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1.
Medwave ; 20(2): e7833, 2020 Mar 19.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225131

RESUMEN

Background: Out-of-pocket spending on medicines and supplies can lead to a heavy financial burden in households. Objective: To determine the out-of-pocket spending on medicines and supplies in Peru and the population groups with the highest out-of-pocket spending on medicines and supplies in 2007 and 2016. Methods: We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study of the Peruvian National Household Survey on Living and Poverty Conditions for the years 2007 and 2016. Mean and median out-of-pocket spending on medicines and supplies are reported in USD for the general population, and according to the presence or not of factors described in the literature as associated with out-of-pocket spending on medicines and supplies. Results: 92 148 and 130 296 participants from 2007 and 2016 were included. In 2007, a median of 3.19 (interquartile range: 0.96 to 7.99) and an average of 8.14 (95% confidence interval: 7.80 to 8.49) were found for the out-of-pocket spending on medicines and supplies. In 2016, the median and mean out-of-pocket spending on medicines and supplies were 3.55 (interquartile range: 1.48 to 8.88) and 9.68 (95% confidence interval: 9.37 to 9.99), respectively. For 2016, higher out-of-pocket spending on medicines and supplies was found in women, children under five and over 60 years of age, people of higher educational level, having private or armed forces insurance, living in the coastal region, and being in one of the highest per capita quintile of expenditure. Between 2007 and 2016, the out-of-pocket spending on medicines and supplies was significantly increased in children under five (p < 0.001), uninsured persons (p < 0.001), insured to the Seguro Integral de Salud (p < 0.001) or the Armed Forces (p = 0.035), for the urban and rural area (both p < 0.001), and in people without chronic diseases (p < 0.001). Conclusions: An increase in out-of-pocket spending on medicines and supplies was found in the study period. There were population groups with significant increases in out-of-pocket spending on medicines and supplies. It is necessary to explore further the factors associated with out-of-pocket spending on medicines and supplies in groups of greater economic vulnerability regarding direct health spending in Peru.


Asunto(s)
Costos de los Medicamentos , Financiación Personal , Gastos en Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Financiación Personal/economía , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú , Pobreza , Adulto Joven
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(3): 306-313, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187937

RESUMEN

Objective: The existed economic evaluations of cancer screening in Chinese population are almost all single-cancer focused, evidence on parallel comparison among multiple cancers is lacking. Thus, the aim of this study was, from a priority setting perspective, to compare the cost-effectiveness of six common cancers(colorectal cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer and stomach cancer) to facilitate policy making in future scaled-up screening in populations in China. Methods: Partially based on our previous single-cancer systematic reviews (colorectal cancer, breast cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer), evidence of economic evaluations of cancer screening in populations in mainland China were systematically updated and integrated. The main updates include: 1) Stomach cancer and esophageal cancer were newly added to the current analysis. 2) The literature searching was extended to 8 literature databases, including PubMed, EMbase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, Wanfang Data, and VIP. 3) The period of publication year was updated to the recent 10 years: January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2018. 4) The study focused on populations in mainland China. Following the standard processes of literature searching, inclusion and exclusion from previous systematic reviews, the basic characteristics, evaluation indicators and main results of the included studies were extracted. All the costs were discounted to 2017 value using the by-year consumer price index of medical and health care residents in China and presented in the Chinese Yuan (CNY). The ratios of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) to China's per capita GDP in 2017 were calculated (<1 means very cost-effective, 1-3 means cost-effective, >3 means not cost-effective). Given a specific indicator, the median value among all reported screening strategies for each cancer was calculated, based on which priority ranking was then conducted among all cancers when data available. Results: A total of 45 studies were included, 22 for breast cancer, 12 for colorectal cancer, 6 for stomach cancer, 4 for esophageal cancer (all conducted in high-risk areas), 1 for liver cancer and none for lung cancer (was not then considered for next ranking due to limited numbers of studies). When based on the indicator, the median ratio of cost per life-year saved to China's per capita GDP (reported in 12 studies), the lowest ratio (-0.015) was observed in esophageal cancer among 16 strategies of 2 studies (N=2, n=16), followed by 0.297 for colorectal cancer (N=3, n=12), 0.356 for stomach cancer (N=1, n=4) and 0.896 for breast cancer (N=6, n=52, P(75)=3.602). When based on another commonly used ICER indicator, the median ratio of cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained to China's per capita GDP (reported in 13 studies), the least cost was found in stomach cancer (0.495, N=3, n=8, P(75)=3.126), followed by esophageal cancer (0.960, N=1, n=4, P(75)=1.762) and breast cancer (2.056, N=9, n=64, P(75)=4.217). Data was not found for colorectal cancer. In addition, cost per cancer case detected was the most adopted indicator (32 studies). The median cost among all screening strategies for each cancer was 14 759 CNY for stomach cancer (N=5, n=7), 49 680 CNY for colorectal cancer (N=12, n=25) and 171 930 CNY for breast cancer (N=13, n=24), respectively. Data was not available for esophageal cancer and rare for precancer cases detected. Evidence related to cost per disability-adjusted life-year gained was not available. Conclusions: At China's national level and limited to the six cancers covered by the current study, the preliminary analysis suggests that stomach cancer and colorectal cancer were the most cost-effective target cancers and could be given priority in the future scaled-up screening in general populations. Esophageal cancer screening should be prioritized in high-risk areas. Breast cancer was also cost-effective in general but some of the intensive screening strategies were marginal. Data on liver cancer and lung cancer were too limited to conclude, and more well-designed studies and high-quality research evidence should be required. This priority ranking might be changed if other common cancers were involved analyses.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precóz del Cáncer/economía , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , China , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Detección Precóz del Cáncer/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias/economía , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida
4.
Lancet ; 395(10223): 524-533, 2020 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061298

