Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 40.410
Filtrar
1.
Psychiatry Res ; 288: 112998, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325386

RESUMEN

Covid-19 originated in Wuhan and rippled across China. We investigate how the geographical distance of working adults to the epicenter of Wuhan predicts their burnout - emotional, physical and mental exhaustion due to excessive and prolonged stress. Preliminary results of a survey of 308 working adults in 53 cities showed working adults' distance to the epicenter of Wuhan had an inverted U-shaped relationship with their burnout. Such results help to identify regions where people may need more psychiatric assistance, with direct implications for healthcare practitioners and policymakers.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Psicológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , Masculino , Ocupaciones , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
2.
Orv Hetil ; 161(18): 747-755, 2020 05 01.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338478

RESUMEN

Introduction and aim: Peripheral artery disease and lower extremity artery disease occur in 4 to 6% of the population. In Hungary, the number of major amputations was 6798 in the observed period. With timely and appropriate treatment, the number of leg amputations (30-day mortality: 20%, 2-year mortality: 40-60%) can be effectively reduced. The purpose of this study is to identify the territorial differences within Hungary with regard to the care pathways of these diseases. Method: We performed a retrospective data analysis of the peripheral vascular treatment using 2015-2017 claim data of the National Health Insurance Fund of Hungary. Territorial differences in mortality rates were examined by descriptive statistics. Correlation analysis was performed to describe any relationship between mortality rates and other factors. Results: The subregional level analysis (n = 175) revealed 4 times differences across the country proving that high domestic amputation rates are partially due to the extreme amputation rates in 30 percent of the subregions. Multiple stratified regression analysis revealed that the proportion of districts where endovascular therapy is not available (n = 159), the university education level of the population (ß1 = -0.13, 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.09) and the proportion of those over 65 years of age (ß1 = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.03-0.24) were significantly associated with amputation rate. In districts with available endovascular therapy (n = 14), age distribution of population (ß1 = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.42-0.98) was associated with the frequency of amputations. Conclusion: Regional and social disparities in incidence, prevalence and mortality rates significantly vary greatly across Hungary, but also provider capacities (with relevant competencies) influence strongly the development and progression of the disease. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(18): 744-755.


Asunto(s)
Amputación/mortalidad , Amputación/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Anciano , Geografía , Humanos , Hungría/epidemiología , Revisión de Utilización de Seguros , Enfermedad Arterial Periférica/terapia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos
3.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(5): 779-790, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337616

RESUMEN

We explored the variation and spatial distribution of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) reference values of healthy people at different altitudes in China in order to develop a scientific basis for a unified standard. The APTT reference values of 49,020 healthy males (41-75 years old) and 32,447 healthy females (41-75 years old) were collected from 601 work units and 546 work units in China, respectively. The relationship between the APTT reference values and altitude was tested by correlation analysis. Linear regression analysis and curve analysis were employed to predict the APTT reference values in the whole country. Trend surface analysis, the variation function, kriging interpolation, and Getis-Ord Gi* statistic were utilized to reveal the spatial characteristics of the values. The result showed a significant positive correlation between the APTT reference values and altitude. The APTT values for females were prolonged for a greater amount of time than the males in several same areas in China. The spatial contact forms of the APTT reference values of healthy Chinese were mainly "high-high" and "low-low," which was in accord with the first law of geography. The APTT reference values still showed spatial autocorrelation and regional variation. The values were higher in the western and northern areas than in the eastern and southern areas of China. The APTT reference values of people aged 41-75 in China showed regional differences. The APTT reference values in one area can be estimated by using the best prediction model or can be obtained by the geographical distribution.


Asunto(s)
Tiempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Adulto , Anciano , China , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valores de Referencia , Análisis Espacial
4.
Zootaxa ; 4755(3): zootaxa.4755.3.4, 2020 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230169

RESUMEN

Hermetia goncalvensi Albuquerque, 1955 (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Hermetiinae) has been known from only the male holotype collected in 1951 from the state of Bahia, Brazil, but currently lost or destroyed. No specimens have been reported over the last 60 years since its description. Here we bring together records of additional specimens of both sexes-one male and 28 females-from 13 localities in five Brazilian states, in addition to the type locality. A detailed redescription of the species is provided which includes the puparium, male and female terminalia, biological information, and a distribution map.


