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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250739, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355896

RESUMEN

Abstract Several reasons may underlie the dramatic increase in type2 diabetes mellitus. One of these reasons is the genetic basis and variations. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms are associated with different diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible association of two identified mutations ApaI (rs7975232) and TaqI (rs731236). Eighty-nine healthy individuals and Fifty-six Type 2 Diabetic (T2D) patients were investigated using RFLP technique for genotyping and haplotyping as well. The distribution of Apal genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.65) as well as for diabetic patients (P=0.58). For Taql allele frequencies of T allele was 0.61 where of G allele was 0.39. The frequency distribution of Taql genotypes was not statistically significant among the control (P=0.26) as well as diabetic patients (P=0.17). Relative risk of the allele T of Apa1 gene is 1.28 and the odds ratio of the same allele is 1.53, while both estimates were < 1.0 of the allele G. Similarly, with the Taq1 gene the relative risk and the odds ratio values for the allele T are 1.09 and 1.27 respectively and both estimates of the allele C were 0.86 for the relative risk and 0.79 for the odds ratio. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs Taq1/apa1 was statistically significant in control group (D = 0.218, D' = 0.925 and P value < 0.001) and similar data in diabetic groups (D = 0.2, D' = 0.875 and P value < 0.001). These data suggest that the T allele of both genes Apa1 and Taq1 is associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We think that we need a larger number of volunteers to reach a more accurate conclusion.


Resumo Várias razões podem estar subjacentes ao aumento dramático da diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Um desses motivos é a base genética e variações. Os polimorfismos do receptor da vitamina D estão associados a diferentes doenças, como artrite reumatoide e diabetes. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a possível associação de duas mutações identificadas ApaI (rs7975232) e TaqI (rs731236). Oitenta e nove indivíduos saudáveis ​​e 56 pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) foram investigados usando a técnica RFLP para genotipagem e haplotipagem também. A distribuição dos genótipos Apal não foi estatisticamente significativa entre o controle (P = 0,65), bem como para os pacientes diabéticos (P = 0,58). Para as frequências do alelo Taql, o alelo T foi de 0,61, onde o alelo G foi de 0,39. A distribuição de frequência dos genótipos Taql não foi estatisticamente significativa entre o controle (P = 0,26), bem como os pacientes diabéticos (P = 0,17). O risco relativo do alelo T do gene Apa1 é 1,28 e a razão de chances do mesmo alelo é 1,53, enquanto ambas as estimativas foram < 1,0 do alelo G. Da mesma forma, com o gene Taq1, os valores de risco relativo e razão de chances para o alelo T são 1,09 e 1,27, respectivamente, e ambas as estimativas do alelo C foram de 0,86 para o risco relativo e 0,79 para o odds ratio. O desequilíbrio de ligação par a par entre os dois SNPs Taq1 / apa1 foi estatisticamente significativo no grupo de controle (D = 0,218, D' = 0,925 e valor P < 0,001) e dados semelhantes em grupos diabéticos (D = 0,2, D' = 0,875 e valor P < 0,001). Esses dados sugerem que o alelo T de ambos os genes Apa1 e Taq1 está associado ao aumento do risco de diabetes tipo 2. Achamos que precisamos de um número maior de voluntários para chegar a uma conclusão mais precisa.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Arabia Saudita , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255235, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355897

RESUMEN

Abstract In soybean breeding program, continuous selection pressure on traits response to yield created a genetic bottleneck for improvements of soybean through hybridization breeding technique. Therefore an initiative was taken to developed high yielding soybean variety applying mutation breeding techniques at Plant Breeding Division, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Bangladesh. Locally available popular cultivar BARI Soybean-5 was used as a parent material and subjected to five different doses of Gamma ray using Co60. In respect to seed yield and yield attributing characters, twelve true breed mutants were selected from M4 generation. High values of heritability and genetic advance with high genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) for plant height, branch number and pod number were considered as favorable attributes for soybean improvement that ensure expected yield. The mutant SBM-18 obtained from 250Gy provided stable yield performance at diversified environments. It provided maximum seed yield of 3056 kg ha-1 with highest number of pods plant-1 (56). The National Seed Board of Bangladesh (NSB) eventually approved SBM-18 and registered it as a new soybean variety named 'Binasoybean-5' for large-scale planting because of its superior stability in various agro-ecological zones and consistent yield performance.