RESUMEN

Although health care expenditure per capita is higher in the USA than in any other country, more than 37 million Americans do not have health insurance, and 41 million more have inadequate access to care. Efforts are ongoing to repeal the Affordable Care Act which would exacerbate health-care inequities. By contrast, a universal system, such as that proposed in the Medicare for All Act, has the potential to transform the availability and efficiency of American health-care services. Taking into account both the costs of coverage expansion and the savings that would be achieved through the Medicare for All Act, we calculate that a single-payer, universal health-care system is likely to lead to a 13% savings in national health-care expenditure, equivalent to more than US$450 billion annually (based on the value of the US$ in 2017). The entire system could be funded with less financial outlay than is incurred by employers and households paying for health-care premiums combined with existing government allocations. This shift to single-payer health care would provide the greatest relief to lower-income households. Furthermore, we estimate that ensuring health-care access for all Americans would save more than 68 000 lives and 1·73 million life-years every year compared with the status quo.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Ahorro de Costo/métodos , Prestación de Atención de Salud/economía , Costos de los Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/economía , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Medicare/economía , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Pronóstico , Estados Unidos
5.
BMJ ; 368: m40, 2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024637

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between expansion of the Medicaid program under the Affordable Care Act and changes in healthcare spending among low income adults during the first four years of the policy implementation (2014-17). DESIGN: Quasi-experimental difference-in-difference analysis to examine out-of-pocket spending and financial burden among low income adults after Medicaid expansions. SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: A nationally representative sample of individuals aged 19-64 years, with family incomes below 138% of the federal poverty level, from the 2010-17 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Four annual healthcare spending outcomes: out-of-pocket spending; premium contributions; out-of-pocket plus premium spending; and catastrophic financial burden (defined as out-of-pocket plus premium spending exceeding 40% of post-subsistence income). P values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: 37 819 adults were included in the study. Healthcare spending did not change in the first two years, but Medicaid expansions were associated with lower out-of-pocket spending (adjusted percentage change -28.0% (95% confidence interval -38.4% to -15.8%); adjusted absolute change -$122 (£93; €110); adjusted P<0.001), lower out-of-pocket plus premium spending (-29.0% (-40.5% to -15.3%); -$442; adjusted P<0.001), and lower probability of experiencing a catastrophic financial burden (adjusted percentage point change -4.7 (-7.9 to -1.4); adjusted P=0.01) in years three to four. No evidence was found to indicate that premium contributions changed after the Medicaid expansions. CONCLUSION: Medicaid expansions under the Affordable Care Act were associated with lower out-of-pocket spending and a lower likelihood of catastrophic financial burden for low income adults in the third and fourth years of the act's implementation. These findings suggest that the act has been successful nationally in improving financial risk protection against medical bills among low income adults.


Asunto(s)
Financiación Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Cobertura del Seguro/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicaid/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pobreza/economía , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Costo de Enfermedad , Femenino , Financiación Personal/economía , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/economía , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Cobertura del Seguro/economía , Masculino , Medicaid/economía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
6.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(Suppl 1): 57-65, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981065