Asunto(s)
Dípteros , Animales , Femenino , Geografía , Masculino
5.
Zootaxa ; 4742(2): zootaxa.4742.2.3, 2020 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230377

RESUMEN

Biogeographic regionalisations extract patterns of co-occurrence from different taxa to form a hierarchical system of geographical units of different scales. This system is useful for revealing biogeographic patterns and can be used as the basis for scientific communication between different fields. The history of Chinese freshwater biogeography is not well known to most modern biogeographers and is reviewed herein. We produce the first quantitative bioregionalisation of the freshwater zoogeographic areas of mainland China based on multiple animal groups. The combined occurrence data of amphibians, freshwater fish and freshwater crabs were subjected to cluster and network analyses. The two different methods yielded largely similar results. We propose four freshwater zoogeographical subregions (Beifang, Tarim, China, and the Tibetan subregion), three dominions for the China subregion (Jianghuai, Dongyang, and the new Dian dominion), three provinces for the Dian dominion (West Hengduan, Diannan Highlands and the new Yungui Plateau province) and two provinces for the Dongyang dominion (Zhemin and the new Huanan province) according to the naming rules of ICAN. The endemic areas of each animal group were then individually studied and were found to reflect the bioregionalisation at the subregion level, but differed from each other at the dominion and province level. Our analyses show that: (1) previous intuitive biogeographical studies have found similar areas; (2) there are recurring large scale biogeographic patterns in Chinese freshwater fishes, amphibians and freshwater crabs; and (3) bioregionalisations derived from quantitative methods can be effective for partitioning areas into biogeographically meaningful units.


Asunto(s)
Anfibios , Animales , China , Peces , Agua Dulce , Geografía
6.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 77(1): 10-14, 2020 03 12.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238252

RESUMEN

Introduction: Presidential medical units are intended to protect the dignitary's health in multiple aspects and work in close relationship with security. There are three central areas of coverage: myocardial infarction, stroke and trauma. By 2016 we had not found information about the resources on medical centers in Argentina and their integration into healthcare networks. Objective: Describe the relevant medical centers and their available resources for the medical coverage areas mentioned. Methods: It is a descriptive, cross-sectional study between 12/2016 and 8/2019. The sampling was not probabilistic and for convenience. Variables were reported as proportions and comparisons were made using the chi-square test or Fischer. Results: 232 centers were entered, 66.8% in capital cities and 67% in the public sector. Capitals were associated with a greater presence of resources: category 3 centers (OR 7.85; 95% CI 3.66-16.84; p <0.000001), angiography (OR 5.94; 95% CI 3.24-10.28; p <0.000001 ), tomography (OR 3.41; 95% CI 1.51-7.69; p=0.002), thrombolytics (OR 3.24; 95% CI 1.37-7.76; p=0.005); except trauma surgery (OR 1.83; 95% CI 0.75-4.46; p=0.17). Private centers were associated with greater resources for reperfusion; and public centers for trauma treatment. Conclusions: There is an unbalanced distribution of key resources between capital and non-capital cities in large geographical areas that makes it impossible to develop an adequate network for the treatment of heart attack, stroke and trauma. The best quality of care requires combining public and private networks.


Asunto(s)
Infarto Cerebral/terapia , Instituciones de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Infarto del Miocardio/terapia , Asignación de Recursos/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas y Traumatismos/terapia , Argentina , Estudios Transversales , Geografía , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Humanos , Sector Privado , Estudios Prospectivos , Sector Público
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(2): 184-189, 2020 Feb 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164127