Resumo No programa de melhoramento da soja, a pressão pela seleção contínua para a resposta das características de rendimento criou um gargalo genético para melhorias da soja por meio da técnica de melhoramento por hibridação. Portanto, foi desenvolvida uma variedade de soja de alto rendimento, aplicando técnicas de reprodução por mutação, na Divisão de Melhoramento de Plantas, no Instituto de Agricultura Nuclear de Bangladesh (BINA), em Bangladesh. A cultivar popular BARI Soybean-5, disponível localmente, foi usada como material original e submetida a cinco doses diferentes de raios gama usando Co60. Em relação ao rendimento de sementes e às características de atribuição de rendimento, 12 mutantes genuínos foram selecionados a partir da geração M4. Altos valores de herdabilidade e avanço genético com alto coeficiente de variância genotípico (GCV) para altura da planta, número de ramos e número de vagens foram considerados atributos favoráveis ​​ao melhoramento da soja, garantindo, assim, a produtividade esperada. O mutante SBM-18, obtido a partir de 250Gy, proporcionou desempenho de rendimento estável em ambientes diversificados e produtividade máxima de sementes de 3.056 kg ha-1 com o maior número de vagens planta-1 (56). O Conselho Nacional de Sementes de Bangladesh (NSB) finalmente aprovou o SBM-18 e o registrou como uma nova variedade de soja, chamada 'Binasoybean-5', para plantio em larga escala por causa de sua estabilidade superior em várias zonas agroecológicas e desempenho de rendimento consistente.


Asunto(s)
Soja/crecimiento & desarrollo , Soja/genética , Fenotipo , Bangladesh , Fitomejoramiento , Genotipo , Mutación
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256799, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360215

RESUMEN

Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is one of the most important corn leaf diseases. Appropriate management strategies and the use of resistant cultivars allow disease control. Therefore, knowing the aspects related to the pathogen and the response of hosts makes it possible to design efficient strategies for selecting genotypes resistant to this disease. In this sense, the objective was to carry out the Bipolaris maydis isolate characterization, evaluating the pathogenicity in different popcorn lines and the symptoms generated in the host after inoculation. The isolate characterization consisted of the macromorphological evaluation of the colonies and the micromorphological evaluation of the conidia in the PDA medium. An experiment was carried out in a greenhouse to evaluate the pathogenicity of the isolate, using 20 inbred lines of popcorn in a randomized block design with four replicates. Inoculation was carried out by spraying leaves, with a suspension containing 1.0 x 104 conidia.ml-1 of the CF/UENF 501 isolate of B. maydis. An incidence assessment and three assessments of disease symptom severity were performed, with seven days intervals between evaluations. The morphological characterization data of the isolate were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and for disease severity, the linear regression model was applied the first-degree model. The variance analysis was performed for the linear and angular coefficients obtained for each treatment. When a difference was found, the Scott-Knott clustering algorithm at 5% significance was applied. The isolate had gray-green colonies, a cottony appearance, and an irregular shape. The lines L353, L354, and L624 show more resistance at the beginning and throughout the evaluations. The high virulence of the CF/UENF 501 isolate made it possible to differentiate the lines in terms of disease intensity and the pattern of symptoms presented.


Mancha-de-Bipolaris é uma das mais importantes doenças foliares do milho. Estratégias de manejo adequadas e o uso de cultivar resistente permitem o controle da doença, mas para tanto, conhecer os aspectos associados ao patógeno e a resposta do hospedeiro é necessário para traçar estratégias eficientes para seleção de genótipos resistentes a essa doença. Neste sentido, objetivou-se realizar a caracterização do isolado de Bipolaris maydis avaliando a patogenicidade em diferentes linhagens de milho-pipoca e os sintomas gerados no hospedeiro a partir da inoculação. A caracterização do isolado consistiu na avaliação macromorfológica das colônias e micromofológica dos conídios em meio nutritivo BDA. Para avaliação da patogenicidade do isolado foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação utilizando 20 linhagens endogâmicas de milho-pipoca, com delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. A inoculação foi realizada por meio de pulverização em folhas, com uma suspensão contendo 1,0 x 104 conídios.ml-1 do isolado CF/UENF 501 de B. maydis. Foi realizada uma avaliação de incidência e três avaliações de severidade dos sintomas da doença, com o intervalo de sete dias para cada avaliação. Os dados da caracterização morfológica do isolado foram analisados por meio da estatística descritiva e para severidade da doença foi aplicado o modelo de regressão linear de primeiro grau. Realizou-se a análise de variância para o coeficiente linear e angular obtido para cada tratamento e quando constatada diferença aplicou-se o agrupamento de médias de Scott-knott a 5% de significância. O isolado apresentou colônias com coloração cinza esverdeado, aspecto algodonoso e forma irregular. As linhagens L353 e L354 e L624 estão entre as linhagens que apresentaram maior resistência no inicio e ao longo das avaliações. A elevada virulência do isolado CF/UENF 501 possibilitou diferenciar as linhagens quanto a intensidade da doença, bem como o padrão dos sintomas apresentados.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Control de Plagas , Zea mays , Genotipo
4.
Ann Lab Med ; 43(1): 38-44, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045055

