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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24(suppl 1): e210016, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886889

RESUMEN

AIM: This research analyzed a joint spatial distribution and explored the possible associations between epidemiological aspects and feminicide rates, in towns of the Sergipe State in Northeastern Brazil. METHODOLOGY: An exploratory ecological study investigated the global spatial autocorrelation of epidemiological aspects with femicide rates from towns in Sergipe State, Brazil, (n = 75), in the 2013-2017 period, using the "global" and "local" Moran statistic method and a multiple spatial regression. The exposure variables included socioeconomic and demographic conditions, services and health condition, and femicide rates. We used the software Stata 11.0, SPSS 18.0 and GeoDa 0.95-i. RESULTS: The spatial distribution of femicide rates was not random and showed high spatial autocorrelation and predominance of significant spatial groupings of towns with the highest mortality rates due to femicide in the central region of Sergipe State. In the multiple regression analysis, the percentage of women in charge of families and the Municipal Human Development Index were positively associated with the femicide rates in towns in Sergipe's municipalities in the studied period (p < 0.05). The opposite situation occurred between the Income Concentration Index (GINI) and the femicide rates. CONCLUSION: This is the first study that has analyzed the factors associated with the spatial clusters of femicide rates in a geographical space where there is a predominance of patriarchal culture. There was a femicide increase in locations with the lowest social inequality, the highest human development and authority exercised by women in the family environment.


Asunto(s)
Composición Familiar , Renta , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802001

RESUMEN

The Covid-19 pandemic emerged and evolved so quickly that societies were not able to respond quickly enough, mainly due to the nature of the Covid-19 virus' rate of spread and also the largely open societies that we live in. While we have been willingly moving towards open societies and reducing movement barriers, there is a need to be prepared for minimizing the openness of society on occasions such as large pandemics, which are low probability events with massive impacts. Certainly, similar to many phenomena, the Covid-19 pandemic has shown us its own geography presenting its emergence and evolving patterns as well as taking advantage of our geographical settings for escalating its spread. Hence, this study aims at presenting a data-driven approach for exploring the spatio-temporal patterns of the pandemic over a regional scale, i.e., Europe and a country scale, i.e., Denmark, and also what geographical variables potentially contribute to expediting its spread. We used official regional infection rates, points of interest, temperature and air pollution data for monitoring the pandemic's spread across Europe and also applied geospatial methods such as spatial autocorrelation and space-time autocorrelation to extract relevant indicators that could explain the dynamics of the pandemic. Furthermore, we applied statistical methods, e.g., ordinary least squares, geographically weighted regression, as well as machine learning methods, e.g., random forest for exploring the potential correlation between the chosen underlying factors and the pandemic spread. Our findings indicate that population density, amenities such as cafes and bars, and pollution levels are the most influential explanatory variables while pollution levels can be explicitly used to monitor lockdown measures and infection rates at country level. The choice of data and methods used in this study along with the achieved results and presented discussions can empower health authorities and decision makers with an interactive decision support tool, which can be useful for imposing geographically varying lockdowns and protectives measures using historical data.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Geografía , Humanos
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 03 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798095

RESUMEN

Pollen exposure weakens the immunity against certain seasonal respiratory viruses by diminishing the antiviral interferon response. Here we investigate whether the same applies to the pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is sensitive to antiviral interferons, if infection waves coincide with high airborne pollen concentrations. Our original hypothesis was that more airborne pollen would lead to increases in infection rates. To examine this, we performed a cross-sectional and longitudinal data analysis on SARS-CoV-2 infection, airborne pollen, and meteorological factors. Our dataset is the most comprehensive, largest possible worldwide from 130 stations, across 31 countries and five continents. To explicitly investigate the effects of social contact, we additionally considered population density of each study area, as well as lockdown effects, in all possible combinations: without any lockdown, with mixed lockdown-no lockdown regime, and under complete lockdown. We found that airborne pollen, sometimes in synergy with humidity and temperature, explained, on average, 44% of the infection rate variability. Infection rates increased after higher pollen concentrations most frequently during the four previous days. Without lockdown, an increase of pollen abundance by 100 pollen/m3 resulted in a 4% average increase of infection rates. Lockdown halved infection rates under similar pollen concentrations. As there can be no preventive measures against airborne pollen exposure, we suggest wide dissemination of pollen-virus coexposure dire effect information to encourage high-risk individuals to wear particle filter masks during high springtime pollen concentrations.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Internacionalidad , Polen/efectos adversos , /virología , Geografía , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , /fisiología
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2080, 2021 04 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828095