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Almost all preventable neonatal deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries and affect the poorest who have the least access to high quality health services. Cost of health care is one of the factors preventing access to quality health services and universal health coverage. In Nepal, the majority of expenses related to newborn care are borne by the caregiver, regardless of socioeconomic status. We conducted a study to assess the out of pocket expenditure (OOPE) for sick newborn care in hospitals in Nepal. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of hospital care for newborns was conducted in 11 hospitals in Nepal and explored OOPE incurred by caregivers for sick newborn care. Data were collected from the caregivers of the sick newborn on the topics of cost of travel, accommodation, treatment (drugs, diagnosis) and documented on a sick newborn case record form. RESULTS: Data were collected from 814 caregivers. Cost of caregivers' stay accounted for more than 40% of the OOPE for sick newborn care, followed by cost of travel, and the baby's stay and treatment. The overall OOPE ranged from 13.6 to 226.1 US dollars (USD). The median OOPE was highest for preterm complications ($33.2 USD; CI 14.0-226.1), followed by hyperbilirubinemia ($31.9 USD; CI 14.0-60.7), respiratory distress syndrome ($26.9 USD; 15.3-121.5), neonatal sepsis ($ 25.8 USD; CI 13.6-139.8) and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy ($23.4 USD; CI 13.6-97.7). DISCUSSION FOR PRACTICE: In Nepal, OOPE for sick newborn care in hospitals varied by neonatal morbidity and duration of stay. The largest proportion of OOPE were for accommodation and travel. Affordable and accessible health care will substantially reduce the OOPE for sick newborn care in hospitals.


Asunto(s)
Financiación Personal , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/economía , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Metas , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Nepal , Desarrollo Sostenible
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18625, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914043

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inequality in health and health care remains a rather challenging issue in China, existing both in rural and urban area, and between rural and urban. This study used nationally representative data to assess inequality in both rural and urban China separately and to identify socioeconomic factors that may contribute to this inequality. METHODS: This study used 2008 National Health Services Survey data. Demographic characteristics, income, health status, medical service utilization, and medical expenses were collected. Horizontal inequality analysis was performed using nonlinear regression method. RESULTS: Positive inequity in outpatient services and inpatient service was evident in both rural and urban area of China. Greater inequity of outpatient service use in urban than that in rural areas was evident (horizontal inequity index [HI] = 0.085 vs 0.029). In contrast, rural areas had greater inequity of inpatient service use compared to urban areas (HI = 0.21 vs 0.16). The decomposition analysis found that the household income made the greatest pro-rich contribution in both rural and urban China. However, chronic diseases and aging were also important contributors to the inequality in rural area. CONCLUSION: The inequality in health service in both rural and urban China was mainly attributed to the household income. In addition, chronic disease and aging were associated with inequality in rural population. Those findings provide evidences for policymaker to develop a sustainable social welfare system in China.


Asunto(s)
Utilización de Instalaciones y Servicios/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/economía , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , China , Femenino , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 24, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914972

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increasing medicines availability and affordability is a key goal of Brazilian health policies. "Farmácia Popular" (FP) Program is one of the government's key strategies to achieve this goal. Under FP, antihypertension (HTN) and antiglycemic (DM) medicines have been provided at subsidized prices in private retail settings since 2006, and free of charge since 2011. We aim to assess the impact of sequential changes in FP benefits on patient affordability and government expenditures for HTN and DM treatment under the FP, and examine their implications for public financing mechanisms and program sustainability. METHODS: Longitudinal, retrospective study using interrupted time series to analyze: HTN and DM treatment coverage; total and per capita expenditure; percentage paid by MoH; and patient cost sharing. Analyzes were conducted in the dispensing database of the FP program (from 2006 to 2012). RESULTS: FP has increased its coverage over time; by December 2012 FP covered on average 13% of DM and 11.5% of HTN utilization, a growth of over 600 and 1500%, respectively. The overall cost per treatment to the MoH declined from R$36.43 (R$ = reais, the Brazilian currency) to 18.74 for HTN and from R$33.07to R$15.05 for DM over the period analyzed, representing a reduction in per capita cost greater than 50%. The amount paid by patients for the medicines covered increased over time until 2011, but then declined to zero. We estimate that to treat all patients in need for HTN and DM in 2012 under FP, the Government would need to expend 97% of the total medicines budget. CONCLUSIONS: FP rapidly increased its coverage in terms of both program reach and proportion of cost subsidized during the period analyzed. Costs of individual HTN and DM treatments in FP were reduced after 2011 for both patients (free) and government (better negotiated prices). However, overall FP expenditures by MoH increased due to markedly increased utilization. The FP is sustainable as a complementary policy but cannot feasibly substitute for the distribution of medicines by the SUS.


Asunto(s)
Costos y Análisis de Costo/estadística & datos numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/economía , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Financiación Gubernamental/estadística & datos numéricos , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hipertensión/economía , Hipertensión/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil , Seguro de Costos Compartidos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Estudios Retrospectivos
9.
J Surg Res ; 246: 236-242, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610351