RESUMEN

Background: Reference materials are essential for the quality assurance of molecular detection methods. We developed and characterized synthetic norovirus GI and GII RNA reference materials. Methods: Norovirus GI and GII RNA sequences including the ORF1-ORF2 junction region were designed based on 1,495 reported norovirus sequences and synthesized via plasmid preparation and in vitro transcription. The synthetic norovirus GI and GII RNAs were evaluated using six commercial norovirus detection kits used in Korea and subjected to homogeneity and stability analyses. A multicenter study involving five laboratories and using four commercial real-time PCR norovirus detection assays was conducted for synthetic norovirus RNA characterization and uncertainty measurements. Results: The synthetic norovirus GI and GII RNAs were positively detected using the six commercial norovirus detection kits and were homogeneous and stable for one year when stored at -20°C or -70°C. All data from the five laboratories were within a range of 1.0 log copies/µL difference for each RNA, and the overall mean concentrations for norovirus GI and GII RNAs were 7.90 log copies/µL and 6.96 log copies/µL, respectively. Conclusions: The synthetic norovirus GI and GII RNAs are adequate for quality control based on commercial molecular detection reagents for noroviruses with high sequence variability. The synthetic RNAs can be used as reference materials in norovirus molecular detection methods.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Caliciviridae , Norovirus , Infecciones por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Genotipo , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , ARN Viral/análisis , ARN Viral/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/métodos , República de Corea
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252594, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339400

RESUMEN

Abstract The present trial explained the effect of alternative production systems on growth, morphometric and carcass traits of four different chicken genotypes. The second generation of two genotypes RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) and BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtained by two self-crosses (RNN × RNN = RR and BNN × BNN = BB) and two reciprocal crosses (RNN × BNN = RB and BNN × RNN = BR) were evaluated in three alternative production systems (conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary). At the 6th week of age after sexing, a total of 600 birds, comprising 150 from each crossbred with a total of 300 pullets and 300 cockerels were divided into conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary systems having 200 birds in each.Birds were organized into 3×4 factorial arrangements under Completely Randomized Design (3 production systems × 4 genotypes × 2 sexes × 25 birds = 600 birds). Regarding genotypes, RB and BR males showed higher (p < 0.01) carcass yield, drumstick weight, breast weight, and thigh weight than BB and RR genotypes. Females of BR genotype showed higher (p < 0.01) breast weight, thigh weight and drumstick weight. As far as production systems are concerned, higher (p < 0.01) liver weight, heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight were observed in the males reared in enriched cages compared with conventional cages and aviary system. Females reared in enriched cages showed higher (p < 0.01) heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight when compared with those reared in conventional cages and aviary. It is concluded that chickens (both sexes) of BR and RB genotypes had better morphological measurements and carcass traits than those of RR and BB genotype chickens. Among alternative production systems, chickens reared in enriched cages had better traits than those of reared in conventional cages and aviary during the growing phase.


Resumo O presente estudo explicou o efeito de sistemas alternativos de produção sobre o crescimento, características morfométricas e carcaças de quatro genótipos de frango diferentes. A segunda geração de dois genótipos RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) e BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtida por duas autocruzes (RNN × RNN = RR e B ANN × BNN = BB) e duas cruzes recíprocas (RNN × BNN = RB e BNN × RNN = BR) foi avaliada em três sistemas de produção alternativos (gaiolas convencionais, gaiolas enriquecidas e aviário). Na 6ª semana de idade após o sexo, um total de 600 aves, compostas por 150 de cada raça cruzada com um total de 300 pullets e 300 galos, foi dividido em gaiolas convencionais, gaiolas enriquecidas e sistemas aviários com 200 aves em cada. As aves foram organizadas em 3×4 arranjos fatoriais sob projeto completamente randomizado (3 sistemas de produção × 4 genótipos × 2 sexos × 25 aves = 600 aves). Em relação aos genótipos, os machos RB e BR apresentaram maior rendimento de carcaça (p < 0,01), peso da baqueta, peso mamário e peso da coxa do que os genótipos BB e RR. As fêmeas do genótipo BR apresentaram maior (p < 0,01) peso mamário, peso da coxa e peso da baqueta. No que diz respeito aos sistemas de produção, maior (p < 0,01) peso hepático, peso cardíaco, peso mamário, peso intestinal, peso da baqueta e peso da coxa foram observados nos machos criados em gaiolas enriquecidas em comparação com gaiolas convencionais e sistema aviário. As fêmeas criadas em gaiolas enriquecidas apresentaram maior (p < 0,01) peso cardíaco, peso mamário, peso intestinal, peso da baqueta e peso da coxa quando comparadas com as criadas em gaiolas convencionais e aviárias. Conclui-se que as galinhas (ambos os sexos) dos genótipos BR e RB apresentaram melhores medidas morfológicas e traços de carcaça do que os de frangos genótipos RR e BB. Entre os sistemas de produção alternativos, as galinhas criadas em gaiolas enriquecidas tinham características melhores do que as criadas em gaiolas convencionais e aviárias durante a fase de cultivo.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Pollos/genética , Hibridación Genética , Rhode Island , Genotipo
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247181, 2023. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339388

