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1.
Gene ; 806: 145928, 2022 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455027

RESUMEN

Cytochrome P450 Family 19 (CYP19) is a crucial enzyme to catalyze the conversion of androgens to estrogens. However, the regulatory mechanism of goose CYP19 gene remains poorly understood. The present study attempted to obtain the full-length coding sequence (CDS) and 5'-flanking sequence of CYP19 gene, to investigate its expression and distribution profiles in different sized follicles, and to analyze the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of CYP19 gene in goose. Results showed that its CDS consisted of 1512 nucleotides and the encoded amino acid sequence contained a classical P450 structural domain. Homology analysis showed that there were high homologies of nucleotide and amino acid sequences between goose and other avian species. Its promoter sequence spanned from -1925 bp to the transcription start site (ATG) and several transcriptional factors were predicted in this region. Further analysis from luciferase assay showed that the luciferase activity was the highest spanning from -118 to -1 bp by constructing deletion promoter reporter vector. In addition, result from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that the mRNA level of CYP19 gene were highly expressed in theca layer of the fifth largest follicle, and the cellular location was in the theca externa cells by immunohistochemistry. Taken together, it could be concluded that the transcription activity of CYP19 gene was activated by transcriptional factors in its proximal region of promoter to promote the synthesis of estrogens, regulating the selection of pre-hierarchical into hierarchical follicle in goose.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Aviares/genética , Familia 19 del Citocromo P450/genética , Gansos/genética , Regulación Enzimológica de la Expresión Génica , ARN Mensajero/genética , Transcripción Genética , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Proteínas Aviares/metabolismo , Familia 19 del Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Femenino , Gansos/clasificación , Regulación del Desarrollo de la Expresión Génica , Folículo Ovárico/citología , Folículo Ovárico/crecimiento & desarrollo , Folículo Ovárico/metabolismo , Filogenia , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Alineación de Secuencia , Homología de Secuencia de Aminoácido , Sitio de Iniciación de la Transcripción
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101452, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601444

RESUMEN

This study was conducted to investigate the potential effects of active immunization against recombinant-derived goose inhibin-α (INH-α), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), and prolactin (PRL) fusion protein on broodiness onset and egg production in geese. The purified fusion proteins (INH-α, AMH, and PRL) were prepared using a prokaryotic expression system. Female Zhedong geese (10 mo old) were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments and raised in separate pens. The geese were actively immunized with the recombinant goose INH-α, AMH, or PRL, respectively, and phosphate-buffered saline as control. The results showed the corresponding antibodies were produced when the geese were immune INH-α, AMH-, and PRL-recombinant proteins. The significantly higher luteinizing hormone contents were observed in the INH-α, AMH, and PRL recombinant protein-immunized geese, while the lower AMH hormone content only in PRL-immunized birds. AMH recombinant protein immunized geese had more large yellow follicles of ovary, while the INHα-treated birds with more other follicles compared with control geese. In addition, the geese receiving INH-α recombinant protein, the broodiness onset was about 6 d, which significantly shorter than did PBS immunization (16 d). The INHα- and PRL-immunization also resulted in 12.5 and 8.5 d shorter broody duration intervals compared to the control birds. Moreover, the lower new broodiness rate was observed in three recombinant proteins treated birds. Finally, the PRL recombinant protein-immunization resulted in an average increase of 1.34 eggs during a 40-d observation. Collectively, the data demonstrated that active immunization against recombinant proteins INH-α or AMH could promote LH hormone secretion, regulate follicle development and decrease the broodiness rate. Also, active immunization with a recombinant-derived goose PRL protein might improve egg laying performance.


Asunto(s)
Gansos , Prolactina , Animales , Hormona Antimülleriana , Pollos , Femenino , Inhibinas , Óvulo , Proteínas Recombinantes , Vacunación/veterinaria
3.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101473, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607154