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the secular trends and geographic disparities of all-cause mortality among Chinese adolescents aged 10-24 years over the period of 1953-2010. Methods: Data were extracted from the Chinese National Census in 1953-2010. We calculated the all-cause mortality and annualized rates of the changes. Using the provincial gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as an indicator of regional socio-economic development level, we calculated the Wagstaff normal concentration indices for adolescent mortality. Results: Over the period of 1953-2010, the general patterns of Chinese adolescent mortality appeared higher in males than those in females, higher in the 20-24-year-old than those in the 15-19 year-old and in the 10-14 year-old groups, higher in adolescents from the western than those in the eastern regions. The mortality of adolescents decreased from 554.6/100 000 in 1953-1964 to 55.7/100 000 in 2010 in males and decreased from 488.4/100 000 to 26.7/100 000 in females, respectively. The percentage of decrease for females (94.5%) was higher than that for males (90.0%). In 1981-2010, the highest annualized rate of decline for males was seen in Beijing (4.4%), with the lowest seen in Qinghai (0.1%). For girls, Hubei showed the highest annualized rate of decline (6.4%) while Qinghai the lowest (0.8%). Provinces that with higher mortality tended to have lower annualized rate of decline. The concentration indices for boys were -0.07 (95%CI: -0.11- -0.03), -0.13 (95%CI: -0.18- -0.08), and -0.16 (95%CI: -0.22- -0.10) in 1990, 2000, and 2010, respectively, and were -0.07 (95%CI: -0.13- -0.02), -0.18 (95%CI: -0.24- -0.12), and -0.18 (95%CI: -0.26- -0.09) respectively in girls. The indices among 1990, 2000, and 2010 did not show statistically significantly differences, both for boys and girls (P>0.05). Conclusions: Over the half century, the mortality of Chinese adolescents showed dramatic decreasing trend. However, in terms of death rates, gender and geographic disparities were consistently seen in the adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Mortalidad/tendencias , Adolescente , Distribución por Edad , Beijing/epidemiología , Niño , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , Masculino , Distribución por Sexo , Adulto Joven
8.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0220420, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208467

RESUMEN

Accurate information of taxonomy and geographic range of seahorse species (genus Hippocampus) is the first step in preparing threat assessments and designing effective conservation measures. Here, we report first records and a range extension of the Japanese seahorse, Hippocampus mohnikei (Bleeker, 1853) from the Mandovi estuarine ecosystem of Goa, central west coast of India (CWCI) based on morphological and molecular analyses. The morphometric and meristic traits, particularly short snout (29-35% head length), double cheek spine, low coronet, long tail (51.2-57.9% of standard length), 11 trunk rings, 37-39 tail rings, 15-16 dorsal and 12-14 fin rays observed in four collected specimens matched with the reported key diagnostic morphological criteria of vouchered specimens of H. mohnikei. The seahorse mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) genes were partially sequenced for conclusive genetic identification of the species under study. Molecular analysis showed that all four individuals clustered together suggesting a monophyletic lineage. Using the maximum similarity with GenBank database, maximum likelihood network and subsequent morphological analysis, the identity of the collected seahorse species was reconfirmed as H. mohnikei. With this new report, the geographic range of H. mohnikei extended significantly to the west from its previously known range. This new sighting of H. mohnikei could indicate a long-distance dispersal facilitated by the prevailing oceanic circulation in the Indo-Pacific region or increased habitat suitability in bay-estuarine systems of Goa, CWCI. Comparison of the pair-wise genetic distances (Kimura 2-parameter) based on COI and Cyt b sequences revealed that the specimens examined in this study are genetically closer to H. mohnikei populations from Vietnam and Thailand than they are to those in Japan and China. To test the hypothesis whether H. mohnikei are vagrants or previously unreported established population, long-term inter-annual sampling and analyses are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Bahías , Ecosistema , Smegmamorpha/anatomía & histología , Smegmamorpha/genética , Animales , Citocromos b/genética , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/genética , Geografía , India , Masculino , Océanos y Mares , Filogenia , Análisis de Componente Principal , Movimientos del Agua
9.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 106, 2020 03 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210236

RESUMEN

Cases of a novel coronavirus were first reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in December 2019 and have since spread across the world. Epidemiological studies have indicated human-to-human transmission in China and elsewhere. To aid the analysis and tracking of the COVID-19 epidemic we collected and curated individual-level data from national, provincial, and municipal health reports, as well as additional information from online reports. All data are geo-coded and, where available, include symptoms, key dates (date of onset, admission, and confirmation), and travel history. The generation of detailed, real-time, and robust data for emerging disease outbreaks is important and can help to generate robust evidence that will support and inform public health decision making.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , China , Epidemias , Mapeo Geográfico , Geografía , Humanos , Pandemias , Salud Pública
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008070, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150558