RESUMEN

Abstract The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Resumo Os protozoários incluem muitos patógenos humanos intracelulares. A detecção acurada desses patógenos é necessária para tratar as doenças. Na epidemiologia clínica, a identificação molecular de protozoários é considerada o método de identificação mais confiável e rápido do que a microscopia. Entre esses protozoários, o Cryptosporidium é considerado um dos importantes patógenos zoonóticos transmitidos pela água e uma das principais causas de uma doença diarreica denominada criptosporidiose em humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar Cryptosporidium em zoofelídeos (N = 56) pertencentes a diferentes zoológicos da China, mas acidentalmente Colpodella foi encontrada na amostra de zoofelídeos e os dados filogenéticos confirmaram essa amplificação inesperada de amostras fecais usando nested-PCR em duas etapas. A análise filogenética revelou o fato sobre os primers específicos usados ​​anteriormente por muitos pesquisadores e a amplificação entre gêneros. Ficamos sabendo que o amplicon sequenciado geneticamente fornece uma identificação mais acurada das espécies. Este estudo sugere mais investigação sobre Colpodella, que foi negligenciada anteriormente, mas ganha a atenção dos pesquisadores depois de identificada em humanos e animais e é conhecida por se correlacionar com sintomas neurológicos em pacientes.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/genética , Filogenia , China , Heces , Genotipo
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244977, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285621

RESUMEN

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.


Resumo O vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é o grave problema de saúde pública das doenças hepáticas. Aproximadamente 170 milhões de pessoas no mundo estão infectadas com HCV; no Paquistão, a doença tem alto índice de ocorrência. O presente estudo prevê uma prevalência atualizada do HCV e distribuição genotípica na população geral do distrito de Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Paquistão. As amostras de sangue de 6.538 indivíduos, incluindo 3.263 homens e 3.275 mulheres, foram analisadas para o antígeno de superfície da hepatite C por teste imunocromatográfico (ICT), ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) e reação em cadeia da polimerase de transcrição reversa (PCR). Verificou-se que 396 (12,13%) de 3.263 indivíduos continham anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV, enquanto entre as diferentes faixas etárias as maiores incidências de anticorpos anti-HCV foram encontradas na faixa etária de 31 a 40 anos (11,01%). As amostras positivas para ICT foram posteriormente rastreadas por nested PCR para determinar a existência de HCV-RNA ativo. Identificou-se que 7,11% (3.263) do total da população (6.538) testada foram positivos, dentre os quais 461 (14,07%) mulheres possuíam anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV. Nossos dados mostraram que a infecção total pelo HCV na população investigada foi de 5,78%. Maior porcentagem de prevalência de HCV foi detectada em homens do que em mulheres nas faixas etárias de 31-40 e 41-50. Para comparar a prevalência de genótipos de HCV com relação à idade no genótipo masculino e feminino 3a foi encontrado o genótipo mais prevalente seguido por 1a, 2a e 3b, respectivamente.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Hepacivirus/genética , Pakistán/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Genotipo
9.
Food Microbiol ; 109: 104114, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309428