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Peritonitis is an emergency which frequently requires surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing seeking and reaching care for patients with peritonitis presenting to a tertiary referral hospital in Rwanda. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of patients with peritonitis admitted to University Teaching Hospital of Kigali. Data were collected on demographics, prehospital course, and in-hospital management. Delays were classified according to the Three Delays Model as delays in seeking or reaching care. Chi square test and logistic regression were used to determine associations between delayed presentation and various factors. RESULTS: Over a 9-month period, 54 patients with peritonitis were admitted. Twenty (37%) patients attended only primary school and 15 (28%) never went to school. A large number (n = 26, 48%) of patients were unemployed and most (n = 45, 83%) used a community-based health insurance. For most patients (n = 44, 81%), the monthly income was less than 10,000 Rwandan francs (RWF) (11.90 U.S. Dollars [USD]). Most (n = 51, 94%) patients presented to the referral hospital with more than 24 h of symptoms. More than half (n = 31, 60%) of patients had more than 4 d of symptoms on presentation. Most (n = 37, 69%) patients consulted a traditional healer before presentation at the health care system. Consultation with a traditional healer was associated with delayed presentation at the referral hospital (P < 0.001). Most (n = 29, 53%) patients traveled more than 2 h to reach a health facility and this was associated with delayed presentation (P = 0.019). The cost of transportation ranged between 5000 and 1000 RWF (5.95-11.90 USD) for most patients and was not associated with delayed presentation (P = 0.449). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, most patients with peritonitis present in a delayed fashion to the referral hospital. Factors associated with seeking and reaching care included sociodemographic characteristics, health-seeking behaviors, cost of care, and travel time. These findings highlight factors associated with delays in seeking and reaching care for patients with peritonitis.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Tradicional Africana/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Peritonitis/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Operativos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales Universitarios/economía , Hospitales Universitarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Africana/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Peritonitis/economía , Rwanda , Factores Socioeconómicos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Operativos/economía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Operativos/psicología , Centros de Atención Terciaria/economía , Centros de Atención Terciaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Tiempo de Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
10.
J Surg Res ; 246: 123-130, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569034

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: National changes in health care disparities within the setting of trauma care have not been examined within Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) or non-ACOs. We sought to examine the impact of ACOs on post-treatment outcomes (in-hospital mortality, 90-day complications, and readmissions), as well as surgical intervention among whites and nonwhites treated for spinal fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified all beneficiaries treated for spinal fractures between 2009 and 2014 using national Medicare fee for service claims data. Claims were used to identify sociodemographic and clinical criteria, receipt of surgery and in-hospital mortality, 90-day complications, and readmissions. Multivariable logistic regression analysis accounting for all confounders was used to determine the effect of race/ethnicity on outcomes. Nonwhites were compared with whites treated in non-ACOs between 2009 and 2011 as the referent. RESULTS: We identified 245,704 patients who were treated for spinal fractures. Two percent of the cohort received care in an ACO, whereas 7% were nonwhite. We found that disparities in the use of surgical fixation for spinal fractures were present in non-ACOs over the period 2009-2014 but did not exist in the context of care provided through ACOs (odds ratio [OR] 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44, 1.28). A disparity in the development of complications existed for nonwhites in non-ACOs (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.01, 1.17) that was not encountered among nonwhites receiving care in ACOs (OR 1.32; 95% CI 0.90, 1.95). An existing disparity in readmission rates for nonwhites in ACOs over 2009-2011 (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.01, 1.80) was eliminated in the period 2012-2014 (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.65, 1.09). CONCLUSIONS: Our work reinforces the idea that ACOs could improve health care disparities among nonwhites. There is also the potential that as ACOs become more familiar with care integration and streamlined delivery of services, further improvements in disparities could be realized.


Asunto(s)
Organizaciones Responsables por la Atención/estadística & datos numéricos , Fijación de Fractura/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/epidemiología , Fracturas de la Columna Vertebral/cirugía , Organizaciones Responsables por la Atención/economía , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Ahorro de Costo/economía , Ahorro de Costo/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Fijación de Fractura/efectos adversos , Fijación de Fractura/economía , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/economía , Medicare/estadística & datos numéricos , Readmisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Mejoramiento de la Calidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Fracturas de la Columna Vertebral/economía , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(49): e18082, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804317

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Our study provides phase-specific cost estimates for pancreatic cancer based on stage and treatment. We compare treatment costs between the different phases and within the stage and treatment modality subgroups. METHODS: Our cohort included 20,917 pancreatic cancer patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database diagnosed between 2000 and 2011. We allocated costs into four phases of care-staging (or surgery), initial, continuing, and terminal- and calculated the total, cancer-attributable, and patient-liability costs in 2018 US dollars. We fit linear regression models using log transformation to determine whether costs were predicted by age and calendar year. RESULTS: Monthly cost estimates were high during the staging and surgery phases, decreased over the initial and continuing phases, and increased during the three-month terminal phase. Overall, the linear regression models showed that cancer-attributable costs either remained stable or increased by year, and either were unaffected by age or decreased with older age; continuing phase costs for stage II patients increased with age. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates demonstrate that pancreatic cancer costs can vary widely by stage and treatment received. These cost estimates can serve as an important baseline foundation to guide resource allocation for cancer care and research in the future.