RESUMEN

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has become a major public health issue in China. The disease incidence varies substantially over time and across space. To understand the heterogeneity of HFMD transmission, we compare the spatiotemporal dynamics of HFMD in Qinghai and Shanghai by conducting combined analysis of epidemiological, wavelet time series, and mathematical methods to county-level data from 2009 to 2016. We observe hierarchical epidemic waves in Qinghai, emanating from Huangzhong and in Shanghai from Fengxian. Besides population, we also find that the traveling waves are significantly associated with socio-economic and geographical factors. The population mobility also varies between the two regions: long-distance movement in Qinghai and between-neighbor commuting in Shanghai. Our findings provide important evidence for characterizing the heterogeneity of HFMD transmission and for the design and implementation of interventions, such as deploying optimal vaccine and changing local driving factors in the transmission center, to prevent or limit disease spread in these areas.


Asunto(s)
Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Boca, Mano y Pie/transmisión , Movilidad Laboral , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Geografía , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0212530, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155150

RESUMEN

The Ngorongoro Crater is an intact caldera with an area of approximately 310 km2 located within the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) in northern Tanzania. It is known for the abundance and diversity of its wildlife and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and an International Biosphere Reserve. Long term records (1963-2012) on herbivore populations, vegetation and rainfall made it possible to analyze historic and project future herbivore population dynamics. NCA was established as a multiple use area in 1959. In 1974 there was a perturbation in that resident Maasai and their livestock were removed from the Ngorongoro Crater. Thus, their pasture management that was a combination of livestock grazing and fire was also removed and 'burning' stopped being a regular occurrence until it was resumed in 2001 by NCA management. The Maasai pasture management would have selected for shorter grasses and more palatable species. Vegetation mapping in 1966-1967 recorded predominately short grasslands. Subsequent vegetation mapping in the crater in 1995 determined that the grassland structure had changed such that mid and tall grasses were dominant. After removal of the Maasai pastoralists from the Ngorongoro Crater in 1974, there were significant changes in population trends for some herbivore species. Buffalo, elephant and ostrich numbers increased significantly during 1974-2012. The zebra population was stable from 1963 to 2012 whereas population numbers of five species declined substantially between 1974 and 2012 relative to their peak numbers during 1974-1976. Grant's and Thomson's gazelles, eland, kongoni, and waterbuck (wet season only) declined significantly in the Crater in both seasons after 1974. In addition, some herbivore species were consistently more abundant inside the Crater during the wet than the dry season. This pattern was most evident for the large herbivore species requiring bulk forage, i.e., buffalo, eland, and elephant. Even with a change in grassland structure, total herbivore biomass remained relatively stable from 1963 to 2012, implying that the crater has a stable carrying capacity. Analyses of rainfall indicated that there was a persistent cycle of 4.83 years for the annual component. Herbivore population size was correlated with rainfall in both the wet and dry seasons. The relationships established between the time series of historic animal counts in the wet and dry seasons and lagged wet and dry season rainfall series were used to forecast the likely future trajectories of the wet and dry season population size for each species under three alternative climate change scenarios.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Herbivoria/fisiología , Animales , Biomasa , Geografía , Densidad de Población , Dinámica Poblacional , Lluvia , Análisis de Regresión , Estaciones del Año , Tanzanía , Temperatura , Factores de Tiempo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0220268, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155153

RESUMEN

Caves are extreme and inhospitable environments that can harbor several species of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Among these animals are phlebotomine sand flies, vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania that cause leishmaniasis. This study aimed to evaluate the species composition of sand flies of four caves, a cave located at Moeda Sul (MS) and three at Parque Estadual Serra do Rola Moça (PESRM), in the region of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Sand flies were collected with automatic light traps. Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling, using a dissimilarity matrix calculated with the Jaccard index, and Multivariate Permutation Analysis were used to evaluate sand fly species composition among entrance, interior, and the surrounding environments of each sampled cave and to infer biological mechanisms from patterns of distribution among these different cave environments. A total of 375 phlebotomine sand flies representing 14 species and six genera were collected. The most abundant species were Evandromyia tupynambai (54.7%), Brumptomyia troglodytes (25.6%), Evandromyia edwardsi (6.1%), Psathyromyia brasiliensis (4.8%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (4.3%). Thirty individuals were collected at MS, 16 inside the cave and 14 from its surroundings. At PESRM, five individuals were collected from the surroundings of cave RM38, 190 individuals from cave RM39 (48 in the cave and 142 from its surroundings) and 150 individuals from cave RM40 (42 in the cave and 108 from its surroundings). The results revealed a rich sand fly fauna with similar species compositions among the entrance, interior, and surrounding environments of each sampled cave, suggesting that both caves and their surroundings are important for maintaining sand fly communities.