RESUMEN

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E. Some of the rise in hepatitis E infection in China may be linked to undercooked pork. In this study, we established a reverse transcription droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) method to detect HEV in raw pork livers. The detection limit of the assay for HEV RNA was as low as 1.81 copies/µL. The suggested approach was validated on 14 samples, demonstrating greater sensitivity, specificity, and anti-interference performance features than RT-qPCR. Furthermore, we amplified the partial ORF2 gene by nested RT-PCR and sequenced for the HEV RNA positive samples. The prevalence of HEV in all collected samples was 2.24% (14/626), and the viral load was between 8.0 copies/µL and 8975 copies/µL. Specifically, the virus was detected in 10.62% (12/113) of the samples collected from the bio-safety disposal centers for dead livestock and poultry, in 0.67% (2/300) of the samples collected from the slaughterhouses, and none of the samples collected from the retail markets was HEV RNA positive. The subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that all HEV isolates belonged to the subtype 4d, which is one of the most common subtypes in northern China.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Hepatitis E , Hepatitis E , Carne de Cerdo , Carne Roja , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Porcinos , Humanos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Carne Roja/análisis , Filogenia , ARN Viral/genética , ARN Viral/análisis , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología , Genotipo
10.
Food Microbiol ; 109: 104140, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309442

RESUMEN

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) have been found as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in all age groups and are significantly correlated with the consumption of shellfish. In this study, the contamination of HuNoVs in shellfish was estimated through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies on the contamination of HuNoVs in shellfish were searched from PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library from January 2000 to August 2021. A total of 75 studies were included, and the pooled HuNoVs prevalence in shellfish was 29% (95% CI: 23-35) worldwide. As revealed by the results of the subgroup meta-analysis, the prevalence of dominant genogroup was variable, and 4% (95% CI: 3-6), 13% (95% CI: 10-17), with 7% (95% CI: 4-11) of the samples, respectively, contaminated by GI alone, GII alone, and GI&GII. The HuNoVs prevalence of shellfish in Europe, America, and Asia was 33% (95% CI: 24-43), 24% (95% CI: 7-47), and 27% (95% CI: 18-35), respectively, while only 10% (95% CI: 5-17) in Africa. Furthermore, the prevalence of HuNoVs in shellfish was the highest in spring (35%, 95% CI: 23-49) and winter (35%, 95% CI: 22-50), and the lowest in summer (11%, 95% CI: 5-18). Oysters, clams, and mussels had comparable HuNoVs prevalence of 28% (95% CI: 20-37), 27% (95% CI: 16-39) and 24% (95% CI: 17-32), respectively. The prevalence of HuNoVs in shellfish from harvest areas and markets was 30% (95% CI: 23-38) and 30% (95% CI: 19-41), respectively. The results of this study suggest a substantial burden of HuNoVs in shellfish worldwide, with GII.4 (92.86%) and GII.2 (46.43%) as the predominant genotypes. This study provides information regarding the contamination of HuNoVs in shellfish worldwide, which will contribute to the development of appropriate control measures to prevent shellfish-related HuNoVs gastroenteritis.


Asunto(s)
Bivalvos , Infecciones por Caliciviridae , Gastroenteritis , Norovirus , Ostreidae , Animales , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Mariscos , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Genotipo , Infecciones por Caliciviridae/epidemiología
11.
Food Chem ; 402: 134360, 2023 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303363

RESUMEN

This work aims to determine the effect of genotype x environment (GxE) interaction that influence blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) fruit quality. We applied metabolomics-driven analysis on fruits from four cultivars grown in contrasting European-locations over two seasons. By integrating metabolomics and sensory analysis, we also defined specific metabolic signatures associated with consumer acceptance. Our results showed that rainfall is a crucial factor associated with accumulation of delphinidin- and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, the two mayor blackcurrant pigments meanwhile temperature affects the main organic acid levels which can be decisive for fruit taste. Sensorial analysis showed that increases in terpenoid and acetate ester volatiles were strongly associated with higher appreciation score, while proacacipetalin, a cyanogenic-glycoside, was positively associated to bitter taste. Our results pave the way for the selection of high-quality cultivars and suitable production sites for blackcurrant cultivation.


Asunto(s)
Ribes , Ribes/genética , Ribes/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Estaciones del Año , Extractos Vegetales/metabolismo , Genotipo
12.
Food Chem ; 403: 134380, 2023 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194931

RESUMEN

Banana fruits have attracted considerable attention for health-promoting effects attributed to ubiquitous functional metabolites. However, genotype-dependent accumulation patterns of carotenoids in banana remain largely unclear. Here, we performed a systematic metabolomic investigation of 18 banana cultivars of the AAA, AAB, or ABB genome groups. Our results indicate that the levels of soluble sugars increase during postharvest ripening regardless of genotype, whereas amino acids (AAs) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-derived organic acids display genotype-dependent patterns. The levels of AAs derived from the glycolytic pathway increased, whereas those derived from the TCA cycle significantly decreased during ripening. The carotenoid composition in banana pulp was genotype-specific, and the contents of α-carotene were the highest in AAA-genome bananas. Moreover, high α-carotene and ß-carotene contents in banana were correlated with elevated levels of TCA cycle-derived AAs and decreased levels of glycolysis-derived AAs. Taken together, these findings provide a comprehensive understanding of genotype-associated carotenoid accumulation, thereby facilitating the breeding of future high carotenoid banana cultivars.


Asunto(s)
Musa , Musa/química , Fitomejoramiento , Carotenoides/análisis , Frutas/química , Genotipo
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159136, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191708

RESUMEN

Soil salinization is one of the most severe environmental problems restricting biodiversity maintenance and ecosystem functioning in a coastal wetland. Recent studies have well documented how salinization affects soil microbial communities along vegetation succession of coastal wetlands. However, the salinity effect is rarely assessed in the context of plant intraspecific variation. Here, we analyzed the soil bacterial and fungal communities of Phragmites australis wetland using amplicon high-throughput sequencing at a fine scale (within 1000 m) in the Yellow River Delta. Our results revealed that microbial diversity is significantly correlated to soil salinity (assessed as electrical conductivity, EC) but not to soil nutrients (N and P content) or plant intraspecific traits (leaf length, shoot height, and neutral genetic variation). Specifically, the microbial diversity tended to decrease with increased EC, and the bacterial community was more sensitive to EC change than the fungal community. The dominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi, and the dominant fungal phyla were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Mortierellomycota. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria was significantly negatively correlated to EC, while Proteobacteria were positively correlated to EC. In high salinity (> 1 mS/cm), the role of the stochastic processes became more important in community assembly according to habitat niche breadth estimation, neutral community model, C-score metric, and normalized stochasticity ratio. Additional common garden and microcosm experiments provided evidence that the genotype effect of P. australis on soil microbiome might only occur between lineages from different regions but not from the same region like the Yellow River Delta. Our findings provide new insights into soil microbial community assembly processes with the intraspecific variation of host plants in the wetland ecosystem and offer a scientific reference for salinity mitigation and vegetation management of coastal wetlands under future global changes.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Humedales , Suelo , Ríos , Salinidad , Plantas , Bacterias/genética , Genotipo , China
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341967

RESUMEN

Age at maturity is a key life history trait and a significant contributor to life history strategy variation. The maturation process is influenced by genetic and environmental factors, but specific causes of variation in maturation timing remain elusive. In many species, the increase in the regulatory gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) marks the onset of puberty. Atlantic salmon, however, lacks the gnrh1 gene, suggesting gnrh3 and/or other regulatory factors are involved in the maturation process. Earlier research in Atlantic salmon has found a strong association between alternative alleles of vgll3 and maturation timing. Recently we reported strong induction of gonadotropin genes (fshb and lhb) in the pituitary of Atlantic salmon homozygous for the early maturation allele (E) of vgll3. The induction of gonadotropins was accompanied by increased expression of their direct upstream regulators, c-jun and sf1 (nr5a1b) but the regulatory connection between vgll3 and these regulators has never been investigated in any organism. In this study, we investigated the potential regulatory connection between vgll3 genotypes and these regulators through a stepwise approach of identifying a gene regulatory network (GRN) containing c-jun and sf1, and transcription factor motif enrichment analysis. We found a GRN containing c-jun with predicted upstream regulators, e2f1, egr1, foxj1 and klf4, to be differentially expressed in the pituitary. Finally, we suggest a vgll3 and Hippo pathway -dependent model for transcriptional regulation of c-jun and sf1 in the pituitary, which may have broader implications across vertebrates.


Asunto(s)
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Salmo salar , Masculino , Animales , Salmo salar/genética , Maduración Sexual/genética , Hipófisis , Genotipo
15.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 61(Suppl 1): 37-45, 2023 01 01.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378105

RESUMEN

The detection of the most significant erythrocyte antigens present in each one of the individuals is fundamental when carrying out a transfusion or a transplant. Detection to date is performed by conventional serological methods through the antigen-antibody reaction. But several drawbacks may arise depending on the pathology under study, limiting the availability of blood components. Molecular methods such as genotyping is a tool that complements sensitivity and specificity and has come to revolutionize immunohematology in the blood bank, allowing not only the detection of erythrocyte antigens but also platelet antigens. These methodologies are applicable in patients and in large-scale donors, starting from the allelic variants present in each of the genes that code for the antigens of clinical interest, using microarray systems or systems based on particles labeled with specific probes or their variants that allow an analysis from the immunohematological point of view.


