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1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(5): 473-480, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229696

RESUMEN

Objective: Co-aggregation of autoimmune diseases is common, suggesting partly shared etiologies. Genetic factors are believed to be important, but objective measures of environmental vs heritable influences on co-aggregation are absent. With a novel approach to twin studies, we aimed at estimating heritability and genetic overlap in seven organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Design: Prospective twin cohort study. Methods: We used a cohort of 110 814 twins to examine co-aggregation and heritability of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, atrophic gastritis, celiac disease, Graves' disease, type 1 diabetes, vitiligo and Addison's disease. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for twins developing the same or different disease as compared to their co-twin. The differences between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs were used to estimate the genetic influence on co-aggregation. Heritability for individual disorders was calculated using structural equational modeling adjusting for censoring and truncation of data. Results: Co-aggregation was more pronounced in monozygotic twins (median HR: 3.2, range: 2.2-9.2) than in dizygotic twins (median HR: 2.4, range: 1.1-10.0). Heritability was moderate for atrophic gastritis (0.38, 95% CI: 0.23-0.53) but high for all other diseases, ranging from 0.60 (95% CI: 0.49-0.71) for Graves' disease to 0.97 (95% CI: 0.91-1.00) for Addison's disease. Conclusions: Overall, co-aggregation was more pronounced in monozygotic than in dizygotic twins, suggesting that disease overlap is largely attributable to genetic factors. Co-aggregation was common, and twins faced up to a ten-fold risk of developing diseases not present in their co-twin. Our results validate and refine previous heritability estimates based on smaller twin cohorts.


Asunto(s)
Autoinmunidad/fisiología , Enfermedad de Addison/genética , Autoinmunidad/genética , Enfermedad Celíaca/genética , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Gastritis Atrófica/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Enfermedad de Graves/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética
2.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(1): 51-54, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209150

RESUMEN

Dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) twin pregnancies after single blastocyst embryo transfer have been reported recently, although a blastocyst ovum is generally believed to divide into monochorionic twin pregnancy. We investigated the incidence of DCDA twin pregnancy after single blastocyst embryo transfer and their zygosity. This prospective cohort study included 655 consecutive twin pregnancies that were managed from 2006 to 2014 at our institution. Chorionicity and amnionicity were determined using first-trimester ultrasonography and/or placental pathology. Zygosity was analyzed if the cases were DCDA twins after single blastocyst embryo transfer. Among 655 twin pregnancies, there were 348 DCDA cases, 295 monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) cases and 12 monochorionic monoamniotic cases. Single blastocyst embryo transfer was performed in 43 cases. Six out of the 43 (14%) cases involved DCDA twin pregnancies and the other 37 cases involved MCDA twin pregnancies. Three DCDA twins born after single blastocyst embryo transfer, wherein frozen embryo transfer (FET) was performed in the natural cycle, were dizygotic, and the other three cases, wherein FET with hormone replacement therapy was performed, were monozygotic. DCDA twin pregnancy occurred in 14% (7% for monozygotic and 7% for dizygotic) of twin pregnancies after single blastocyst embryo transfer cases.


Asunto(s)
Amnios/diagnóstico por imagen , Corion/diagnóstico por imagen , Gemelos Monocigóticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Amnios/crecimiento & desarrollo , Blastocisto , Corion/crecimiento & desarrollo , Estudios de Cohortes , Transferencia de Embrión , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Primer Trimestre del Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Dicigóticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética , Ultrasonografía Prenatal
3.
Behav Genet ; 50(2): 127-138, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040643

RESUMEN

The univariate bootstrap is a relatively recently developed version of the bootstrap (Lee and Rodgers in Psychol Methods 3(1): 91, 1998). DeFries-Fulker (DF) analysis is a regression model used to estimate parameters in behavioral genetic models (DeFries and Fulker in Behav Genet 15(5): 467-473, 1985). It is appealing for its simplicity; however, it violates certain regression assumptions such as homogeneity of variance and independence of errors that make calculation of standard errors and confidence intervals problematic. Methods have been developed to account for these issues (Kohler and Rodgers in Behav Genet 31(2): 179-191, 2001), however the univariate bootstrap represents a unique means of doing so that is presaged by suggestions from previous DF research (e.g., Cherny et al. in Behav Genet 22(2): 153-162, 1992). In the present study we use simulations to examine the performance of the univariate bootstrap in the context of DF analysis. We compare a number of possible bootstrap schemes as well as more traditional confidence interval methods. We follow up with an empirical demonstration, applying results of the simulation to models estimated to investigate changes in body mass index in adults from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data.