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of various types of heat processing used by consumers (water bath cooking WBC, oven convection roasting OCR, grilling G, pan frying PF) on the energy and the nutritional value of goose breast meat (with and without skin). The material used in the study comprised 72 breast muscles cut from carcasses of 17-wk-old White Koluda geese. The energy value (MJ), the chemical composition (water, fat, protein, ash) and mineral composition (phosphorus P, sodium Na, calcium Ca, potassium K, magnesium Mg, iron Fe, zinc Zn, cooper Cu, manganese Mn) were determined in both raw and thermally processed muscles. It has been concluded that various methods of heat processing have a significant impact on the energy and nutritional values of meat. From a dietary point of view, the most beneficial was OCR meat without skin, and WBC, OCR, PF meat with skin as well, since it had the lowest energy value as well as content and retention of fat, phosphorus, and sodium. However, as for the content of the other minerals and their retention, WBC seems to be the optimal form of heat treatment of skinless muscles. 100 g of such meat provides 3.1; 33.7; 145; 180 and 9% Nutrient Reference Values-Requirements (NRVs-R) for Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Mn respectively in a diet of an adult person. As for meat with skin, the optimal method of heat processing to retain minerals is grilling. 100 g of meat processed in this way provides 3.9; 39.7; 125.7; 175; 6 and 12.7% NRVs-R of Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Mn. It follows from the above information that goose breast meat, as analyzed here, cannot be considered as a source of calcium since it provides less than 4% of NRVs-R. The results of the study will be useful for the consumers' nutritional choices. The geese breast meat, depending on the heat processing used and the content of skin, may be a valuable component of a varied diet, providing nutrients and minerals.


Asunto(s)
Gansos , Calor , Animales , Pollos , Carne/análisis , Minerales/análisis , Valor Nutritivo
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101450, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627020

RESUMEN

The first purpose of this study was to reveal the distribution of the angel wing (AW) of geese. Our data showed that the total incidence of AW was 6.67% in 150-day-old White Zhedong (ZD) geese, the occurrence of AW in left wing is higher than that in right wing and bilateral wing than unilateral wing (both P < 0.01). In 70-day-old Hybrid-Wanxi (HW) geese, the total incidence of AW was 8.86%, with similar incidence rate between unilateral and bilateral. The sex has not apparently affected the incidence of AW in both ZD and HW geese. To explore the potential relationship between wing type with body weight, organ index, bone characteristic, or blood biochemical parameters in 70-day-old HW geese. We found that the body weight and organ index were similar between normal wing (NW) and AW geese. The length for the humerus, metacarpal and phalanx, and the phalanx weights, as well as the angle between the humerus and the radial ulna (HRU) in NW geese were pronounced greater than that in AW geese (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the angel wing was strongly associated with lower platelet size indicators. Collectively, AW affected the wing bone length, phalanx weight, and HRU, and the occurrence of AW may be related with dysfunctional platelet activation in geese.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Gansos , Animales , Desarrollo Óseo , Incidencia
5.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500555

RESUMEN

The deterioration of food quality due to lipid oxidation is a serious problem in the food sector. Oxidation reactions adversely affect the physicochemical properties of food, worsening its quality. Lipid oxidation products are formed during the production, processing, and storage of food products. In the human diet, the sources of lipid oxidation products are all fat-containing products, including goose meat with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study aims at comparing the fatty acid profile of goose breast muscle lipids depending on the storage conditions: type of atmosphere, temperature, and storage time. Three-way variance analysis was used to evaluate changes in the fatty acids profile occurring in goose meat. The health aspect of fatty acid oxidation of goose meat is also discussed. In general, the fatty acid composition changed significantly during storage in the meat packed in the high-oxygen modified atmosphere at different temperatures (1 °C and 4 °C). Higher temperature led to a higher degree of lipid oxidation and nutrient loss. During the storage of samples in vacuum, no changes in the fatty acid content and dietary indices were found, regardless of the storage temperature, which indicates that the anaerobic atmosphere ensured the oxidative stability of goose meat during 11 days of refrigerated storage.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Gansos/metabolismo , Carne/análisis , Animales , Atmósfera , Dieta/métodos , Embalaje de Alimentos/métodos , Calidad de los Alimentos , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/fisiología , Lípidos/química , Oxidación-Reducción , Músculos Pectorales/metabolismo , Temperatura , Vacio
7.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101430, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525445