La detección de los antígenos eritrocitarios más significativos presentes en cada uno de los individuos es fundamental cuando se lleva a cabo una transfusión o un trasplante. La detección a la fecha se realiza mediante métodos serológicos convencionales a través de la reacción de antígeno-anticuerpo. Pero se pueden presentar varios inconvenientes dependiendo de la patología en estudio, lo cual limita la disponibilidad de los hemocomponentes. Los métodos moleculares, como la genotipificación, son una herramienta que complementa la sensibilidad y especificidad y que han venido a revolucionar la inmunohematología en el banco de sangre, lo cual permite no solo la detención de antígenos eritrocitarios sino también la de antígenos plaquetarios. Estas metodologías son aplicables en pacientes y en donantes a gran escala, partiendo de las variantes alélicas presentes en cada uno de los genes que codifican para los antígenos de interés clínico, utilizando los sistemas de microarreglos o los sistemas basados en partículas marcadas con sondas específicas o sus variantes que permiten un análisis desde el punto de vista inmunohematológico.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos de Plaqueta Humana , Humanos , Genotipo , Antígenos de Plaqueta Humana/análisis , Antígenos de Plaqueta Humana/genética , Bancos de Sangre , Transfusión Sanguínea , Técnicas de Genotipaje/métodos
16.
Parasitol Int ; 92: 102687, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216306

RESUMEN

Wallabies and kangaroos are susceptible to Toxoplasma gondii. However, little information concerning T. gondii infection in captive macropods is available. Three dead macropods collected from a zoo exhibited no clinical symptoms associated with toxoplasmosis. Heart fluids were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a modified agglutination test. T. gondii DNA samples derived from macropod tissues were tested by Polymerase Chain Reaction. Viable T. gondii were isolated from myocardium of macropods via mouse bioassay. Tissues (brain, lungs, or mesenteric lymph nodes) from T. gondii-positive mice were seeded into Vero cell culture flasks. The virulence of the isolated T. gondii strains was evaluated in Swiss mice. The DNA from T. gondii tachyzoites obtained from cell cultures was characterized by 10 PCR-RFLP markers and the virulence genes, ROP18 and ROP5. T. gondii antibodies were identified in two of the three macropods (Macropod#5 and #7). T. gondii DNA was obtained from the heart and lungs of Macropod#7. Two viable T. gondii strains were isolated from the myocardium of Macropus rufogriseus (Macropod#5) and M. rufus (Macropod#7) via mouse bioassay and designated as TgRooCHn2 and TgRooCHn3, respectively. TgRooCHn2 was ToxoDB genotype#3, and TgRooCHn3 was ToxoDB genotyp#2. Both 104 TgRooCHn2 and TgRooCHn3 tachyzoites had intermediate virulence in mice. M. rufogriseus (Macropod#5) and M. rufus (Macropod#7) may have been in the initial stages of toxoplasmosis, due to a recent T. gondii infection with oocysts. This study is the first to document the T. gondii ToxoDB#3 isolate in macropods. T. gondii infection in captive macropods indicates the urgent need to control the transmission of this parasite in the environment, food and water of zoo animals.


Asunto(s)
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis Animal , Animales , Ratones , Macropodidae/parasitología , Toxoplasmosis Animal/parasitología , Pruebas de Aglutinación , Oocistos , Genotipo , Anticuerpos Antiprotozoarios
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(1): 370-379, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36373792

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cocos nucifera (L.) is an important plantation crop with immense but untapped nutraceutical potential. Despite its bioactive potential, the biochemical features of testa oils of various coconut genotypes are poorly understood. Hence, in this study, the physicochemical characteristics of testa oils extracted from six coconut genotypes - namely West Coast Tall (WCT), Federated Malay States Tall (FMST), Chowghat Orange Dwarf (COD), Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD), and two Dwarf × Dwarf (D × D hybrids) viz., Cameroon Red Dwarf (CRD) × Ganga Bondam Green Dwarf (GBGD) and MYD × Chowghat Green Dwarf (CGD) - were analyzed. RESULTS: The proportion of testa in the nuts (fruits) (1.29-3.42%), the proportion of oil in the testa (40.97-50.56%), and biochemical components in testa oils - namely proxidant elements Fe (34.17-62.48 ppm) and Cu (1.63-2.77 ppm), and the total phenolic content (6.84-8.67 mg GAE/100 g), and phytosterol content (54.66-137.73 mg CE/100 g) varied depending on the coconut genotypes. The saturated fatty acid content of testa oils (67.75 to 78.78%) was lower in comparison with that of coconut kernel oils. Similarly, the lauric acid (26.66-32.04%), myristic (18.31-19.60%), and palmitic acid (13.43-15.71%,) content of testa oils varied significantly in comparison with the coconut kernel oils (32-51%, 17-21% and 6.9-14%, respectively). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of 18 phenolic acids in coconut testa oil. Multivariate analysis revealed the biochemical attributes that defined the principal components loadings. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the genotypes showed two distinct clusters. CONCLUSION: This study reveals the genotypic variations in the nutritionally important biochemical components of coconut testa oils. The relatively high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and polyphenol content in testa oils warrant further investigation to explore their nutraceutical potential. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Cocos , Ácidos Grasos , Cocos/genética , Cocos/química , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Aceite de Coco/química , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados , Genotipo , Aceites Vegetales/química
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2590: 149-159, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335498