Asunto(s)
Cuevas , Psychodidae/fisiología , Animales , Brasil , Geografía , Phlebotomus/fisiología , Especificidad de la Especie
13.
J Environ Manage ; 264: 110381, 2020 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217308

RESUMEN

China has implemented main functional areas planning (MFAP) since 2010, which is essential for improving the efficiency of land space utilization and achieving sustainable urban development. Quantitative assessments of the urban development levels (UDLs) at the county level across China after the implementation of MFAP have not been well-documented. In this study, a unified indicator system was developed, and the UDLs of 2850 counties in China after MFAP implementation were evaluated. The results showed that MFAP played a positive role in urban development in China. The UDLs in China generally increased but showed obvious spatial differences. The higher UDLs were mostly found in the counties in the five urban belts, which reflects the overall urban layout of China. The UDLs were generally low in the western counties in comparison with those in the eastern part of China. The differences in the UDLs from east to west were greater than those from north to south. Moreover, the differences in the UDLs presented a spatial agglomeration effect. This study could offer insight into the refinement of MFAP in China and sustainable urban development in developing countries.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Urbanización , China , Demografía , Geografía , Humanos , Población Urbana
14.
Hum Genet ; 139(5): 623-646, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206879

RESUMEN

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a superfamily of 48 structurally similar membrane transporters that mediate the ATP-dependent cellular export of a plethora of endogenous and xenobiotic substances. Importantly, genetic variants in ABC genes that affect gene function have clinically important effects on drug disposition and can be predictors of the risk of adverse drug reactions and efficacy of chemotherapeutics, calcium channel blockers, and protease inhibitors. Furthermore, loss-of-function of ABC transporters is associated with a variety of congenital disorders. Despite their clinical importance, information about the frequencies and global distribution of functionally relevant ABC variants is limited and little is known about the overall genetic complexity of this important gene family. Here, we systematically mapped the genetic landscape of the entire human ABC superfamily using Next-Generation Sequencing data from 138,632 individuals across seven major populations. Overall, we identified 62,793 exonic variants, 98.5% of which were rare. By integrating five computational prediction algorithms with structural mapping approaches using experimentally determined crystal structures, we found that the functional ABC variability is extensive and highly population-specific. Every individual harbored between 9.3 and 13.9 deleterious ABC variants, 76% of which were found only in a single population. Carrier rates of pathogenic variants in ABC transporter genes associated with autosomal recessive congenital diseases, such as cystic fibrosis or pseudoxanthoma elasticum, closely mirrored the corresponding population-specific disease prevalence, thus providing a novel resource for rare disease epidemiology. Combined, we provide the most comprehensive, systematic, and consolidated overview of ethnogeographic ABC transporter variability with important implications for personalized medicine, clinical genetics, and precision public health.


Asunto(s)
Transportadoras de Casetes de Unión a ATP/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Evolución Molecular , Familia de Multigenes , Neumonía por Aspiración/etiología , Polimorfismo Genético , Geografía , Humanos , Neumonía por Aspiración/patología
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20180496, 2020 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187273

RESUMEN

Arapaima is a widely-distributed fish of enormous economic importance in the Amazon region. In the present study, a total of 232 specimens were sampled, 121 from five sites in the Amazon basin and 111 from five sites in the Tocantins-Araguaia basin. The analyses investigated fragments of the Cytochrome b, Control Region, Cytochrome Oxidase I, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and seven loci microsatellites. The analyses revealed the existence of two mitochondrial lineages within the general area, with no haplotypes shared between basins, and genetic variability significantly higher in the Amazon than in the Tocantins-Araguaia basin. Two divergent, but sympatric mitochondrial lineages were found in the Amazon basin, but only a single lineage in the Tocantins-Araguaia basin. The existence of these two mitochondrial lineages indicates that past events, probably occurring during the Pleistocene, resulted in the separation of the populations of this species and molded its evolutionary history, which is reflected directly in its mitochondrial DNA. The analysis of the arapaima population structure identified distinct levels of diversity within the distribution of the species, indicating specific geographic regions that will require special attention for the development of conservation and management strategies.