RESUMEN

South Eastern Bantu-speaking (SEB) groups constitute more than 80% of the population in South Africa. Despite clear linguistic and geographic diversity, the genetic differences between these groups have not been systematically investigated. Based on genome-wide data of over 5000 individuals, representing eight major SEB groups, we provide strong evidence for fine-scale population structure that broadly aligns with geographic distribution and is also congruent with linguistic phylogeny (separation of Nguni, Sotho-Tswana and Tsonga speakers). Although differential Khoe-San admixture plays a key role, the structure persists after Khoe-San ancestry-masking. The timing of admixture, levels of sex-biased gene flow and population size dynamics also highlight differences in the demographic histories of individual groups. The comparisons with five Iron Age farmer genomes further support genetic continuity over ~400 years in certain regions of the country. Simulated trait genome-wide association studies further show that the observed population structure could have major implications for biomedical genomics research in South Africa.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Demografía , Flujo Génico , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Lenguaje , Cromosomas Humanos Y/genética , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Variación Genética , Genética de Población , Genómica , Geografía , Haplotipos , Humanos , Lingüística , Masculino , Filogenia , Sudáfrica
5.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(3): 389-397, 2021 03 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839714

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: At the end of 2019, the COVID-19 broke out, and spread to Guizhou province in January of 2020. METHODOLOGY: To acquire the epidemiologic characteristics of COVID-19 in Guizhou province, we collected data from 169 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 related cases. We described the demographic characteristics of the cases and estimated the incubation period, serial interval and the effective reproduction number. We also presented two representative case studies in Guizhou province: Case Study 1 was an example of the asymptomatic carrier; while Case Study 2 was an example of a large and complex infection chain that involved four different regions, spanning three provinces and eight families. RESULTS: Two peaks in the incidence distribution associated with COVID-19 in Guizhou province were related to the 6.04 days (95% CI: 5.00 - 7.10) of incubation period and 6.14±2.21 days of serial interval. We also discussed the effectiveness of the control measures based on the instantaneous effective reproduction number that was a constantly declining curve. CONCLUSIONS: As of February 2, 2020, the estimated effective reproduction number was below 1, and no new cases were reported since February 26. These showed that Guizhou Province had achieved significant progress in preventing the spread of the epidemic. The medical isolation of close contacts was consequential. Meanwhile, the asymptomatic carriers and the super-spreaders must be isolated in time, who would cause a widespread infection.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Portador Sano/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /transmisión , Portador Sano/virología , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Periodo de Incubación de Enfermedades Infecciosas , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
6.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(3): 370-381, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839712

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Since the first published cases of the Coronavirus disease known as COVID-19 in the city of Wuhan Hubei Province in China, up until to the time of preparation of this report in mid-September 2020, more than 30 million people have been infected all over the world. In March 2020, more than 300,000 cases have been reported all over Iraq. This study aims to represent data analysis, modelling and forecasting approaches to the presented data in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. METHODOLOGY: The project involves mathematical models for forecasting and artificial simulations using particles. In the study, time series models including Simple Exponential Model, Holt's Method and Brown's Models have been used for the forecasting of the future potential rates in the area. A series of simulations have been conducted to observe the possibilities of virus spread rates in a virtual world which represents a quarter of Erbil. RESULTS: The outcome of the study shows how the disease have spread in Kurdistan, and what are the current rates to compare with neighbour regions. The modelling clearly shows that with cases still sporadically appearing, the risk of second and third waves of infections is high. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the regional government must reduce unnecessary gatherings to the lowest possible level. A scientific registry system of disease statistics must be put in place and rigorously updated all the times. We recommend the officials use a nationwide database provided to the public to monitor movement of every infected individual, to prevent further spread.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Simulación por Computador , Modelos Teóricos , /epidemiología , Aglomeración , Predicción , Geografía , Humanos , Irak/epidemiología , Movimiento , Factores de Tiempo
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7890, 2021 04 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846443