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nicotinic acid (NA) supplementation on the meat quality, carcass characteristics, lipid metabolism, and tibia parameters in Wulong geese. A total of 360 twenty-nine-day-old Wulong geese were randomly divided into 6 treatments, and each treatment included 6 pens with 10 birds per pen. Birds were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100 mg/kg NA for 12 wk. Dietary NA supplementation linearly decreased L* value and increased pH and water-holding capacity in the breast muscle (P < 0.05). Increasing NA levels linearly and quadratically decreased shear force of breast muscle (P < 0.001). Dietary NA supplementation linearly reduced the thickness of subcutaneous fat plus the skin and percentage of abdominal fat, and enhanced the width of intermuscular fat band (P < 0.001). Dietary NA addition linearly and quadratically increased intramuscular fat (IMF) content (P ≤ 0.001). Increasing NA levels decreased serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and increased serum lipase activity and hepatic mRNA expression of lipoprotein lipase in a linear manner (P < 0.05). There were linear and quadratic effects in serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and malate dehydrogenase activity with the NA addition (P < 0.05). Feeding the NA-supplemented-diets linearly increased tibia length, circumference, fat-free dry weight, and ash content (P < 0.001). There were linear and quadratic increases in Ca and P contents with the NA supplementation (P < 0.05). According to the quadratic regression analyses fitted to shear force, IMF content, serum triglycerides and HDL-C levels, and tibial Ca and P contents, the optimal dietary NA supplementation was 80 to 90 mg/kg. In conclusion, NA addition enhanced meat quality and IMF content, regulated lipid metabolism, and increased tibia quality of Wulong geese. The dosage of 80 mg/kg NA in Wulong geese aged 5 to 16 wk was recommended.


Asunto(s)
Gansos , Niacina , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Pollos , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Carne/análisis , Tibia
8.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101417, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530230

RESUMEN

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of stocking density on growth performance, feather quality, serum hormone, and intestinal development of geese from 1 to 14 d of age. A total of 450 one-day-old geese were randomly allotted to 45 battery cage (0.65 m × 0.62 m) pens according to 5 stocking densities (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 birds/m2). The results showed that ADG and ADFI were reduced (P < 0.05) as stocking density increased from 15 to 35 birds/m2, but increasing stocking density did not influence (P > 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and body measurement traits. High stocking density significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the feather quality of back, thoracoabdominal, wing, and tail. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was found in serum concentration of adrenocorticotrophic hormone, cortisol, corticosterone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. The weight of cecum and intestine decreased (P < 0.05) as the stocking density increased. Increasing stocking density decreased (P < 0.05) jejunal villus height and villus height-to-crypt depth ratio, and increased (P < 0.05) jejunal crypt depth and ileal crypt depth in geese. Consequently, the high stocking density could depress the growth and impaired feather quality and intestinal development of geese. Under our experimental conditions, we recommend that the stocking density of geese from 1 to 14 d of age should not more than 20 birds/m2.


Asunto(s)
Plumas , Gansos , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Pollos , Dieta , Triyodotironina
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101415, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534850

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of social rank (SR) on paternity efficiency (PE) in competitive mating flocks of geese. Thirty ganders and 150 geese (Zi geese, Anser cygnoides L.) aged approximately one, were divided into 3 groups. Flock 1 included 10 ganders and 50 female geese, flock 2 included 11 ganders and 55 female geese, and flock 3 included 9 ganders and 45 female geese. The frequency of the agonistic behavioral interactions (ABI) of the ganders and mating activity (MA) were video recorded in each flock. The SR of each gander was determined by the frequency of ABI with a score of 1 to 3 (1 being the dominant and 3 the most subordinate). To clarify the difference between being dominant and submissive, we collapsed rank 2 and rank 3 into a "subordinate" category. In total, 280 eggs were collected, and 219 goslings were hatched. Parent-offspring relationships among 399 individuals from the 2 generations were identified via 20 microsatellite markers, and the PE of each gander was calculated. There was no significant difference in individual body weight and semen quality factor among the different SR groups (dominant and subordinate), and the SR of the ganders was significantly correlated to PE for the 3 flocks. Goslings of high-ranking ganders contributed 48.68% in flock 1, 37.50% in flock 2, and 47.62% in flock 3. Approximately 45% of all goslings were sired by the 7 dominant ganders of the 30 total ganders across the 3 flocks. As SR has been shown to be heritable in geese, the selection of high-ranking ganders might be an effective way to improve reproductive efficiency in commercial geese flocks.