Asunto(s)
ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Peces/genética , Variación Genética/genética , Repeticiones de Microsatélite/genética , Animales , Brasil , Peces/clasificación , Geografía , Filogenia , Ríos
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20180852, 2020 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187276

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to verify the dynamics of milk production in Southern Brazil, analyzing the spatial distribution, evolution and structure of bovine milk production systems in the dairy-specialized microregions. To this end, annual data from 2000 to 2015 are drawn from the Municipal Livestock Survey, reported by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, and the Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar, reported by the Banco Central do Brasil. Location quotient analyses, principal component analyses and clustering analyses are applied. Results of the location quotient analysis indicate that, of the 94 microregions in Southern Brazil, 36 are specialized in milk production. Two principal components were identified (mechanized production and family production) capable of explaining 78.3% of the variation in the data. Among microregions specialized in milk production, cluster analysis identifies four groups that are differentiated by productivity levels and predominance of family versus commercial production. Furthermore, results reveal that there is substantial heterogeneity among microregions specialized in bovine milk production in Southern Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Industria Lechera/estadística & datos numéricos , Leche , Animales , Brasil , Bovinos , Industria Lechera/economía , Femenino , Geografía
17.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228676, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040487

RESUMEN

Production of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) by Staphylococcus aureus is mediated via the genes lukS-PV and lukF-PV which are carried on bacteriophage ϕSa2. PVL is associated with S. aureus strains that cause serious infections and clones of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) that have additionally disseminated widely. In Western Australia (WA) the original CA-MRSA were PVL negative however, between 2005 and 2008, following the introduction of eight international PVL-positive CA-MRSA, PVL-positive WA CA-MRSA were found. There was concern that PVL bacteriophages from the international clones were transferring into the local clones, therefore a comparative study of PVL-carrying ϕSa2 prophage genomes from historic WA PVL-positive S. aureus and representatives of all PVL-positive CA-MRSA isolated in WA between 2005 and 2008 was performed. The prophages were classified into two genera and three PVL bacteriophage groups and had undergone many recombination events during their evolution. Comparative analysis of mosaic regions of selected bacteriophages using the Alignments of bacteriophage genomes (Alpha) aligner revealed novel recombinations and modules. There was heterogeneity in the chromosomal integration sites, the lysogeny regulation regions, the defence and DNA processing modules, the structural and packaging modules and the lukSF-PV genes. One WA CA-MRSA (WA518751) and one international clone (Korean Clone) have probably acquired PVL-carrying ϕSa2 in WA, however these clones did not disseminate in the community. Genetic heterogeneity made it impossible to trace the source of the PVL prophages in the other WA clones. Against this background of PVL prophage diversity, the sequence of one group, the ϕSa2USA/ϕSa2wa-st93 group, was remarkably stable over at least 20 years and associated with the highly virulent USA300 and ST93-IVa CA-MRSA lineages that have disseminated globally.


Asunto(s)
Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Bacteriófagos/genética , Exotoxinas/genética , Leucocidinas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/virología , Linaje de la Célula , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Genotipo , Geografía , Lisogenia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/genética , Epidemiología Molecular , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Sistemas de Lectura Abierta , Profagos/genética , Factores de Virulencia/genética , Australia Occidental
18.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228683, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040490

RESUMEN

Human activities have greatly influenced the natural nitrogen cycle, causing dramatic degradation of ecosystem function. Net anthropogenic nitrogen input (NANI) is an important factor contributing to the impact of human activities on the regional nitrogen cycle. Here, we analyzed the temporal and spatial variation of NANI in the Pearl River Basin of China between 1986 to 2015, and found that the total amount of NANI significantly increased from 3,362.25 kg N km-2 yr-1 to 8,071.15 kg N km-2 yr-1. Application of nitrogen fertilizers was the largest component of NANI in the Basin, accounting for 55.53% in the total NANI, followed by food/feed net nitrogen input (21.26%), atmospheric nitrogen deposition (12.95%), and crop nitrogen fixation (10.26%). Over the last three decades, nitrogen inputs from atmospheric nitrogen deposition have become the second largest source of NANI due to rapid industrialization and urbanization in the region. Regression analysis showed that the rapid growth of both GDP and population density were the main contributors to the increase of NANI. In addition, the increase in the number of red tides in the Pearl River Estuary was strongly correlated with NANI discharge (R2 = 0.90, p<0.01), suggesting the NANI's eutrophication effect. In total, this study provides a quantitative understanding of the temporal and spatial variations of NANI in the Pearl River Basin as well as the effects of NANI on estuarine waters, and offered key information for developing an integrated strategy for watershed nitrogen management.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Fertilizantes , Nitrógeno/análisis , Ríos , China , Ecosistema , Estuarios , Eutrofización , Geografía , Análisis de Regresión , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Urbanización
19.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228589, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053606

