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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130530, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303204

RESUMEN

In this study, the effects of different temperatures, incubation times and types of reducing sugars, including glucose and different low molecular weight (Mw) chito-oligosaccharides (COS) with varying acetylation degree (AD), on the extent of Maillard reaction (MR) on chitosan-based films were studied. Interestingly, an improvement of structural and functional properties of all MR-crosslinked films was noted, which is more pronounced by heating at higher temperature and exposure time. These findings were proved through Fourier-transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses. In addition, color change and Ultraviolet spectra demonstrate that glucose addition provides the high extent of MR, followed by COS1 (Mw < 4.4 kDa; AD, 18.20%) and COS2 (Mw < 4.4 kDa; AD, 10.63%). These results were confirmed by enhanced water resistance and thermal properties. Moreover, MR-chitosan/COS films showed the highest mechanical properties, whereas, glucose-loaded films were brittle, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy micrographs. Furthermore, MR-chitosan/COS1 films exhibited the better antioxidant behavior followed by chitosan/glucose and chitosan/COS2 films, mainly at higher heating-conditions. Thereby, MR-crosslinked chitosan/COS based films were attractive to be applied as functional and active coating-materials in various fields.


Asunto(s)
Quitosano , Antioxidantes , Glucosa , Reacción de Maillard , Peso Molecular , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier
2.
EuroIntervention ; 17(8): e618-e630, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596567

RESUMEN

The number of individuals with diabetes and pre-diabetes is constantly increasing. These conditions are overrepresented in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and are associated with adverse prognosis. Optimal glycaemic control during an acute coronary syndrome is a relevant factor for the improvement of longer-term outcomes. In addition, the implementation of newer glucose-lowering drugs with proven cardiovascular benefits has a remarkable impact on recurrence of events, hospitalisations for heart failure and mortality. In this narrative review, we outline the current state-of-the art recommendations for glucose-lowering therapy in patients with diabetes undergoing coronary intervention. In addition, we discuss the most recent evidence-based indications for revascularisation in patients with diabetes as well as the targets for glycaemic control post revascularisation. Current treatment goals for concomitant risk factor control are also addressed. Lastly, we acknowledge the presence of knowledge gaps in need of future research.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Coronario Agudo , Intervención Coronaria Percutánea , Estado Prediabético , Síndrome Coronario Agudo/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronario Agudo/cirugía , Glucosa , Control Glucémico , Humanos , Intervención Coronaria Percutánea/efectos adversos
3.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 950-953, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605461

RESUMEN

Type-2 diabetes mellitus accounts for 90-95% of all diabetes. There is a Correlation between Fasting Serum Glucose and Serum Zinc level in patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus. This study was done to assess the relationship of Fasting Serum Glucose and Serum Zinc in type-2 diabetic patients in order to compare this parameter with healthy subjects. This analytical type of cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2018 to June 2019. A total number of 140 subjects, age ranged from 35-65 years was included in this study. Among them, seventy (70) type-2 diabetic patients were taken as study group (Group II) and seventy (70) ages matched healthy subjects were taken as control group (Group I). Group I again subdivided into control group male (Group IA) and control group female (Group IB). Group II also subdivided into study group male (Group IIA) and study group female (Group IIB). Pearson correlation coefficient test is done to correlate the relationship between fasting serum glucose (FSG) and serum zinc. In this study we found that serum zinc level was decreased in study groups in comparison with control groups. Therefore, by this study we recommended that routine estimation of this parameter is important for prevention of complication related to diabetes for leading a healthy life.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Ayuno , Adulto , Anciano , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Glucemia , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Glucosa , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Zinc
4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 1072-1082, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619641

RESUMEN

Leaf removal (LR) around the cluster zone is a common practice for regulating grape quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of cluster-zone leaf removal, applied at the pea-size stage of berry development, on berry soluble sugar, organic acid and phenolic compound, sugar unloading-related gene expression of Vitis. vinifera L. Syrah. Four different severities of leaf removal were applied: no leaf removal (Control), removing 2 leaves above the cluster (LR1), removing 4 leaves above the cluster (LR2), and removing 6 leaves above the cluster (LR3). The three leaf removal treatments (LR), especially removing 4 leaves (LR2), resulted in significantly higher reducing sugar, soluble sugar (glucose, fructose and sucrose), total anthocyanin and citric acid contents as compared to the control group during ripening for both vintages. At harvest, the LR treatments increased the transcript abundance of most sugar unloading-related genes. In addition, VvHT3, VvHT5, VvSUC11, VvSUC12, VvSS and VvcwINV were positively correlated with both reducing sugar contents and soluble sugar contents. Our results suggest that removing 4 leaves above the cluster is useful for improving the quality of Syrah (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes in cool climate regions with excessive leaves. These findings provide insights into the molecular basis of the relationship between leaf removing and hexose (glucose and fructose) accumulation in the grape berries.