Asunto(s)
Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Genética Conductual/métodos , Modelos Estadísticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal/genética , Intervalos de Confianza , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Fenotipo , Análisis de Regresión , Medio Social , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética , Adulto Joven
4.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(1): 39-44, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083524

RESUMEN

Type 2 diabetes, which is caused by both genetic and environmental factors, may be diagnosed using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Recent studies demonstrated specific patterns in glucose curves during OGTT associated with cardiometabolic risk profiles. As the relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences on glucose curve patterns is unknown, we aimed to investigate the heritability of these patterns. We studied twins from the Danish GEMINAKAR cohort aged 18-67 years and free from diabetes at baseline during 1997-2000; glucose concentrations were measured three times during a 2-h OGTT. Heterogeneity of the glucose response during OGTT was examined with latent class mixed-effects models, evaluating goodness of fit by Bayes information criterion. The genetic influence on curve patterns was estimated using quantitative genetic modeling based on linear structural equations. Overall, 1455 twins (41% monozygotic) had valid glucose concentrations measured from the OGTT, and four latent classes with different glucose response patterns were identified. Statistical modeling demonstrated genetic influence for belonging to a specific class or not, with heritability estimated to be between 45% and 67%. During ∼12 years of follow-up, the four classes were each associated with different incidence of type 2 diabetes. Hence, glucose response curve patterns associated with type 2 diabetes risk appear to be moderately to highly heritable.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Prueba de Tolerancia a la Glucosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Teorema de Bayes , Estudios de Cohortes , Dinamarca , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Variación Genética , Prueba de Tolerancia a la Glucosa/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sistema de Registros , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética
5.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(1): 8-15, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983355

RESUMEN

In 1984, Hrubec and Robinette published what was arguably the first review of the role of twins in medical research. The authors acknowledged a growing distinction between two categories of twin studies: those aimed at assessing genetic contributions to disease and those aimed at assessing environmental contributions while controlling for genetic variation. They concluded with a brief section on recently founded twin registries that had begun to provide unprecedented access to twins for medical research. Here we offer an overview of the twin research that, in our estimation, best represents the field has progress since 1984. We start by summarizing what we know about twinning. We then focus on the value of twin study designs to differentiate between genetic and environmental influences on health and on emerging applications of twins in multiple areas of medical research. We finish by describing how twin registries and networks are accelerating twin research worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades en Gemelos/genética , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Estudios en Gemelos como Asunto , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética , Investigación Biomédica/métodos , Enfermedades en Gemelos/congénito , Enfermedades en Gemelos/embriología , Epigénesis Genética/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Sistema de Registros , Células Madre/metabolismo , Células Madre/patología
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 286: 112548, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495512

RESUMEN

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and insomnia are comorbid clinical conditions that are thought to result from genetic and environmental effects. Though studies have established the heritability of these disorders independently, no study to date has examined the genetic contributions to the relation between insomnia and PTSD symptoms (PTSS). The present study assessed this gap in the literature using a behavioral genetics approach to symptom dimensions. The sample consisted of 242 twin pairs who endorsed lifetime trauma exposure. Insomnia symptoms were assessed with the Women's Health Initiative Survey, and intrusion and avoidance PTSS were assessed with the Impact of Events Scale. Structural equation modeling was then employed to test the relative contributions of genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental components to the relations between insomnia symptoms and intrusions and avoidance. Results indicated a significant association between insomnia symptoms and intrusions (r = 0.33, p < 0.01) and insomnia symptoms and avoidance (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and 36-44% of phenotypic variance was accounted for by genetic contributions. These findings highlight a significant role for genetic factors in the mechanisms underlying the comorbidity between insomnia and PTSS. The implications for current etiological models of PTSD and insomnia are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades en Gemelos/etiología , Enfermedades en Gemelos/genética , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/complicaciones , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/genética , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/etiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/genética , Gemelos/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sistema de Registros , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética , Washingtón/epidemiología
7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(2)2020 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608377