RESUMEN

The Sinacanthida ordo nov. and Mongolepidida are spine- and scale-based taxa whose remains encompass some of the earliest reported fossils of chondrichthyan fish. Investigation of fragmentary material from the Early Silurian Tataertag and Ymogantau Formations of the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China) has revealed a diverse mongolepidid and sinacanthid fauna dominated by mongolepids and sinacanthids in association with abundant dermoskeletal elements of the endemic 'armoured' agnathans known as galeaspids. Micro-computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy and histological sections were used to identify seven mongolepid genera (including Tielikewatielepis sinensis gen. et sp. nov., Xiaohaizilepis liui gen. et sp. nov. and Taklamakanolepis asiaticus gen. et sp. nov.) together with a new chondrichthyan (Yuanolepis bachunensis gen. et sp. nov.) with scale crowns consisting of a mongolepid-type atubular dentine (lamellin). Unlike the more elaborate crown architecture of mongolepids, Yuanolepis gen. nov. exhibits a single row of crown elements consistent with the condition reported in stem chondrichthyans from the Lower Devonian (e.g. in Seretolepis, Parexus). The results corroborate previous work by recognising lamellin as the main component of sinacanthid spines and point to corresponding developmental patterns shared across the dermal skeleton of taxa with lamellin and more derived chondrichthyans (e.g. Doliodus, Kathemacanthus, Seretolepis and Parexus). The Tarim mongolepid fauna is inclusive of coeval taxa from the South China Block and accounts for over two-thirds of the species currently attributed to Mongolepidida. This demonstrates considerable overlap between the Tarim and South China components of the Lower Silurian Zhangjiajie Vertebrate Fauna.


Asunto(s)
Peces/clasificación , Fósiles , Microtomografía por Rayos X , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Huesos , China , Geografía , Filogenia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228535, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069301

RESUMEN

National-scale empirical models for air pollution can include hundreds of geographic variables. The impact of model parsimony (i.e., how model performance differs for a large versus small number of covariates) has not been systematically explored. We aim to (1) build annual-average integrated empirical geographic (IEG) regression models for the contiguous U.S. for six criteria pollutants during 1979-2015; (2) explore systematically the impact on model performance of the number of variables selected for inclusion in a model; and (3) provide publicly available model predictions. We compute annual-average concentrations from regulatory monitoring data for PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO, and ozone at all monitoring sites for 1979-2015. We also use ~350 geographic characteristics at each location including measures of traffic, land use, land cover, and satellite-based estimates of air pollution. We then develop IEG models, employing universal kriging and summary factors estimated by partial least squares (PLS) of geographic variables. For all pollutants and years, we compare three approaches for choosing variables to include in the PLS model: (1) no variables, (2) a limited number of variables selected from the full set by forward selection, and (3) all variables. We evaluate model performance using 10-fold cross-validation (CV) using conventional and spatially-clustered test data. Models using 3 to 30 variables selected from the full set generally have the best performance across all pollutants and years (median R2 conventional [clustered] CV: 0.66 [0.47]) compared to models with no (0.37 [0]) or all variables (0.64 [0.27]). Concentration estimates for all Census Blocks reveal generally decreasing concentrations over several decades with local heterogeneity. Our findings suggest that national prediction models can be built by empirically selecting only a small number of important variables to provide robust concentration estimates. Model estimates are freely available online.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Estadísticos , Contaminación del Aire/historia , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Monóxido de Carbono/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/historia , Geografía , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Análisis de Regresión , Análisis Espacial , Dióxido de Azufre/análisis , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA