longitudinal monitoring (2008-2015) among 15 RD populations and 3065 individuals. We compared Culicoides communities and feeding habits within domestic and wild animal environments (51,380 samples). Culicoides diversity (>30 species) varied between them, but bridge-species able to feed on both wild and domestic hosts were abundant in both situations. Despite the presence of competent vectors in natural environments, BTV1 and BTV8 strains never spread in RD along the green corridors out of the domestic outbreak range. Decreasing antibody trends with no PCR results two years after the last domestic outbreak suggests that seropositive young RD were not recently infected but carried maternal antibodies. We conclude that RD did not play a role in spreading or maintaining BTV in France.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/virología , Virus de la Lengua Azul/fisiología , Ceratopogonidae/virología , Ciervos/virología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Animales , Animales Domésticos/virología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Lengua Azul/epidemiología , Lengua Azul/transmisión , Lengua Azul/virología , Virus de la Lengua Azul/inmunología , Ceratopogonidae/clasificación , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Ganado/virología , Masculino , Rumiantes/virología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vectores/virología
15.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(12): 1824-1828, 2019 Dec 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564680

RESUMEN

Bovine enteroviruses (BEV) are members of Enterovirus genus of the family Picornaviridae. BEV1 has a broad host spectrum, including humans. The virus usually causes subclinical infection, but fatal/severe cases have also been reported in different animal species. There is quite limited data regarding BEV1 in humans. The purpose of this study is to investigate human infection and to identify possible risk factors for viral exposure. For this purpose, blood serum samples (n=1,526) were collected from a city center and nearby villagers simultaneously from humans and farm animals in Elazig province in Eastern Anatolia. As a result of serum neutralisation test, BEV1 specific antibody presence detected in cattle was 85.3% (163/191), 73.5% in donkeys (64/87), 71.8% in goats (115/160), 46.5% in sheep (93/200), 43.9% in horses (40/91), 41.3% in dogs (19/46) and 33% in humans (248/751). Although a high contamination potential was mentioned for people living in rural areas, it was determined that infection rates in rural areas (31.6%) and urban centers (32.2%) were very close. There was no difference according to sex. Viral exposure is higher in the 40 to 70 age range. In addition, the serological evidence of the infection in donkeys was identified for the first time with this study.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Enterovirus/epidemiología , Enterovirus Bovino/aislamiento & purificación , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Niño , Preescolar , Perros/virología , Infecciones por Enterovirus/veterinaria , Enterovirus Bovino/inmunología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Ganado/virología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Turquia/epidemiología
16.
Vaccine ; 37(43): 6285-6290, 2019 10 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526623

RESUMEN

Understanding factors that hinder vaccination, including logistical and social constraints, is critical to finding the most effective approach for the global eradication of peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Vaccination projects should analyze the supply chain and take it into consideration when planning and creating a vaccination strategy. Adequate supply chain management of the PPR vaccine could lead to reduced cost, increased availability, and the construction of a data platform for other livestock vaccines. Integrating the supply chain of PPR vaccine with other veterinary or health commodities could reduce cost, as well as increase uptake. The use of a thermostable vaccine could potentially have a positive impact on the eradication of PPR in remote areas, such as the Karamoja subregion in Uganda, as it did with rinderpest across Sub Saharan Africa. In terms of vaccine delivery, the use of community animal health workers (CAHWs) could be beneficial in certain areas, such as the Karamoja subregion of Uganda, by alleviating supply chain constraints in the last-mile delivery, as well as increasing coverage and uptake. A gendered approach to livestock vaccines should also be considered, as decision-making power regarding livestock vaccination is gendered in many various contexts. The PPR eradication strategy-as well as other livestock vaccination programs-would be more effective and efficient if the supply chain management were considered as a key component in the process and efforts tailored, accordingly.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad/métodos , Programas de Inmunización , Ganado/virología , Peste de los Pequeños Rumiantes/prevención & control , Vacunación/veterinaria , Vacunas Virales/provisión & distribución , Animales , Erradicación de la Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades de las Cabras/prevención & control , Enfermedades de las Cabras/virología , Cabras , Ovinos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/prevención & control , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/virología , Uganda , Vacunas Atenuadas/provisión & distribución
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 180-187, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383300

RESUMEN

Pestiviruses are widespread in the world among ungulates and infect both domestic and wild animals causing severe economic losses in livestock. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus type 1 (BVDV-1), now re-designated as Pestivirus A, causes diseases mainly in cattle, while few data are available about infection in wild ruminants and about the role of these animals in viral maintenance and spread. In order to investigate BVDV-1 infection in domestic and wild ruminants, especially at the wildlife/livestock interface, bulk tank milk from dairy cattle and sheep and spleen from red deer, roe deer and fallow deer were analysed. Furthermore, faecal samples from Apennine chamois and from wild deer were evaluated as a suitable sample for detecting and genotyping pestiviruses. BVDV-1 RNA was found in all animal species tested but not sheep. Genotyping based on partial 5'UTR and Npro sequences detected BVDV-1a in samples from Apennine chamois, red deer, roe deer and pasture-raised cattle, while BVDV-1c was found in a faecal sample from Apennine chamois and in a spleen sample from roe deer. For the first time BVDV-1 RNA was found and genotyped from faecal samples of wild ruminants and of cattle. BVDV-1a detection in Apennine chamois, red deer, roe deer and pasture-raised cattle suggests that the eventuality of viral transmission at the wildlife/livestock interface should be carefully evaluated. BVDV subgenotype 1c was found for the first time in roe deer and Apennine chamois in Central Italy, therefore the epidemiological role of these animals and the viral ecology should be further investigated.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/virología , Heces/virología , Ganado/virología , Infecciones por Pestivirus/veterinaria , Pestivirus/genética , Rumiantes/virología , Animales , Diarrea Mucosa Bovina Viral/virología , Bovinos/virología , Ciervos/virología , Virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina Tipo 1/genética , Virus de la Diarrea Viral Bovina/genética , Genotipo , Italia , Pestivirus/clasificación , Infecciones por Pestivirus/virología , Filogenia , Rupicapra/virología
18.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220738, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469850

RESUMEN

Vaccines remain one of the main tools to control infectious diseases in domestic livestock. Although a plethora of veterinary vaccines are on the market and routinely applied to protect animals against infection with particular pathogens, the disease in question often continues to persist, sometimes at high prevalence. The limited effectiveness of certain vaccines in the field leaves open questions regarding the required properties that an effective vaccine should have, as well as the most efficient vaccination strategy for achieving the intended goal of vaccination programmes. To date a systematic approach for studying the combined effects of different types of vaccines and vaccination strategies is lacking. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework for modelling the epidemiological consequences of vaccination with imperfect vaccines of various types, administered using different strategies to herds with different replacement rates and heterogeneity in vaccine responsiveness. Applying the model to the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), which despite routine vaccination remains one of the most significant endemic swine diseases worldwide, we then examine the influence of these diverse factors alone and in combination, on within-herd virus transmission. We derive threshold conditions for preventing infection invasion in the case of imperfect vaccines inducing limited sterilizing immunity. The model developed in this study has practical implications for the development of vaccines and vaccination programmes in livestock populations not only for PRRS, but also for other viral infections primarily transmitted by direct contact.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Respiratorio y de la Reproducción Porcina/prevención & control , Virus del Síndrome Respiratorio y Reproductivo Porcino/fisiología , Porcinos/virología , Vacunación/veterinaria , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico , Animales , Ganado/virología , Modelos Biológicos , Síndrome Respiratorio y de la Reproducción Porcina/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio y de la Reproducción Porcina/inmunología , Virus del Síndrome Respiratorio y Reproductivo Porcino/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/administración & dosificación
19.
Vaccine ; 37(36): 5288-5296, 2019 08 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353259

RESUMEN

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an infectious viral disease that affects the main meat and dairy production animals, including cattle, sheep, goats and swine. It is readily transmissible and countries where the disease is present suffer harsh international trade restrictions on livestock products and serious economic losses. Vaccines are important tools to contain outbreaks and maintain the status of free with or without vaccination, as defined by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). The efficacy of vaccines is reliant on the content and integrity of inactivated virus particles. The long-established method to quantify the viral content of vaccines along the manufacturing process and in the final product is the 140S sucrose density gradient analysis. This method has been a valuable tool for many decades. However, it requires gradient preparation for each sample, a lengthy ultracentrifugation and a manual UV reading of the gradient, rendering it highly operator dependent and almost impossible to automate. We present a method to quantify FMDV particles in vaccines and intermediate process samples that is based on separation of components by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) and measurement of virus by absorption at 254 nm. The method has been extensively validated; it is accurate, precise and linear. It is applicable to all FMDV strains and sample materials and has a good concordance with the 140S test. The proposed method uses off the shelf HPLC equipment and columns. It is easily automated for high throughput operation, affording a useful process analytical technology and a novel tool for control of final product by manufacturers and regulatory agencies.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/inmunología , Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/patogenicidad , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Bovinos , Cromatografía en Gel , Fiebre Aftosa/inmunología , Fiebre Aftosa/prevención & control , Ganado/inmunología , Ganado/virología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Ovinos , Porcinos , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico
20.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105106, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348897

RESUMEN

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious acute viral disease that causes severe economic losses to the affected countries. To estimate the serological prevalence of the local livestock to the natural infection with FMD virus, a cross-sectional study was conducted from 2015 to 2017 in Oman. Sera from 5807 randomly selected animals (1792 cattle, 2119 goats and 1896 sheep) belonging to 884 herds were tested for the presence of antibodies against 3ABC non-structural protein (NSP) of the FMD virus by a Competition ELISA. Prevalence along with confidence intervals (CI) and odds ratio (OR) was calculated, and the data were further analysed through univariable and multivariable techniques. The herd-level seroprevalence of NSP (41.4%) varied significantly among 11 governorates of Oman. At herd-level seroprevalence varied significantly among cattle (55.2%), goats (38.2%) and sheep (37.7%). At animal-level, the significantly higher prevalence was recorded in cattle (26.8%) followed by sheep (17.9%) and goats (17.3%). Binary logistic regression analysis at the individual level indicated that cattle (OR: 1.88), livestock above one year of age (OR: 3.47), imported breeds (OR: 1.82) and females (OR: 1.27) were the risk factors associated with higher prevalence. Whereas, sedentary (OR: 2.63) farming system, vaccination against FMD (OR: 5.98) and previous history of FMD (OR: 5.55) were the variables found associated with higher seroprevalence at the herd-level. We conclude that natural infection of FMDV is widespread in Oman and in future molecular typing of FMD virus outbreaks strains and vaccine matching studies should be employed to develop an effective control program in Oman.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Fiebre Aftosa/epidemiología , Ganado/virología , Animales , Bovinos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Fiebre Aftosa/prevención & control , Virus de la Fiebre Aftosa/inmunología , Cabras , Omán/epidemiología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Ovinos
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