Asunto(s)
Gansos , Análisis de Semen , Animales , Pollos , Femenino , Óvulo , Paternidad , Análisis de Semen/veterinaria
10.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101432, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547621

RESUMEN

In recent years, goose gout, a severe infectious disease, has affected the development of the goose industry in China. Two different genotypes of goose astrovirus (GAstV), named as GAstV-1 and GAstV-2, were identified. GAstV-2 viruses are known to be the causative agent of goose gout; however, GAstV-1 has not been isolated, and the relationship between GAstV-1 and goose gout is unknown. One full genome sequence, designated as GAstV/CHN/TZ03/2019 (TZ03), was determined from the clinical tissue samples of a diseased gosling using next-generation sequencing. The complete genome of TZ03 was 7,262 nucleotides in length with typical genomic characteristics of avastroviruses. The TZ03 strain shares the highest identity (96.6%) with the GAstV-1 strain FLX, but only 51.5 to 61.3% identity with other astroviruses in Avastrovirus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the TZ03 strain clustered together with the GAstV-1 strains FLX and AHDY and was highly divergent from GAstV-2 viruses. The TZ03 strain was successfully isolated from goose embryos and caused 100% mortality of goose embryos after 5 passages. Electron microscopy showed that the virus particles were spherical with a diameter of ∼22 nm. The clinical symptoms were reproduced by experimental infection of healthy goslings, which were similar to those caused by GAstV-2 strains. Our data show that GAstV-1 is one of the causative agents of the ongoing goose gout disease in China. These findings enrich our understanding of the evolution of GAstVs that cause gout and provide potential options for developing biological products to treat goose gout.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Astroviridae , Avastrovirus , Gota , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral , Animales , Infecciones por Astroviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Astroviridae/veterinaria , Avastrovirus/genética , Pollos , China/epidemiología , Gansos , Gota/veterinaria , Filogenia , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología
11.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101460, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564022

RESUMEN

Supplementation of betaine in the diet appears to regulate fatty acid metabolism and decrease fat deposition. This study aims to identify the effects of dietary supplementation of betaine on zootechnical performance, fatty acid synthesis, abdominal fat deposition, and morphology. Three hundred healthy, male, one-day-old Jiangnan White geese of similar body weight were randomly divided into 5 groups, with 6 replicates per treatment and 10 geese per replicate, and given the following amounts of supplementary betaine: 0 (group A), 600 mg/kg (group B), 1,200 mg/kg (group C), 1,800 mg/kg (group D), or 2,400 mg/kg (group E). Feed intake (FI), body weight (BW), abdominal fat and sebum thickness, clinical blood parameters, hepatic enzyme activity, and abdominal fat morphology were monitored during the experiment. All geese had free access to feed and water throughout the study. Our results indicate that supplementation of betaine increased zootechnical performance at 21 and 42 d of age. The percentage of abdominal fat and sebum thickness of geese at 63 d of age decreased linearly with the addition of betaine (P < 0.05). The triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TCHOL) content of serum decreased with the increased level of betaine when measured at 63 d of age (P<0.05). Hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) increased with the level of betaine (P<0.05). However, dietary betaine appeared to decrease the activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the geese at 42 d and 63 d of age (P<0.05). The percentage of total area of lipid droplet decreased with the increased level of betaine supplementation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of betaine increased lipolysis and decreased fat deposition in the finishing period of geese via reducing feed intake. However, the precise mode-of-action is yet unclear and warrants further research.


Asunto(s)
Betaína , Gansos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Pollos , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos , Lipólisis , Masculino
12.
Virus Res ; 306: 198566, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582833

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first reported in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread throughout the world. This newly emerging pathogen is highly transmittable and can cause fatal disease. More than 35 million cases have been confirmed, with a fatality rate of about 2.9% to October 9, 2020. However, the original and intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 remain unknown. Here, 3160 poultry samples collected from 14 provinces of China between September and December 2019 were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. All the samples were SARS-CoV-2 negative, but 593 avian coronaviruses were detected, including 485 avian infectious bronchitis viruses, 72 duck coronaviruses, and 36 pigeon coronaviruses, with positivity rates of 15.35%, 2.28%, and 1.14%, respectively. Our surveillance demonstrates the diversity of avian coronaviruses in China, with higher prevalence rates in some regions. Furthermore, the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 originated from a known avian-origin coronavirus can be preliminarily ruled out. More surveillance of and research into avian coronaviruses are required to better understand the diversity, distribution, cross-species transmission, and clinical significance of these viruses.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Variación Genética , Animales , Enfermedades de las Aves/epidemiología , Pollos/virología , China/epidemiología , Columbidae/virología , Coronavirus/clasificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Patos/virología , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Gansos/virología , Filogenia , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación
13.
Poult Sci ; 100(10): 101407, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438326

RESUMEN

A highly acute disease characterized as visceral gout broke out in Muscovy ducklings in Henan province (China) in June 2020, with a mortality rate of up to 61%. In this study, common pathogenic agents were screened using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction or polymerase chain reaction. The results found the novel goose astrovirus (GoAstV) to be the pathogenic agent. We isolated the GoAstV, which has been designated as HNNY0620, using the Leghorn male chicken hepatocellular carcinoma (LMH) cell line and sequenced the complete genome. The phylogenetic tree showed that the amino acid (aa) sequences of ORF1a and ORF2 and the completed nucleotide sequences of the HNNY0620 strain were clustered in the GoAstV-I clade. ORF1a aa and whole-genome sequences were genetically close to TAstV-2 and DHV-3, whereas the ORF2 aa sequences were clustered with TAstV-2 and DHV2. Both the duck-origin GoAstVs and HNNY0620 harbored some special mutations, but ORF1a in 700 (I/T), ORF1b in 288 (F/L), and ORF2 in 306 (A/T) were only found in HNNY0620. These results suggest that the host range of GoAstV is diffusing, which can potentially affect other waterfowl.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Astroviridae , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral , Animales , Infecciones por Astroviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Astroviridae/veterinaria , Pollos , China/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Patos , Gansos , Masculino , Filogenia , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología
14.
Avian Dis ; 65(1): 165-170, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339136

RESUMEN

The present report describes outbreaks of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus in young geese flocks in Austria. The flocks, comprising 160-1450 goslings of 2-3 wk of age, experienced increased mortalities The clinical signs were characterized by severe central nervous symptoms, namely leg paddling and torticollis. The postmortem investigation revealed hepatitis, splenitis, and a low amount of liquid fluid in the coelomic cavity. Livers were of fragile texture, with white necrotic areas. The latter were also found in spleens. No macroscopic lesions were seen in brains. Bacteriologic investigation followed by bacterial identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry and phylogenetic analysis of the partial 16S rRNA region revealed the presence in heart, liver, spleen, and brain of S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. Histologic investigation revealed multifocal necrosis in liver and spleen samples together with infiltration of mononuclear cells and heterophilic granulocytes. Furthermore, in the lesions, coccoid bacteria could be identified. No histopathologic changes were observed in brain samples from goslings, except in one bird in which accumulation of coccoid bacteria in blood vessels of the brain samples was present. Antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed identical profiles for all strains, which were susceptible to penicillins, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, imipenem, and tylosin. However, resistance was found against quinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, which are commonly used to treat infections with gram-positive bacteria.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas del Sistema Nervioso Central/veterinaria , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Gansos , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/veterinaria , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Austria/epidemiología , Infecciones Bacterianas del Sistema Nervioso Central/epidemiología , Infecciones Bacterianas del Sistema Nervioso Central/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas del Sistema Nervioso Central/patología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/patología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/microbiología , Infecciones Estreptocócicas/patología
15.
Poult Sci ; 100(10): 101403, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425555

RESUMEN

Xupu goose, a breed from Hunan province, produces high quality and quantity of meat and liver. However, its egg production rate is low, with poor reproductive traits but strong broody performance. These characteristics decrease the economic value of Xupu goose significantly. Here, RNA-seq was used to analyze the transcriptome changes of ovaries of Xupu goose at different stages to explore the molecular mechanism of reproduction from the pre-laying period to the broody period. A total of 258 genes were differentially expressed in the 3 stages. These genes are associated with inflammation, reproduction, mutual recognition and adhesion between cells, and cytoskeleton formation, and so on. In particular, we report, for the first time, the expression patterns of MRP126, serglycin, TXNIP, and FZD2 during the pre-laying, egg-laying, and broody periods of goose ovaries. Functional analysis by GO annotation revealed that GO terms were mainly involved in actin, cell signal transduction and regulation, and cellular components. Three pathways, including focal adhesion (gga04510), ECM-receptor interaction (gga04512), and N-Glycan biosynthesis (gga00510), were significantly enriched in the three groups. These findings provide a basis for further exploration of profiles of goose ovaries to improve egg production of Xupu goose.


Asunto(s)
Gansos , Transcriptoma , Animales , Pollos , Femenino , Gansos/genética , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/veterinaria , Carne , Ovario
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431769

RESUMEN

Two rod-shaped and Gram-stain-positive bacteria (strains C64T and C62) were isolated in 2020 from faeces of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) from Poyang Lake, PR China. Their optimal growth conditions were at 37 °C, pH 7.0 and with 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The two isolates showed a highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Bowdeniella nasicola DSM 19116T (92.1 %). Phylogenetic/phylogenomic analyses indicated that strains C64T and C62 clustered independently in the vicinity of the genera Varibaculum, Winkia and Mobiluncus within the family Actinomycetaceae, but could not be classified clearly as members of any of these known genera. The average amino acid identity values between our isolates and available genomes of members of the family Actinomycetaceae were around the genus threshold value (45-65 %). The major cellular fatty acids of the strains were C18 : 1ω9c and C16 : 0. The predominant polar lipids were phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, diacylglycerol, triacylglycerol and cardiolipin. The amino acid composition of peptidoglycan contained alanine, glutamic acid and glycine. The major respiratory menaquinones were MK-8(H4) and MK-9(H4). The whole cell sugars included galactose, arabinose and glucose. On the basis of the results of the 16S rRNA gene sequences comparison, whole-genome phylogenomic analysis, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, we propose that strains C64T and C62 represent a novel species belonging to a novel genus within the family Actinomycetaceae, for which the name Nanchangia anserum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Nanchangia anserum C64T (=CGMCC 1.18410T=GDMCC 1.1969T=KCTC 49511T=KACC 22143T).


Asunto(s)
Actinomycetaceae/clasificación , Gansos , Filogenia , Actinomycetaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Composición de Base , China , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Grasos/química , Heces/microbiología , Gansos/microbiología , Fosfolípidos/química , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Vitamina K 2/química
17.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101380, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358958

RESUMEN

It is well established that the endocrine system plays a pivotal role in preparing the avian embryos for the abrupt switch from chorioallantoic to pulmonary respiration during the critical embryo-to-hatchling transition. However, as the master gland of the endocrine system, there has been little research focusing on the molecular mechanisms controlling the development and function of the pituitary gland during the peri-hatch period in birds. In the present study, we aimed to determine the genome-wide mRNA and miRNA transcriptome profiles of the pituitary during the embryo-to-hatchling transition period from embryonic day 22 (E22) to post-hatching day 6 (P6) in the goose (Anser cygnoides). Of note, expression of Anser_cygnoides_newGene_32456 and LOC106031011 were significantly different among these 4 stages (i.e., E22, E26, P2, and P6). Meanwhile, the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway was significantly enriched by the DEGs commonly identified among three pairwise comparisons. At the miRNA transcriptome level, there were not commonly identified DE miRNAs among these 4 stages, while the 418 of their predicted target genes were mutually shared. Both the target genes of DE miRNAs in each comparison and these 418 shared target genes were significantly enriched in the ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion pathways. In the predicted miRNA-mRNA interaction networks of these 2 pathways, novel_miRNA_467, novel_miRNA_154, and novel_miRNA_340 were the hub miRNAs. In addition, multiple DE miRNAs also showed predicted target relationships with the DEGs associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Among them, expression of novel_miR_120, tgu-miR-92-3p, and novel_miR_398 was significantly negatively correlated with that of LAMC3 (laminin subunit gamma3), suggesting that these miRNAs may regulate pituitary tissue remodeling and functional changes through targeting LAMC3 during development. These identified DE mRNAs and miRNAs as well as their predicted interaction networks involved in regulation of tissue remodeling and cellular functions were most likely to play critical roles in facilitating the embryo-to-hatchling transition. These results provide novel insights into the early developmental process of avian pituitary gland and will help better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
MicroARNs , Animales , Pollos , Gansos/genética , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/veterinaria , MicroARNs/genética , Hipófisis , ARN Mensajero , Transcriptoma
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 263, 2021 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353312

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is a bacterial species widely distributed among mammals and avian species, and also a member of the normal intestinal microbiota. However, some E. coli strains of different pathotypes can cause disease in both humans and animals. Atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) can infect both animals and humans or influence the severity of other ongoing infections. RESULTS: In the present study, a total of 332 samples were collected from ducks, geese, turkeys, chickens, and pigeons from the Hungarian Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate, two slaughterhouses, two pigeon keepers and one backyard chicken farm. E. coli was isolated and verified from 319 samples. The isolates were screened by PCR for diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes. Altogether seven atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains were identified: two from four-week-old dead turkeys, two from force-fed geese, and three from pigeons. No further pathotypes were identified in the collection. The atypical EPEC strains were classified phylogenetically to B1, B2, and F, and four out of the seven aEPEC isolates proved to be multidrug resistant. Serotypes of aEPEC strains were uniform collected from same farms and showed diversity between their origins with O76, O145, O109 serogroups. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report in the literature about aEPEC in goose (Anser anser domestica). Furthermore, this is the first isolation of aEPEC from turkeys and pigeons in Hungary. The uneven distribution of aEPEC in different age groups of poultry suggests that aEPEC disappears with growing up, but stress (e.g.: force-feeding) and concurrent diseases might promote its reappearance in the intestine.


Asunto(s)
Columbidae/microbiología , Escherichia coli Enteropatógena/aislamiento & purificación , Aves de Corral/microbiología , Envejecimiento , Animales , Escherichia coli Enteropatógena/genética , Gansos/microbiología , Genotipo , Hungría , Pavos/microbiología
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16100, 2021 08 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373490

RESUMEN

Local weather conditions may be used as environmental cues by animals to optimize their breeding behaviour, and could be affected by climate change. We measured associations between climate, breeding phenology, and reproductive output in greylag geese (Anser anser) across 29 years (1990-2018). The birds are individually marked, which allows accurate long-term monitoring of life-history parameters for all pairs within the flock. We had three aims: (1) identify climate patterns at a local scale in Upper Austria, (2) measure the association between climate and greylag goose breeding phenology, and (3) measure the relationship between climate and both clutch size and fledging success. Ambient temperature increased 2 °C across the 29-years study period, and higher winter temperature was associated with earlier onset of egg-laying. Using the hatch-fledge ratio, average annual temperature was the strongest predictor for the proportion of fledged goslings per season. There is evidence for an optimum time window for egg-laying (the earliest and latest eggs laid had the lowest fledging success). These findings broaden our understanding of environmental effects and population-level shifts which could be associated with increased ambient temperature and can thus inform future research about the ecological consequences of climate changes and reproductive output in avian systems.


Asunto(s)
Tamaño de la Nidada/fisiología , Gansos/fisiología , Migración Animal/fisiología , Animales , Austria , Cruzamiento/métodos , Cambio Climático , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Gansos/metabolismo , Reproducción/fisiología , Estaciones del Año , Nieve , Temperatura , Tiempo (Meteorología)
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17065, 2021 08 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426624

RESUMEN

Different Mycoplasma species have been reported in avian hosts. However, the majority of studies focus on one particular species of Mycoplasma or one host. In our research, we screened a total of 1141 wild birds representing 55 species, 26 families, and 15 orders for the presence of mycoplasmas by conventional PCR based on the 16S rRNA gene. Selected PCR products were sequenced to perform the phylogenetic analysis. All mycoplasma-positive samples were tested for M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae, which are considered the major pathogens of commercial poultry. We also verified the influence of ecological characteristics of the tested bird species including feeding habits, habitat types, and movement patterns. The presence of Mycoplasma spp. was confirmed in 498 birds of 29 species, but none of the tested birds were positive for M. gallisepticum or M. synoviae. We found possible associations between the presence of Mycoplasma spp. and all investigated ecological factors. The phylogenetic analysis showed a high variability of Mycoplasma spp.; however, some clustering of sequences was observed regarding particular bird species. We found that wild migratory waterfowl, particularly the white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) could be reservoirs and vectors of mycoplasmas pathogenic to commercial waterfowl.


Asunto(s)
Patos/microbiología , Gansos/microbiología , Mycoplasma/patogenicidad , Animales , Dieta , Patos/fisiología , Ecosistema , Gansos/fisiología , Genoma Bacteriano , Mycoplasma/clasificación , Mycoplasma/genética , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
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