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Inter-individual differences in cortisol production and metabolism emerge with age and may be explained by genetic factors. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to inter-individual differences in cortisol production and metabolism throughout adolescence. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study of twins. SETTING: Nationwide register. PARTICIPANTS: 218 mono- and dizygotic twins (N = 109 pairs) born between 1995 amd 1996, recruited from the Netherlands Twin Register. Cortisol metabolites were determined in 213, 169, and 160 urine samples at the ages of 9, 12, and 17, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The total contribution of genetic factors (broad-sense heritability) and shared and unshared environmental influences to inter-individual differences in cortisol production and activities of 5α-reductase, 5ß-reductase, and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and cytochrome P450 3A4. RESULTS: For cortisol production rate at the ages of 9, 12, and 17, broad-sense heritability was estimated as 42%, 30%, and 0%, respectively, and the remainder of the variance was explained by unshared environmental factors. For cortisol metabolism indices, the following heritability was observed: for the A-ring reductases (5α-and 5ß-reductases), broad-sense heritability increased with age (to >50%), while for the other indices (renal 11ß-HSD2, global 11ß-HSD, and CYP3A4), the contribution of genetic factors was highest (68%, 18%, and 67%, respectively) at age 12. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of genetic factors to inter-individual differences in cortisol production decreased between 12 and 17y, indicative of a predominant role of individual circumstances. For cortisol metabolism, distinct patterns of genetic and environmental influences were observed, with heritability that either increased with age or peaked at age 12y.


Asunto(s)
Vías Biosintéticas/genética , Hidrocortisona/genética , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Deshidrogenasas/genética , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Deshidrogenasas/orina , 3-Oxo-5-alfa-Esteroide 4-Deshidrogenasa/genética , 3-Oxo-5-alfa-Esteroide 4-Deshidrogenasa/orina , Adolescente , Niño , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/orina , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/orina , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisario/metabolismo , Masculino , Países Bajos , Oxidorreductasas/genética , Oxidorreductasas/orina , Estudios Prospectivos , Carácter Cuantitativo Heredable , Sistema de Registros
8.
Blood ; 135(4): 261-268, 2020 01 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697811

RESUMEN

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is defined by mutations in myeloid cancer-associated genes with a variant allele frequency of at least 2%. Recent studies have suggested a possible genetic predisposition to CH. To further explore this phenomenon, we conducted a population-based study of 594 twins from 299 pairs aged 73 to 94 years, all with >20 years' follow-up. We sequenced DNA from peripheral blood with a customized 21-gene panel at a median coverage of 6179X. The casewise concordance rates for mutations were calculated to assess genetic predisposition. Mutations were identified in 214 (36%) of the twins. Whereas 20 twin pairs had mutations within the same genes, the exact same mutation was only observed in 2 twin pairs. No significant difference in casewise concordance between monozygotic and dizygotic twins was found for any specific gene, subgroup, or CHIP mutations overall, and no significant heritability could be detected. In pairs discordant for CHIP mutations, we tested if the affected twin died before the unaffected twin, as a direct measurement of the association of having CH when controlling for familial factors. A total of 127 twin pairs were discordant for carrying a mutation, and in 61 (48%) cases, the affected twin died first (P = .72). Overall, we did not find a genetic predisposition to CHIP mutations in this twin study. The previously described negative association of CHIP mutations on survival could not be confirmed in a direct comparison among twin pairs that were discordant for CHIP mutations.


Asunto(s)
Hematopoyesis , Leucemia Mieloide/genética , Gemelos/genética , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Enfermedades en Gemelos/genética , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidad , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide/mortalidad , Masculino , Mutación , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética
9.
Blood ; 135(4): 269-273, 2020 01 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697828

RESUMEN

Although acquisition of leukemia-associated somatic mutations by 1 or more hematopoietic stem cells is inevitable with advancing age, its consequences are highly variable, ranging from clinically silent clonal hematopoiesis (CH) to leukemic progression. To investigate the influence of heritable factors on CH, we performed deep targeted sequencing of blood DNA from 52 monozygotic (MZ) and 27 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (aged 70-99 years). Using this highly sensitive approach, we identified CH (variant allele frequency ≥0.5%) in 62% of individuals. We did not observe higher concordance for CH within MZ twin pairs as compared with that within DZ twin pairs, or to that expected by chance. However, we did identify 2 MZ pairs in which both twins harbored identical rare somatic mutations, suggesting a shared cell of origin. Finally, in 3 MZ twin pairs harboring mutations in the same driver genes, serial blood samples taken 4 to 5 years apart showed substantial twin-to-twin variability in clonal trajectories. Our findings propose that the inherited genome does not exert a dominant influence on the behavior of adult CH and provide evidence that CH mutations may be acquired in utero.


Asunto(s)
Hematopoyesis , Leucemia/genética , Mutación , Gemelos/genética , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Enfermedades en Gemelos/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética
10.
Behav Genet ; 50(2): 105-118, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811520

RESUMEN

This study documented the etiology contributions between anxiety symptoms (AS) and depressive symptoms (DS) from ages 6-12 years. Teachers assessed AS and DS in 1112 twins at 5 time points. A genetic cross-lagged model was used to estimate genetic/environmental contributions to cross-sectional, cross-age and cross-lag associations. The variance in AS and DS was largely time-specific and more genetic in nature for DS than for AS. Previous DS predicted subsequent DS better than cross-lag or previous common effects, and AS up to age 9 better than previous AS or previous common effects. Thereafter, previous AS predicted subsequent AS. All predictions involved both genetic and unique environment. Suppression effects were found and, when controlled, AS marginally predicted DS from age 7 onward through genetic influences. AS and DS are associated throughout childhood. DS are more stable than AS, and more central to both subsequent AS and DS. AS marginally contribute to subsequent DS.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/genética , Depresión/genética , Gemelos/psicología , Ansiedad/etiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/etiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/genética , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/etiología , Trastorno Depresivo/etiología , Trastorno Depresivo/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Gemelos/genética , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética
11.
Behav Genet ; 50(2): 73-83, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820295

RESUMEN

The Louisville Twin Study (LTS) began in 1958 and became a premier longitudinal twin study of cognitive development. The LTS continuously collected data from twins through 2000 after which the study closed indefinitely due to lack of funding. Now that the majority of the sample is age 40 or older (61.36%, N = 1770), the LTS childhood data can be linked to midlife cognitive functioning, among other physical, biological, social, and psychiatric outcomes. We report results from two pilot studies in anticipation of beginning the midlife phase of the LTS. The first pilot study was a participant tracking study, in which we showed that approximately 90% of the Louisville families randomly sampled (N = 203) for the study could be found. The second pilot study consisted of 40 in-person interviews in which twins completed cognitive, memory, biometric, and functional ability measures. The main purpose of the second study was to correlate midlife measures of cognitive functioning to a measure of biological age, which is an alternative index to chronological age that quantifies age as a function of the breakdown of structural and functional physiological systems, and then to relate both of these measures to twins' cognitive developmental trajectories. Midlife IQ was uncorrelated with biological age (- .01) while better scores on episodic memory more strongly correlated with lower biological age (- .19 to - .31). As expected, midlife IQ positively correlated with IQ measures collected throughout childhood and adolescence. Additionally, positive linear rates of change in FSIQ scores in childhood significantly correlated with biological age (- .68), physical functioning (.71), and functional ability (- .55), suggesting that cognitive development predicts lower biological age, better physical functioning, and better functional ability. In sum, the Louisville twins can be relocated to investigate whether and how early and midlife cognitive and physical health factors contribute to cognitive aging.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Envejecimiento Cognitivo/fisiología , Envejecimiento Cognitivo/psicología , Cognición/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Gemelos/genética , Gemelos/psicología , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Dicigóticos/psicología , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/psicología
12.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(1): 16-22, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875789

RESUMEN

Work incapacity is a major public health challenge and an economic burden to both society and individuals. Understanding the underlying causes is becoming ever more relevant as many countries face an aging workforce. We examined stability and change in genetic and environmental factors influencing work incapacity from age 18 until retirement, and sex differences in these effects. The large population-based sample comprised information from 28,759 twins followed for up to 23 years combined with high-quality national registry data. We measured work incapacity as the total proportion of potential workdays lost due to sickness absence, rehabilitation and disability benefits. Structural equation modeling with twin data indicated moderate genetic influences on work incapacity throughout life in both men and women, with a high degree of genetic stability from young to old adulthood. Environmental influences were mainly age-specific. Our results indicate that largely the same genetic factors influence individual differences in work incapacity throughout young, middle and older adulthood, despite major differences in degree of work incapacity and probable underlying medical causes.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación de Capacidad de Trabajo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Envejecimiento/genética , Personas con Discapacidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sistema de Registros , Caracteres Sexuales , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Dicigóticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(1): 167-177, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967608

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The salience network (SN) comprises brain regions that evaluate cues in the external environment in light of internal signals. We examined the SN response to meal intake and potential genetic and acquired influences on SN function. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Monozygotic (MZ; 40 pairs) and dizygotic (15 pairs) twins had body composition and plasma metabolic profile evaluated (glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and GLP-1). Twins underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans before and after a standardized meal. The strength of SN connectivity was analyzed pre- and post-meal and the percentage change elicited by a meal was calculated. A multi-echo T2 MRI scan measured T2 relaxation time, a radiologic index of gliosis, in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) and control regions. Statistical approaches included intraclass correlations (ICC) to investigate genetic influences and within-pair analyses to exclude genetic confounders. RESULTS: SN connectivity was reduced by a meal ingestion (ß = -0.20; P < 0.001). Inherited influences on both pre- and post-meal connectivity were present (ICC MZ twins 26%, P < 0.05 and 47%, P < 0.001, respectively), but not percentage change in response to the meal. SN connectivity in response to a meal did not differ between participants with obesity and of normal weight (χ2(1) = 0.93; P = 0.33). However, when participants were classified as having high or low signs of MBH gliosis, the high MBH gliosis group failed to reduce the connectivity in response to a meal (z = -1.32; P = 0.19). Excluding genetic confounders, the percentage change in SN connectivity by a meal correlated to body fat percentage (r = 0.24; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: SN connectivity was reduced by a meal, indicating potential participation of the SN in control of feeding. The strength of SN connectivity is inherited, but the degree to which SN connectivity is reduced by eating appears to be influenced by adiposity and the presence of hypothalamic gliosis.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Alimentos , Gliosis/fisiopatología , Hipotálamo/fisiología , Comidas/fisiología , Red Nerviosa/fisiología , Adulto , Ingestión de Alimentos/genética , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Femenino , Antecedentes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Dicigóticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
14.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(6): 637-640, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796140

RESUMEN

Here we provide an update of the 2013 report on the Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry (NTSR). The major aim of the NTSR is to understand genetic and environmental influences and their interplay in psychological and mental health development in Nigerian children and adolescents. Africans have the highest twin birth rates among all human populations, and Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. Due to its combination of large population and high twin birth rates, Nigeria has one of the largest twin populations in the world. In this article, we provide current updates on the NTSR samples recruited, recruitment procedures, zygosity assessment and findings emerging from the NTSR.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades en Gemelos/epidemiología , Salud Mental , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Hermanos , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Tasa de Natalidad , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedades en Gemelos/genética , Enfermedades en Gemelos/psicología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(6): 681-685, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868161

RESUMEN

The Arizona Twin Project is an ongoing longitudinal study designed to elucidate gene-environment interplay underlying the development of risk and resilience to common mental and physical health problems during infancy, childhood and adolescence. Specificity of risk is carefully examined across mental and physical health and how these influences vary across socioeconomic and sociocultural environments. Participants are a sample of approximately 700 twins (31% Latinx) recruited from birth records in the state of Arizona, USA. Twins are 32% monozygotic twins, 36% same-sex dizygotic (DZ), 32% opposite-sex DZ, currently 10-11 years of age. Primary caregivers were interviewed on twins' development and early physical and social environments when twins were 1, 2 and 5 years of age. In-depth objective measurement commenced in middle childhood, with in-person assessments at 8-11 years of age, with plans to continue to follow the sample across adolescence. Middle childhood measures focus on children's physical and mental health, including diurnal cortisol, actigraphy-based measures of sleep and activity, cold pressor task assessing acute pain, and reaction time tasks assessing executive functioning. Preliminary findings illustrate that objective assessments of children's health are highly heritable, but they do not always share genetic etiology with more commonly used subjective assessments. Exposure to early adversity moderates genetic influences on both executive functioning and health, with higher heritability typically seen under adverse conditions. Future directions include an examination of how pubertal stage affects genetic and environmental influences on diurnal cortisol, sleep, chronic pain, and mental health.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades en Gemelos/epidemiología , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Psicopatología , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética , Adolescente , Arizona/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedades en Gemelos/patología , Enfermedades en Gemelos/psicología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/patología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Dolor/genética , Dolor/fisiopatología , Sueño/genética , Medio Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(6): 606-608, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875802

RESUMEN

The South Korean Twin Registry (SKTR) is an ongoing nationwide volunteer registry of South Korean twins and their families. Since its inception, from preschooler to young adult, twins have been registered with the SKTR and have demonstrated that relative influences of genetic and environmental factors explaining individual differences in various psychological, mental health and physical traits in South Koreans are similar to those found in many Western twin studies. Currently, studies at the SKTR focus on identification of the process of gene-by-environment interactions as well as developmental differences in genetic and environmental influences on psychological and mental health traits in South Koreans. This report provides a brief overview, recruitment strategies, current samples, zygosity assessment, measures and future directions of the SKTR.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades en Gemelos/epidemiología , Enfermedades en Gemelos/genética , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Enfermedades en Gemelos/psicología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , República de Corea/epidemiología , Gemelos Dicigóticos/psicología , Gemelos Monocigóticos/psicología , Adulto Joven
17.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(6): 660-666, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875804

RESUMEN

The first twin study in Serbia began in 2011 as a part of the research project, 'Psychological Foundations of Mental Health: Hereditary and Environmental Factors'. At the same time, the research team from the Faculty of Philosophy and Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad established the first Serbian twin registry. The registry is intended primarily for the purpose of the research in behavioral genetics, as well as potential future studies in human genetics. It includes information on 1658 volunteers, including twin-pairs, their parent and siblings. The behavioral genetic study of adult twins has been focused on the hereditary and environmental sources of variance of different psychological characteristics, such as personality traits, cognitive abilities, executive functions and aggression, as well as some anthropometric measures and aspects of mental and physical health. Certain molecular genetic analyses have also been performed. The research team is currently starting the longitudinal twin study of children, which will be focused on different indicators of emotional, cognitive and physical development.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades en Gemelos/epidemiología , Genética Conductual , Personalidad/genética , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedades en Gemelos/genética , Enfermedades en Gemelos/psicología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Serbia/epidemiología , Hermanos , Adulto Joven
18.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(6): 609-610, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840625

RESUMEN

Despite the well-known relevance of twin studies in the medical and social sciences and the growing number of twin registries throughout the world, Latin America has not fully incorporated into the twin research community. We describe the first steps taken toward developing a twin registry in Mexico: its aim, organization, recruiting potential and main short-term objectives.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades en Gemelos/epidemiología , Enfermedades en Gemelos/genética , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Padres , Selección de Paciente , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(6): 623-636, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666148

RESUMEN

The Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) is a national register in which twins, multiples and their parents, siblings, spouses and other family members participate. Here we describe the NTR resources that were created from more than 30 years of data collections; the development and maintenance of the newly developed database systems, and the possibilities these resources create for future research. Since the early 1980s, the NTR has enrolled around 120,000 twins and a roughly equal number of their relatives. The majority of twin families have participated in survey studies, and subsamples took part in biomaterial collection (e.g., DNA) and dedicated projects, for example, for neuropsychological, biomarker and behavioral traits. The recruitment into the NTR is all inclusive without any restrictions on enrollment. These resources - the longitudinal phenotyping, the extended pedigree structures and the multigeneration genotyping - allow for future twin-family research that will contribute to gene discovery, causality modeling, and studies of genetic and cultural inheritance.


Asunto(s)
Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Biomarcadores/análisis , Enfermedades en Gemelos/epidemiología , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Proyectos de Investigación/estadística & datos numéricos , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Bases de Datos Factuales , Enfermedades en Gemelos/genética , Enfermedades en Gemelos/psicología , Familia , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Linaje , Fenotipo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(6): 482-485, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708009

RESUMEN

The Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), initiated in 2001, has now become the largest twin registry in Asia. From 2015 to 2018, the CNTR continued to receive Chinese government funding and had recruited 61,566 twin-pairs by 2019 to study twins discordant for specific exposures such as environmental factors, and twins discordant for disease outcomes or measures of morbidity. Omic data, including genetics, genomics, metabolomics, and proteomics, and gut microbiome will be tested. The integration of omics and digital technologies in public health will advance our understanding of precision public health. This review introduces the updates of the CNTR, including study design, sample size, biobank, zygosity assessment, advances in research and future systems epidemiologic research.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades en Gemelos/epidemiología , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Gemelos Dicigóticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Gemelos Monocigóticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/genética , Investigación Biomédica , China/epidemiología , Enfermedades en Gemelos/genética , Enfermedades en Gemelos/patología , Humanos , Incidencia , Proyectos de Investigación/normas , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética
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