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a global crisis where India is going to be one of the most heavily affected countries. The variability in the distribution of COVID-19-related health outcomes might be related to many underlying variables, including demographic, socioeconomic, or environmental pollution related factors. The global and local models can be utilized to explore such relations. In this study, ordinary least square (global) and geographically weighted regression (local) methods are employed to explore the geographical relationships between COVID-19 deaths and different driving factors. It is also investigated whether geographical heterogeneity exists in the relationships. More specifically, in this paper, the geographical pattern of COVID-19 deaths and its relationships with different potential driving factors in India are investigated and analysed. Here, better knowledge and insights into geographical targeting of intervention against the COVID-19 pandemic can be generated by investigating the heterogeneity of spatial relationships. The results show that the local method (geographically weighted regression) generates better performance ([Formula: see text]) with smaller Akaike Information Criterion (AICc [Formula: see text]) as compared to the global method (ordinary least square). The GWR method also comes up with lower spatial autocorrelation (Moran's [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) in the residuals. It is found that more than 86% of local [Formula: see text] values are larger than 0.60 and almost 68% of [Formula: see text] values are within the range 0.80-0.97. Moreover, some interesting local variations in the relationships are also found.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Regresión Espacial , Algoritmos , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Masculino , Análisis de Regresión , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Factores de Tiempo
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917578

RESUMEN

Background: The prognosis of older age COVID-19 patients with comorbidities is associated with a more severe course and higher fatality rates but no analysis has yet included factors related to the geographical area/municipality in which the affected patients live, so the objective of this study was to analyse the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 in terms of sex, age, comorbidities, and geographic variables. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 6286 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 was analysed, considering demographic data, previous comorbidities and geographic variables. The main study variables were hospital admission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death due to worsening symptoms; and the secondary variables were sex, age, comorbidities and geographic variables (size of the area of residence, distance to the hospital and the driving time to the hospital). A comparison analysis and a multivariate Cox model were performed. Results: The multivariate Cox model showed that women had a better prognosis in any type of analysed prognosis. Most of the comorbidities studied were related to a poorer prognosis except for dementia, which is related to lower admissions and higher mortality. Suburban areas were associated with greater mortality and with less hospital or ICU admission. Distance to the hospital was also associated with hospital admission. Conclusions: Factors such as type of municipality and distance to hospital act as social health determinants. This fact must be taken account in order to stablish specifics prevention measures and treatment protocols.


Asunto(s)
Anciano , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Geografía , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Estudios Retrospectivos
9.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24: e210020, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825776

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the entry of Dengue virus (DENV) serotypes in Brazil and its federative units. METHODS: A systematic review of studies published between 1980 and 2018 in databases and in the gray literature was performed using descriptors related to the years of entry of the DENV serotypes. Additionally, experts and official sources of information (Brazilian Ministry of Health) were consulted. RESULTS: From 100 publications selected for the systematic review, 26 addressed the entry of DENV serotypes in the North region of the country, 33 in the Northeast, 24 in the Southeast, 14 in the Central-West, and five in the South. DENV-1 and DENV-4 were introduced in the North region in 1981. DENV-2 was introduced in the Southeast in 1990. DENV-3 was introduced in the North in 1999. CONCLUSION: The rapid expansion of dengue throughout the Brazilian territory was verified from the second half of the 1980s, with the gradual entry of the four serotypes, which resulted in the emergence of epidemics of arbovirus, which are currently verified in the country. Considering the epidemiology of the disease, more information should be disseminated and published in the wide-ranging scientific literature for a better understanding of the spread and circulation of DENV serotypes.