RESUMEN

Haplotype ("haploid genotype") phase is the combination of genotypes at sites of genetic variation along a chromosome [1]. We previously demonstrated that the complete chromosomal haplotype of diploid human genomes can be determined using molecular linkage from Hi-C sequencing and linked-reads sequencing [2]. In this chapter, we present a step-by-step guide to perform this analysis using mLinker, a software package for haplotype inference.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Haplotipos/genética , Genotipo , Cromosomas , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
19.
Gene ; 851: 147025, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328193

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: LRP5 (Lipoprotein Receptor 5) is one of the representatives of the low-density lipoprotein receptors family that play a crucial role in the process of bone homeostasis and bone remodeling. The role of LRP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs3736228 and rs4988321 has been associated with the susceptibility to osteoporosis and bone fracture. The frequency of mentioned LRP5 SNPs is unknown among RA (Rheumatoid Arthritis) patients. The case-control study was designed to determine the association of targeted SNPs among RA patients. METHODOLOGY: Patients were selected by ACR/EULAR 2010 criteria. After ethical approval blood samples of patients and healthy individuals were collected. DNA was extracted from the whole blood followed by amplification of the targeted region by T-ARMS PCR (Tetra-primer Amplification Refractory Mutation System) obtained product was observed on agarose gel electrophoresis. The data were analyzed by statistical and bioinformatic tools. RESULTS: It was observed that the SNPs rs3736228 and rs4988321 showed significant association with the risk of RA [χ2 = 44, p =< 0.001, O.R 95 % CI = 2.495, (1.865 âˆ¼ 3.337), p =< 0.001] and [χ2 = 85, p =< 0.001, O.R 95 % CI = 2.05, (1.571 âˆ¼ 2.69), p =< 0.001] respectively. Haplotypes AT, GC, and GT were found to be significantly associated with the risk of RA. Furthermore, both SNPs were in 40 % LD (Linkage Disequilibrium). CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that SNPs rs3736228 and rs4988321 were significantly associated with the increased susceptibility to RA. The study serves as the baseline data considering targeted SNPs and their association with the progression of the disease. The study might be utilized for the development of potential biomarker for diagnostic purposes and in the precision medicine approach.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Reumatoide , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Humanos , Proteína-5 Relacionada con Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baja Densidad/genética , Densidad Ósea/genética , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Haplotipos , Artritis Reumatoide/genética , Lipoproteínas LDL , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo
20.
Gene ; 851: 147021, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356904

RESUMEN

The expression level of mRNA and also the function of P-gp are strictly connected with the polymorphic nature of the ABCB1 gene. In this study, we evaluated the association between promoter SNP, i.e. T-129C, three other SNPs investigated earlier and ABCB1 expression in the depression group. To assess the additive significance of these SNPs on clinicopathological features a mathematical model was also built. 102 patients suffering from recurrent depressive disorder (rDD) and 94 healthy individuals from a local blood bank were enrolled in this study. ABCB1 gene polymorphism was identified by the RFLP method. The relative level of ABCB1 expression was measured by real-time PCR. For SNP T-129C no statistically significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies between depression and control groups were found (p = 0.3176). There was no statistically significant association between the expression value and 4 studied SNPs in ABCB1 (T-129C, C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T) or the investigated clinicopathological features. Furthermore, a correlation between the initial HDRS score (lower than 23) and presence of at least 1236 T allele was observed, in particular in combination with 3435 T or 2677 T/A. Mutated allele of each SNP was also significantly associated with declined response to antidepressant therapy, both individually and in combination with others. Results of this study suggest that T-129C does not play an important role in the rDD development. The influence of the studied SNPs on ABCB1 gene expression is still unknown. However, the additive impact of 3 most frequently studied SNPs of ABCB1 on the course of depression and effectiveness of its treatment was confirmed.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Humanos , Depresión , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Subfamilia B de Transportador de Casetes de Unión a ATP/genética
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