Asunto(s)
Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/economía , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Medicare/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Econométricos , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Programa de VERF , Cuidado Terminal/economía , Estados Unidos
12.
JAMA ; 322(21): 2115-2124, 2019 12 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794624

RESUMEN

Importance: Although neighborhoods are thought to be an important health determinant, evidence for the relationship between neighborhood poverty and health care use is limited, as prior studies have largely used observational data without an experimental design. Objective: To examine whether housing policies that reduce exposure to high-poverty neighborhoods were associated with differences in long-term hospital use among adults and children. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory analysis of the Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing Demonstration Program, a randomized social experiment conducted in 5 US cities. From 1994 to 1998, 4604 families in public housing were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: a control condition, a traditional Section 8 voucher toward rental costs in the private market, or a voucher that could only be used in low-poverty neighborhoods. Participants were linked to all-payer hospital discharge data (1995 through 2014 or 2015) and Medicaid data (1999 through 2009). The final follow-up date ranged from 11 to 21 years after randomization. Exposures: Receipt of a traditional or low-poverty voucher vs control group. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rates of hospitalizations and hospital days, and hospital spending. Results: Among 4602 eligible individuals randomized as adults, 4072 (88.5%) were linked to health data (mean age, 33 years [SD, 9.0 years]; 98% female; median follow-up, 11 years). There were no significant differences in primary outcomes among adults randomized to receive a voucher compared with the control group (unadjusted hospitalization rate, 14.0 vs 14.7 per 100 person-years, adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.95 [95% CI, 0.84-1.08; P = .45]; hospital days, 62.8 vs 67.0 per 100 person-years; IRR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.77-1.13; P = .46]; yearly spending, $2075 vs $1977; adjusted difference, -$129 [95% CI, -$497 to $239; P = .49]). Among 11 290 eligible individuals randomized as children, 9118 (80.8%) were linked to health data (mean age, 8 years [SD, 4.6 years]; 49% female; median follow-up, 11 years). Receipt of a housing voucher during childhood was significantly associated with lower hospitalization rates (6.3 vs 7.3 per 100 person-years; IRR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.73-0.99; P = .03]) and yearly inpatient spending ($633 vs $785; adjusted difference, -$143 [95% CI, -$256 to -$31; P = .01]) and no significant difference in hospital days (25.7 vs 28.8 per 100 person-years; IRR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.77-1.11; P = .41]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory analysis of a randomized housing voucher intervention, adults who received a housing voucher did not experience significant differences in hospital use or spending. Receipt of a voucher during childhood was significantly associated with lower rates of hospitalization and less inpatient spending during long-term follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Vivienda/economía , Vivienda Popular , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Hospitalización/economía , Humanos , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Vivienda Popular/economía , Características de la Residencia , Estados Unidos
13.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 22(3): 85-94, 2019 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811752

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since the introduction and soaring popularity of the managed behavioral healthcare (BH) "carve-out" model in the 1980s, policymakers have been concerned with their impact on access. In carve-outs, BH and medical benefits are administered separately. Earlier literature found they reduced intensity of service use while maintaining penetration rates. Recently it has become more common for employers to drop existing carve-out contracts, partly due to the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA), which placed a greater administrative burden on carve-outs for parity compliance. Although prior studies focused exclusively on the impact of moving from carve-in to carve-out models, it is now more policy-relevant to understand the effects of the move from carve-out to carve-in, which may not be symmetric. Moreover, the natural experiment resulting from MHPAEA implementation may attenuate concerns about selection bias. STUDY AIMS: This study examines how specialty BH care patterns change when employees and dependents are moved from a "carve-out" plan to a "carve-in" plan. METHODS: Linked insurance claims, eligibility, plan and employer data from 2008-14 were obtained for three Optum( employers who dropped their carve-out contracts but retained their carve-in plans. A longitudinal "difference-in-differences" study design was used to compare changes in BH services use over time among individuals who were: (i) moved to carve-in plans when the employer dropped its carve-out contract (N=177,653); and (ii) enrolled in carve-in plans before and after the transition (N=58,658). Outcomes included total and inpatient expenditures, broken down by plan, patient, and total; outpatient visits for assessment, individual psychotherapy, family psychotherapy, and medication management; and days of structured outpatient care, day treatment, residential care, and acute inpatient care. We pooled person-year observations and estimated regressions including individual fixed effects, year dummies and interactions between indicators for post-transition period and whether transitioned from carve-out to carve-in. RESULTS: Relative to individuals continuously in carve-in plans, those who were transitioned experienced significant increases in inpatient utilization (beta =.02; p=.05) and patient inpatient costs (beta =2.35; p=.01) and decreases in day treatment (beta =-0.01; p=.02). Our conclusions proved robust against potential biases due to differing secular time trends and differential changes in benefits resulting from MHPAEA. DISCUSSION: The increased inpatient utilization associated with switching from carve-out to carve-in plans is consistent with previous literature. Carve-outs may use day treatment to reduce inpatient care so that increased inpatient utilization post-transition reduced demand for day treatment. Limitations include possible selection bias at the employer level; lack of data on medication and generalist use, quality, clinical endpoints and quality of life; and potential lack of generalizability. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND USE: The reduction in the use of carve-out contracts by private employers associated with MHPAEA implementation likely did not have a net negative impact and may have actually increased access to care among former carve-out enrollees in need of inpatient services. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: Policymakers should consider and evaluate possible unintended consequences of legislation designed to improve access to care. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Future work should replicate these analyses with a more representative sample.


Asunto(s)
Financiación Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Salud Mental/economía , Servicios de Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Salud Mental , Psiquiatría , Calidad de Vida , Estados Unidos
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 981, 2019 Dec 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856797

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cancer increases the risk of developing one or more chronic conditions, yet little research describes the associations between health care costs, utilization patterns, and chronic conditions in adults with cancer. The objective of this study was to examine the treated prevalence of chronic conditions and the association between chronic conditions and health care expenses in US adults with cancer. METHODS: This retrospective observational study used US Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component (2010-2015) data sampling adults diagnosed with cancer and one or more of 18 select chronic conditions. The measures used were treated prevalence of chronic conditions, and total and chronic condition-specific health expenses (per-person, per-year). Generalized linear models assessed chronic condition-specific expenses in adults with cancer vs. without cancer and the association of chronic conditions on total health expenses in adults with cancer, respectively, by controlling for demographic and health characteristics. Accounting for the complex survey design in MEPS, all data analyses and statistical procedures applied longitudinal weights for national estimates. RESULTS: Among 3657 eligible adults with cancer, 83.9% (n = 3040; representing 16 million US individuals per-year) had at least one chronic condition, and 29.7% reported four or more conditions. Among those with cancer, hypertension (59.7%), hyperlipidemia (53.6%), arthritis (25.6%), diabetes (22.2%), and coronary artery disease (18.2%) were the five most prevalent chronic conditions. Chronic conditions accounted for 30% of total health expenses. Total health expenses were $6388 higher for those with chronic conditions vs. those without (p < 0.001). Health expenses associated with chronic conditions increased by 34% in adults with cancer vs. those without cancer after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: In US adults with cancer, the treated prevalence of common chronic conditions was high and health expenses associated with chronic conditions were higher than those without cancer. A holistic treatment plan is needed to improve cost outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Afecciones Crónicas Múltiples/economía , Neoplasias/economía , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/complicaciones , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/economía , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/epidemiología , Femenino , Costos de la Atención en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/economía , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Afecciones Crónicas Múltiples/epidemiología , Afecciones Crónicas Múltiples/terapia , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Neoplasias/terapia , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 966, 2019 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842861

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although public medical insurance covers over 95% of the population in China, disparities in health service use and out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure across income groups are still widely observed. This study aims to investigate the socio-economic disparities in perceived healthcare needs, informal care, formal care and payment for healthcare and explore their equity implication. METHODS: We assessed healthcare needs, service use and payment in 400 households in rural and urban areas in Jiangsu, China, and included only the adult sample (N = 925). One baseline survey and 10 follow-up surveys were conducted during the 7-month monitoring period, and the Affordability Ladder Program (ALP) framework was adopted for data analysis. Negative binomial/zero-inflated negative binomial and logit regression models were used to explore factors associated with perceived needs of care and with the use of self-treatment, outpatient and inpatient care respectively. Two-part model and logit regression modeling were conducted to explore factors associated with OOP health expenditure and with the likelihood of incurring catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). RESULTS: After adjusting for covariates, rural residence was significantly associated with more perceived healthcare needs, more self-treatment, higher probability of using outpatient and inpatient service, more OOP health expenditure and higher likelihood of incurring catastrophic expenditure (P < 0.05). Compared to the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI), enrollment in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS) or in the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) was correlated with lower probability of ever using outpatient services, but with more outpatient visits when people were at risk of using outpatient service (P < 0.05). NRCMS/URBMI enrollment was also associated with higher likelihood of incurring CHE compared to UEBMI enrollment (OR = 2.02, P < 0.05); in stratified analysis of the rural and urban sample this effect was only significant for the rural population. CONCLUSIONS: The rural population in Jiangsu perceived more healthcare needs, had a higher probability of using both informal and formal healthcare services, and had more OOP health expenditure and a higher likelihood of incurring CHE. The inequity mainly exists in health care financing, and may be partially addressed through improving the benefit packages of NRCMS/URBMI.


Asunto(s)
Costos de la Atención en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Programas Nacionales de Salud/economía , Adulto , Anciano , Atención Ambulatoria/economía , China , Femenino , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/economía , Humanos , Seguro de Salud/economía , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Población Rural , Población Urbana
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1735, 2019 Dec 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878911

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rapid ageing of the population and increasing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among the elderly is one of the major public health challenges in India. To achieve the Universal Health Coverage, ever-growing elderly population should have access to needed healthcare, and they should not face any affordability related challenge. As most of the elderly suffers from NCDs and achieving health-equity is a priority, this paper aims to - study the utilization pattern of healthcare services for treatment of NCDs among the elderly; estimate the burden of out-of-pocket expenditure for the treatment of NCDs among the elderly and analyze the extent of equity in distribution of public subsidy for the NCDs among the elderly. METHODS: National Sample Survey data (71st round) has been used for the study. Exploratory data analysis and benefit incidence analysis have been applied to estimate the utilization, out-of-pocket expenditure and distribution of public subsidy among economic classes. Concentration curves and indices are also estimated. RESULTS: Results show that public-sector hospitalization for NCDs among the elderly has a pro-rich trend in rural India. However, in urban sector, for both inpatient and outpatient care the poorest class has substantial share in utilization of public facilities. Same result is also observed for rural outpatient care. Analysis shows that out-of-pocket expenditure is very high for both medicine and medical care even in public facilities for all economic groups. It is also observed that medicine has the highest share in total medical expenses during treatment of NCDs among the elderly in both the region. Benefit incidence analysis shows that the public subsidy has a pro-rich distribution for inpatient care treatment in both the sectors. In case of outpatient care, subsidy share is the maximum among the richest in the urban sector and in the rural region the poorest class gets the maximum subsidy benefit. CONCLUSIONS: It is evident that a substantial share of the public subsidies is still going to the richer sections for the treatment of NCDs among the elderly. Evidences also suggest that procuring medicines and targeted policies for the elderly are needed to improve utilization and equity in the public healthcare system.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/economía , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Asistencia Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Atención Ambulatoria/economía , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidencia , India/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/terapia , Sector Público/economía , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud
17.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 196, 2019 12 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849334

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Kenya is experiencing persistently high levels of inequity in health and access to care services. In 2018, decades of sustained policy efforts to promote equitable, affordable and quality health services have culminated in the launch of a universal health coverage scheme, initially piloted in four Kenyan counties and planned for national rollout by 2022. Our study aims to contribute to monitoring and evaluation efforts alongside policy implementation, by establishing a detailed, baseline assessment of socio-economic inequality and inequity in health care utilization in Kenya shortly before the policy launch. METHODS: We use concentration curves and corrected concentration indexes to measure socio-economic inequality in care use and the horizontal inequity index as a measure of inequity in care utilization for three types of care services: outpatient care, inpatient care and preventive and promotive care. Further insights into the individual and household level characteristics that determine observed inequality are derived through decomposition analysis. RESULTS: We find significant inequality and inequity in the use of all types of care services favouring richer population groups, with particularly pronounced levels for preventive and inpatient care services. These are driven primarily by differences in living standards and educational achievement, while the region of residence is a key driver for inequality in preventive care use only. Pro-rich inequalities are particularly pronounced for care provided in privately owned facilities, while public providers serve a much larger share of individuals from lower socio-economic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Through its focus on increasing affordability of care for all Kenyans, the newly launched universal health coverage scheme represents a crucial step towards reducing disparities in health care utilization. However in order to achieve equity in health and access to care such efforts must be paralleled by multi-sectoral approaches to address all key drivers of inequity: persistent poverty, disparities in living standards and educational achievement, as well as regional differences in availability and accessibility of care.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en Atención de Salud/economía , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Kenia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud , Adulto Joven
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 1004, 2019 Dec 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882004

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many LMICs have implemented Publicly Funded Health Insurance (PFHI) programmes to improve access and financial protection. The national PFHI scheme implemented in India for a decade has been recently modified and expanded to cover free hospital care for 500 million persons. Since increase in annual cover amount is one of the main design modifications in the new programme, the relevant policy question is whether such design change can improve financial protection for hospital care. An evaluation of state-specific PFHI programmes with vertical cover larger than RSBY can help answer this question. Three states in Southern India - Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu have been pioneers in implementing PFHI with a large insurance cover. METHODS: The current study was meant to evaluate the PFHI in above three states in improving utilisation of hospital services and financial protection against expenses of hospitalization. Two cross-sections from National Sample Survey's health rounds, the 60th round done in 2004 and the 71st round done in 2014 were analysed. Instrumental Variable method was applied to address endogeneity or the selection problem in insurance. RESULTS: Enrollment under PFHI was not associated with increase in utilisation of hospital care in the three states. Private hospitals dominated the empanelment of facilities under PFHI as well as utilisation. Out of Pocket Expenditure and incidence of Catastrophic Health Expenditure did not decrease with enrollment under PFHI in the three states. The size of Out of Pocket Expenditure was significantly greater for utilisation in private sector, irrespective of insurance enrollment. CONCLUSION: PFHI in the three states used substantially larger vertical cover than national scheme in 2014. The three states are known for their good governance. Yet, the PFHI programmes in all three states failed in fulfilling their fundamental purpose. Increasing vertical cover of PFHI and using either 'Trusts' or Insurance-companies as purchasers may not give desired results in absence of adequate regulation. The study raises doubts regarding effectiveness of contracting under PFHIs to influence provider-behavior in the Indian context. Further research is required to find solutions for addressing gaps that contribute to poor financial outcomes for patients under PFHI.


Asunto(s)
Hospitalización/economía , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Programas Nacionales de Salud/economía , Enfermedad Catastrófica/economía , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales Privados/economía , Hospitales Privados/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , India
19.
BMJ ; 367: l6326, 2019 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776110

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine how the UK National Health Service (NHS) is performing relative to health systems of other high income countries, given that it is facing sustained financial pressure, increasing levels of demand, and cuts to social care. DESIGN: Observational study using secondary data from key international organisations such as Eurostat and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. SETTING: Healthcare systems of the UK and nine high income comparator countries: Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the US. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 79 indicators across seven domains: population and healthcare coverage, healthcare and social spending, structural capacity, utilisation, access to care, quality of care, and population health. RESULTS: The UK spent the least per capita on healthcare in 2017 compared with all other countries studied (UK $3825 (£2972; €3392); mean $5700), and spending was growing at slightly lower levels (0.02% of gross domestic product in the previous four years, compared with a mean of 0.07%). The UK had the lowest rates of unmet need and among the lowest numbers of doctors and nurses per capita, despite having average levels of utilisation (number of hospital admissions). The UK had slightly below average life expectancy (81.3 years compared with a mean of 81.7) and cancer survival, including breast, cervical, colon, and rectal cancer. Although several health service outcomes were poor, such as postoperative sepsis after abdominal surgery (UK 2454 per 100 000 discharges; mean 2058 per 100 000 discharges), 30 day mortality for acute myocardial infarction (UK 7.1%; mean 5.5%), and ischaemic stroke (UK 9.6%; mean 6.6%), the UK achieved lower than average rates of postoperative deep venous thrombosis after joint surgery and fewer healthcare associated infections. CONCLUSIONS: The NHS showed pockets of good performance, including in health service outcomes, but spending, patient safety, and population health were all below average to average at best. Taken together, these results suggest that if the NHS wants to achieve comparable health outcomes at a time of growing demographic pressure, it may need to spend more to increase the supply of labour and long term care and reduce the declining trend in social spending to match levels of comparator countries.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Países Desarrollados/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Poblacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicina Estatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Producto Interno Bruto , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Renta , Reino Unido
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1540, 2019 Nov 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752792

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization states there are three interrelated domains that are fundamental to achieving and maintaining universal access to care - raising sufficient funds for health care, reducing financial barriers to access by pooling funds in a way that prevents out-of-pocket costs, and allocating funds in a way that promotes quality, efficiency and equity. In Australia, a comprehensive account of the mechanisms for financing the health system have not been synthesised elsewhere. Therefore, to understand how the maternal health system is financed, this review aims to examine the mechanisms for funding, pooling and purchasing maternal health care and the influence these financing mechanisms have on the delivery of maternal health services in Australia. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review and interpretative synthesis of the financing mechanisms and their impact on Australia's maternal health system. Due to the nature of the study question, the review had a major focus on grey literature. The search was undertaken in three stages including; searching (1) Google search engine (2) targeted websites and (3) academic databases. Executive summaries and table of contents were screened for grey literature documents and Titles and Abstracts were screened for journal articles. Screening of publications' full-text followed. Data relating to either funding, pooling, or purchasing of maternal health care were extracted for synthesis. RESULTS: A total of 69 manuscripts were included in the synthesis, with 52 of those from the Google search engine and targeted website (grey literature) search. A total of 17 articles we included in the synthesis from the database search. CONCLUSION: Our study provides a critical review of the mechanisms by which revenues are raised, funds are pooled and their impact on the way health care services are purchased for mothers and babies in Australia. Australia's maternal health system is financed via both public and private sources, which consequentially creates a two-tiered system. Mothers who can afford private health insurance - typically wealthier, urban and non-First Nations women - therefore receive additional benefits of private care, which further exacerbates inequity between these groups of mothers and babies. The increasing out of pocket costs associated with obstetric care may create a financial burden for women to access necessary care or it may cause them to skip care altogether if the costs are too great.


Asunto(s)
Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Financiación de la Atención de la Salud , Servicios de Salud Materna/economía , Australia , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo
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