Asunto(s)
Virus del Dengue , Dengue , Brasil/epidemiología , Dengue/epidemiología , Virus del Dengue/genética , Geografía , Humanos , Serogrupo
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(15): 560-565, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857068

RESUMEN

Persons from racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by COVID-19, including experiencing increased risk for infection (1), hospitalization (2,3), and death (4,5). Using administrative discharge data, CDC assessed monthly trends in the proportion of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 among racial and ethnic groups in the United States during March-December 2020 by U.S. Census region. Cumulative and monthly age-adjusted COVID-19 proportionate hospitalization ratios (aPHRs) were calculated for racial and ethnic minority patients relative to non-Hispanic White patients. Within each of the four U.S. Census regions, the cumulative aPHR was highest for Hispanic or Latino patients (range = 2.7-3.9). Racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 hospitalization were largest during May-July 2020; the peak monthly aPHR among Hispanic or Latino patients was >9.0 in the West and Midwest, >6.0 in the South, and >3.0 in the Northeast. The aPHRs declined for most racial and ethnic groups during July-November 2020 but increased for some racial and ethnic groups in some regions during December. Disparities in COVID-19 hospitalization by race/ethnicity varied by region and became less pronounced over the course of the pandemic, as COVID-19 hospitalizations increased among non-Hispanic White persons. Identification of specific social determinants of health that contribute to geographic and temporal differences in racial and ethnic disparities at the local level can help guide tailored public health prevention strategies and equitable allocation of resources, including COVID-19 vaccination, to address COVID-19-related health disparities and can inform approaches to achieve greater health equity during future public health threats.


Asunto(s)
/etnología , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Hospitalización/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Geografía , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7082, 2021 03 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782519

RESUMEN

Italy has experienced the epidemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, which spread at different times and with different intensities throughout its territory. We aimed to identify clusters with similar epidemic patterns across Italian regions. To do that, we defined a set of regional indicators reflecting different domains and employed a hierarchical clustering on principal component approach to obtain an optimal cluster solution. As of 24 April 2020, Lombardy was the worst hit Italian region and entirely separated from all the others. Sensitivity analysis-by excluding data from Lombardy-partitioned the remaining regions into four clusters. Although cluster 1 (i.e. Veneto) and 2 (i.e. Piedmont and Emilia-Romagna) included the most hit regions beyond Lombardy, this partition reflected differences in the efficacy of restrictions and testing strategies. Cluster 3 was heterogeneous and comprised regions where the epidemic started later and/or where it spread with the lowest intensity. Regions within cluster 4 were those where the epidemic started slightly after Veneto, Emilia-Romagna and Piedmont, favoring timely adoption of control measures. Our findings provide policymakers with a snapshot of the epidemic in Italy, which might help guiding the adoption of countermeasures in accordance with the situation at regional level.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , /aislamiento & purificación , Algoritmos , Análisis por Conglomerados , Geografía , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Pandemias , Análisis de Componente Principal
12.
Conserv Biol ; 35(2): 412-423, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749051

RESUMEN

The recent growth of online big data offers opportunities for rapid and inexpensive measurement of public interest. Conservation culturomics is an emerging research area that uses online data to study human-nature relationships for conservation. Methods for conservation culturomics, though promising, are still being developed and refined. We considered the potential of Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, as a resource for conservation culturomics and outlined methods for using Wikipedia data in conservation. Wikipedia's large size, widespread use, underlying data structure, and open access to both its content and usage analytics make it well suited to conservation culturomics research. Limitations of Wikipedia data include the lack of location information associated with some metadata and limited information on the motivations of many users. Seven methodological steps to consider when using Wikipedia data in conservation include metadata selection, temporality, taxonomy, language representation, Wikipedia geography, physical and biological geography, and comparative metrics. Each of these methodological decisions can affect measures of online interest. As a case study, we explored these themes by analyzing 757 million Wikipedia page views associated with the Wikipedia pages for 10,099 species of birds across 251 Wikipedia language editions. We found that Wikipedia data have the potential to generate insight for conservation and are particularly useful for quantifying patterns of public interest at large scales.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Geografía , Humanos , Internet , Motivación
13.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(3): 793-800, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773543

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cancer treatment during nationwide lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic has posed several challenges in the delivery of cancer care and carries tremendous potential sequel of impoverishing the households. This study aims to examine the economic distress faced by breast cancer patients receiving treatment at Tata Memorial Center (TMC) Mumbai, India during the nationwide lockdown initiated in March 2020 following the outbreak of COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 138 non-metastatic breast cancer patients who were accrued in this study at TMC before imposing of lockdown, and their treatment was impacted because of the COVID-19 outbreak, were interviewed. Telephonic interviews were conducted using a structured schedule which contained information on household and demographic characteristics of the patients, knowledge about COVID-19, their daily expenditure for treatment, difficulties faced during lockdown and how they met expenditures. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used in the analyses. RESULTS: The average monthly expenditure of cancer patients had increased by 32% during the COVID-19 period while the mean monthly household income was reduced by a quarter. More than two-thirds of the patients had no income during the lockdown. More than half of the patients met their expenditure by borrowing money, 30% of the patients used their savings, 28% got charity and 25% used household income. About 81% of the patients had reported shortage of money, 32%  reported shortage of food and 28% reported shortage of medicine. The distress financing was significantly higher among patients receiving treatment in Mumbai compared to those receiving treatment at their native cities (67% vs. 46%), patients under 40 years of age, illiterate, currently married, Muslim and staying at a rented house. CONCLUSION: The incremental expenditure coupled with reduced or no income due to the closure of economic activities in the country imposed severe financial stress on breast cancer patients.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/economía , Costo de Enfermedad , Financiación Personal , Gastos en Salud , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , Estudios de Cohortes , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , Renta , India , Alfabetización , Estado Civil , Persona de Mediana Edad , Religión
14.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(4): e409-e417, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662320

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The global health community is devoting considerable attention to adolescents and young people, but risk of death in this population is poorly measured. We aimed to reconstruct global, regional, and national mortality trends for youths aged 15-24 years between 1990 and 2019. METHODS: In this systematic analysis, we used all publicly available data on mortality in the age group 15-24 years for 195 countries, as compiled by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. We used nationally representative vital registration data, estimated the completeness of death registration, and extracted mortality rates from surveys with sibling histories, household deaths reported in censuses, and sample registration systems. We used a Bayesian B-spline bias-reduction model to generate trends in 10q15, the probability that an adolescent aged 15 years would die before reaching age 25 years. This model treats observations of the 10q15 probability as the product of the actual risk of death and an error multiplier that varies depending on the data source. The main outcome that we assessed was the levels of and trends in youth mortality and the global and regional mortality rates from 1990 to 2019. FINDINGS: Globally, the probability of an individual dying between age 15 years and 24 years was 11·2 deaths (90% uncertainty interval [UI] 10·7-12·5) per 1000 youths aged 15 in 2019, which is about 2·5 times less than infant mortality (28·2 deaths [27·2-30·0] by age 1 year per 1000 live births) but is higher than the risk of dying from age 1 to 5 (9·7 deaths [9·1-11·1] per 1000 children aged 1 year). The probability of dying between age 15 years and 24 years declined by 1·4% per year (90% UI 1·1-1·8) between 1990 and 2019, from 17·1 deaths (16·5-18·9) per 1000 in 1990; by contrast with this total decrease of 34% (27-41), under-5 mortality declined by 59% (56-61) in this period. The annual number of deaths declined from 1·7 million (90% UI 1·7-1·9) in 1990 to 1·4 million (1·3-1·5) in 2019. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of deaths increased by 20·8% from 1990 to 2019. Although 18·3% of the population aged 15-24 years were living in sub-Saharan Africa in 2019, the region accounted for 37·9% (90% UI 34·8-41·9) of all worldwide deaths in youth. INTERPRETATION: It is urgent to accelerate progress in reducing youth mortality. Efforts are particularly needed in sub-Saharan Africa, where the burden of mortality is increasingly concentrated. In the future, a growing number of countries will see youth mortality exceeding under-5 mortality if current trends continue. FUNDING: UN Children's Fund, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, United States Agency for International Development.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Adolescente/tendencias , Salud Global/tendencias , Modelos Estadísticos , Mortalidad/tendencias , Adolescente , Salud del Adolescente/estadística & datos numéricos , Teorema de Bayes , Bases de Datos Factuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Geografía , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Adulto Joven
15.
Zootaxa ; 4936(1): zootaxa.4936.1.1, 2021 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756772

RESUMEN

The genus Meriola Banks currently includes 24 known species of spiders distributed across America, especially in southern South America. They have a nearly straight and narrower posterior eye row compared to other American genera of Trachelidae, and elongated and sharply tipped ventral leg cuspules. The study of specimens of Meriola available in collections revealed two undescribed species, M. avalosi sp. nov. and M. peras sp. nov., and the previously unknown females of M. balcarce Platnick Ewing and M. quilicura Platnick Ewing, all of which are described here. The female of M. lineolata (Mello-Leitão) comb. nov., transferred from Cetonana Strand, is described for the first time. Two further new combinations are proposed here: M. macrocephala (Nicolet) comb. nov., transferred from Trachelopachys Simon, and M. setosa (Simon) comb. nov., transferred from Cetonana; these two species are also considered senior synonyms of M. barrosi (Mello-Leitão) and M. hyltonae (Mello-Leitão), respectively. Additionally, a new sex matching of M. ramirezi Platnick Ewing and M. davidi Grismado is proposed, with a redescription of the female of M. ramirezi provided. New geographical records are provided for all of the species, with images and a revised diagnosis for the genus and the previously known species.


Asunto(s)
Arañas , Distribución Animal , Animales , Femenino , Geografía
16.
Zootaxa ; 4938(2): zootaxa.4938.2.1, 2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756977

RESUMEN

Sea spiders (Class Pycnogonida Latreille, 1810) are chelicerate arthropods, with an extraordinarily reduced body armed with eight to twelve elongated legs. A literature review of taxonomic and ecological studies of pycnogonids from Mexico identified 49 nominal species (~3.6% out of 1,335 species described worldwide). This low species richness is likely caused by limited taxonomic research and intermittent sampling and research efforts initially carried out by foreign scientists (1893-1996) and later by Mexican scientists. The present study investigates the latitudinal gradient of species richness of the pycnogonids associated with nine marine docks located between Cabo San Lucas (22°53'N) and Santa Rosalía (26°58'N) along the west coast of the Gulf of California, 22°53'N Mexico and provides a detailed morphological re-description of each nominal species using light and scanning electron microscopy. Nine nominal pycnogonid species and one unidentified species in the genus Tanystylum were collected and identified from the biological samples collected between 2011-2017. The highest pycnogonid species richness was recorded at Bahía de La Paz (seven species, 24°14'N) and the lowest species richness at Cabo San Lucas (one species) without an evident latitudinal species richness gradient. Anoplodactylus californicus Hall, 1912 and Ammothella spinifera Cole, 1904 were the most abundant species (52% of the total number of individuals). Tanystylum occidentale (Cole, 1904) and Nymphon apheles Child, 1979 were new geographical records for Mexico and Ammothella symbia Child, 1979 and A. californicus were new records for Baja California Sur state. Adding these new geographical records of pycnogonids increased the species richness previously recorded at Baja California Sur from 20 to 24 nominal species and for Mexico, the species richness increased from 49 to 51 nominal species.


Asunto(s)
Artrópodos , Animales , California , Geografía , México
17.
Zootaxa ; 4942(4): zootaxa.4942.4.5, 2021 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757050

RESUMEN

Two new species are described: Cobelura prenai, from Costa Rica, included in a new key to species of the genus; and Paranisopodus thalassinus, from Costa Rica, included in a previous key to species of the genus. Notes on Cobelura peruviana (Aurivillius, 1920) are provided and the holotype of Cobelura vermicularis Kirsch, 1889 is illustrated for the first time. Also, new geographical records are provided: Leptostylus orbiculus Bates, 1880, new country record for Costa Rica; Leptostylus quintalbus Bates, 1885, new country record for Mexico; and Anisopodus scriptipennis Bates, 1872, new state record in Mexico, and new province records in Costa Rica and Panama.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Animales , Geografía , Estados Unidos
18.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670506

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate occurrence of T. pulegioides α-terpinyl acetate chemotype, as source of natural origin α-terpinyl acetate, to determine its phytotoxic and antimicrobial features. Were investigated 131 T. pulegioides habitats. Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Phytotoxic effect of essential oil of this chemotype on monocotyledons and dicotyledons through water and air was carried out in laboratory conditions; the broth microdilution method was used to screen essential oil effect against human pathogenic microorganisms. Results showed that α-terpinyl acetate was very rare compound in essential oil of T. pulegioides: it was found only in 35% of investigated T. pulegioides habitats. α-Terpinyl acetate (in essential oil and pure) demonstrated different behavior on investigated plants. Phytotoxic effect of α-terpinyl acetate was stronger on investigated monocotyledons than on dicotyledons. α-Terpinyl acetate essential oil inhibited seeds germination and radicles growth for high economic productivity forage grass monocotyledon Poa pratensis, but stimulated seed germination for high economic productive forage legume dicotyledon Trifolium pretense. α-Terpinyl acetate essential oil showed high antimicrobial effect against fungi and dermatophytes but lower effect against bacteria and Candida yeasts. Therefore, T. pulegioides α-terpinyl acetate chemotype could be a potential compound for developing preventive measures or/and drugs for mycosis.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Aceites Volátiles/química , Terpenos/farmacología , Thymus (Planta)/química , Geografía , Germinación/efectos de los fármacos , Lituania , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Terpenos/química
19.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671435

RESUMEN

The MDPI journal Molecules is organized into 25 sections that cover many different areas of the broad field of chemistry [...].


Asunto(s)
Química Farmacéutica , Autoria , Geografía , Publicaciones
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1785, 2021 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741981

RESUMEN

Tropical secondary forests sequester carbon up to 20 times faster than old-growth forests. This rate does not capture spatial regrowth patterns due to environmental and disturbance drivers. Here we quantify the influence of such drivers on the rate and spatial patterns of regrowth in the Brazilian Amazon using satellite data. Carbon sequestration rates of young secondary forests (<20 years) in the west are ~60% higher (3.0 ± 1.0 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) compared to those in the east (1.3 ± 0.3 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). Disturbances reduce regrowth rates by 8-55%. The 2017 secondary forest carbon stock, of 294 Tg C, could be 8% higher by avoiding fires and repeated deforestation. Maintaining the 2017 secondary forest area has the potential to accumulate ~19.0 Tg C yr-1 until 2030, contributing ~5.5% to Brazil's 2030 net emissions reduction target. Implementing legal mechanisms to protect and expand secondary forests whilst supporting old-growth conservation is, therefore, key to realising their potential as a nature-based climate solution.


Asunto(s)
Secuestro de Carbono , Carbono/metabolismo , Cambio Climático , Bosques , Clima Tropical , Algoritmos , Biomasa , Brasil , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Ecosistema , Fuego , Agricultura Forestal , Geografía , Modelos Teóricos , Imágenes Satelitales/métodos , Árboles/crecimiento & desarrollo , Árboles/metabolismo
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