Asunto(s)
Azúcares , Vitis , Glucosa , Hexosas , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Vitis/genética
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640714

RESUMEN

We herein describe a cascade enzymatic reaction (CER)-based IgE detection method utilizing a personal glucose meter (PGM), which relies on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity that regulates the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The amount of sandwich assay complex is determined according to the presence or absence of the target IgE. Additionally, the ALP in the sandwich assay catalyzes the dephosphorylation of ATP, a substrate of CER, which results in the changes in glucose level. By employing this principle, IgE was reliably detected at a concentration as low as ca. 29.6 ng/mL with high specificity toward various proteins. Importantly, the limit of detection (LOD) of this portable PGM-based approach was comparable to currently commercialized ELISA kit without expensive and bulky analysis equipment as well as complexed washing step. Finally, the diagnostic capability of this method was also successfully verified by reliably detecting IgE present in a real human serum sample with an excellent recovery ratio within 100 ± 6%.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles , Glucosa , Automonitorización de la Glucosa Sanguínea , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina E , Límite de Detección
6.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 126, 2021 Oct 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602072

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At present, the COVID-19 has been prevalent worldwide for more than a year and caused more than four million deaths. Liver injury was frequently observed in patients with COVID-19. Recently, a new definition of metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was proposed by a panel of international experts, and the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 has been actively investigated. Several previous studies indicated that the patients with MAFLD had a higher prevalence of COVID-19 and a tendency to develop severe type of respiratory infection, and others indicated that liver injury would be exacerbated in the patients with MAFLD once infected with COVID-19. The mechanism underlying the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 infection has not been thoroughly investigated, and recent studies indicated that multifactorial mechanisms, such as altered host angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor expression, direct viral attack, disruption of cholangiocyte function, systemic inflammatory reaction, drug-induced liver injury, hepatic ischemic and hypoxic injury, and MAFLD-related glucose and lipid metabolic disorders, might jointly contribute to both of the adverse hepatic and respiratory outcomes. In this review, we discussed the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 based on current available literature, and summarized the recommendations for clinical management of MAFLD patients during the pandemic of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/complicaciones , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/complicaciones , Hipoxia/complicaciones , Hígado/metabolismo , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/complicaciones , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Factores de Edad , Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2/genética , Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , COVID-19/patología , COVID-19/virología , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/patología , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/virología , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dipéptidos/uso terapéutico , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Glucosa/metabolismo , Ácido Glicirrínico/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Hipoxia/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipoxia/patología , Hipoxia/virología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/patología , Hígado/virología , Pulmón/efectos de los fármacos , Pulmón/metabolismo , Pulmón/patología , Pulmón/virología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/patología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/virología , Receptores Virales/genética , Receptores Virales/metabolismo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620620

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Meal composition is known to affect glycemic variability and glucose control in type 1 diabetes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of high carbohydrate meals of different nutritional composition and alcohol on the postprandial glucose response in patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twelve participants were recruited to this randomized crossover trial. Following a 4-week run-in period, participants received a mixed meal on three occasions with the same carbohydrate content but different macronutrient composition: high protein-high fat with alcohol (0.7g/kg body weight, beer), high protein-high fat without alcohol, and low protein-low fat without alcohol at 2-week intervals. Plasma and interstitial glucose, insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, cortisol, alcohol, free fatty acids, lactate, and pH concentrations were measured during 6 hours. A statistical analysis was then carried out to determine significant differences between studies. RESULTS: Significantly higher late postprandial glucose was observed in studies with higher content of fats and proteins (p=0.0088). This was associated with lower time in hypoglycemia as compared with the low protein and fat study (p=0.0179), at least partially due to greater glucagon concentration in the same period (p=0.04). Alcohol significantly increased lactate, decreased pH and growth hormone, and maintained free fatty acids suppressed during the late postprandial phase (p<0.001), without significant changes in plasma glucose. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the addition of proteins and fats to carbohydrates increases late postprandial blood glucose. Moreover, alcohol consumption together with a mixed meal has relevant metabolic effects without any increase in the risk of hypoglycemia, at least 6 hours postprandially. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03320993.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Estudios Cruzados , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamiento farmacológico , Carbohidratos de la Dieta , Glucosa , Humanos , Comidas
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1325: 117-135, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495532

RESUMEN

O-Linked glycosylation such as O-fucose, O-glucose, and O-N-acetylglucosamine are considered to be unusual. As suggested by the high levels of evolutional conservation, these O-glycans are fundamentally important for life. In the last two decades, our understanding of the importance of these glycans has greatly advanced. In particular, identification of the glycosyltransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of these glycans has accelerated basic research on the functional significance and molecular mechanisms by which these O-glycans regulate protein functions as well as clinical research on human diseases due to changes in these types of O-glycosylation. Notably, Notch receptor signaling is modified with and regulated by these types of O-glycans. Here, we summarize the current view of the structures and the significance of these O-glycans mainly in the context of Notch signaling regulation and human diseases.


Asunto(s)
Fucosa , Receptores Notch , Glucosa , Glicosilación , Humanos , Polisacáridos , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal
9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(30): 4999-5018, 2021 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497431

RESUMEN

Metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), formerly named "nonalcoholic fatty liver disease" occurs in about one-third of the general population of developed countries worldwide and behaves as a major morbidity and mortality risk factor for major causes of death, such as cardiovascular, digestive, metabolic, neoplastic and neuro-degenerative diseases. However, progression of MAFLD and its associated systemic complications occur almost invariably in patients who experience the additional burden of intrahepatic and/or systemic inflammation, which acts as disease accelerator. Our review is focused on the new knowledge about the brain-gut-liver axis in the context of metabolic dysregulations associated with fatty liver, where insulin resistance has been assumed to play an important role. Special emphasis has been given to digital imaging studies and in particular to positron emission tomography, as it represents a unique opportunity for the noninvasive in vivo study of tissue metabolism. An exhaustive revision of targeted animal models is also provided in order to clarify what the available preclinical evidence suggests for the causal interactions between fatty liver, dysregulated endogenous glucose production and insulin resistance.


Asunto(s)
Resistencia a la Insulina , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Animales , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Glucosa , Humanos , Hígado/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/diagnóstico por imagen
10.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1177: 338787, 2021 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482893

RESUMEN

The detection of glucose in human blood is of great importance in the diagnosis and prevention of diabetes. In this work, we fabricated a novel electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensor, NiCo-LDH nanoflake arrays-supported Au nanoparticles on copper foam (NiCo-LDH@ Au/Cu) by galvanic replacement and electrodeposition methods. Owing to the synergistic effect of three-dimensional (3D) architecture of Cu foam, high electrocatalytic activity of Au nanoparticles and NiCo-LDH nanoflake arrays, the NiCo-LDH@Au/Cu electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic ability for glucose oxidation in NaOH solution. Under optimized conditions, the NiCo-LDH@Au/Cu electrode shows excellent activity with a linear range from 0.5 to 3000 µM at the potential of 0.50 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), a low detection limit of 0.23 µM (S/N = 3), an ultra-prompt response time of 0.5 s, and a high sensitivity of 23100 µA mM-1 cm-2, as well as good selectivity and stability. Furthermore, the as-fabricated non-enzymatic glucose sensor was successfully applied to the glucose detection in human serum as a promising candidate in the development of electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensor.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles , Nanopartículas del Metal , Cobre , Técnicas Electroquímicas , Glucosa , Oro , Humanos
11.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 150: 109869, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489028

RESUMEN

The method of immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) on electrodes is especially important for the fabrication and performance of glucose biosensors. In this study, a carbohydrate binding module family 2 (CBM2) was successfully fused to the C terminal of GOD with a natural linker (NL) in endo-ß-xylanase by genetic recombination, and a fusion GOD (GOD-NL-CBM2) was obtained. The CBM2 was used as an affinity adsorption tag for immobilization of the GOD-NL-CBM2 on a cellulose modified electrode. The specific activity of GOD-NL-CBM2 was comparable to that of the wild type GOD. In addition, the CBM2 tag of fusion GOD almost maintained its highest binding capacity under optimal catalytic conditions (pH 5.0, 50 °C). The morphology and composition analysis of the cellulose film reacted with and without GOD or GOD-NL-CBM2 confirmed the immobilization of GOD-NL-CBM2. The electrochemical properties of the GOD-NL-CBM2/cellulose film bioelectrode, with a characteristic peak of H2O2 at +0.6 V in the presence of glucose, revealed the capability of the immobilized GOD-NL-CBM2 to efficiently catalyze glucose and produce H2O2. Additionally, the current signal response of the biosensor to glucose was linear in the concentration range from 1.25 to 40 mM (r2 ≥ 0.99). The sensitivity and detection limit of the GOD-NL-CBM2/cellulose film bioelectrode were 466.7 µA mol-1 L cm-2 and 0.475 mM (S/N = 3), respectively. Moreover, the glucose biosensor exhibited a rapid current change (< 5 s), high reproducibility (Relative standard deviation, RSD < 5%), substrate selectivity and stability, and retained about 80 % of the original current response after 2 months. The affinity adsorption-based immobilization strategy for GOD provides a promising approach to develop a high performance glucose biosensor.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles , Glucosa Oxidasa , Celulosa , Electrodos , Enzimas Inmovilizadas , Glucosa , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
12.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 150: 109886, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489039

RESUMEN

Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol derived from virgin olive oil and olives extract, have wide applications both as functional food components and as nutraceuticals. However, they have low bioavailability due to their low absorption and high metabolism in human liver and small intestine. Acetylation of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol can effectively improve their bioavailability and thus increase their potential use in the food and cosmeceutical industries. There is no report on the bioproductin of tyrosol acetate and hydroxytyrosol acetate so far. Thus, it is of great significance to develop microbial cell factories for achieving tyrosol acetate or hydroxytyrosol acetate biosynthesis. In this study, a de novo biosynthetic pathway for the production of tyrosol acetate and hydroxytyrosol acetate was constructed in Escherichia coli. First, an engineered E. coli that allows production of tyrosol from simple carbon sources was established. Four aldehyde reductases were compared, and it was found that yeaE is the best aldehyde reductase for tyrosol accumulation. Subsequently, the pathway was extended for tyrosol acetate production by further overexpression of alcohol acetyltransferase ATF1 for the conversion of tyrosol to tyrosol acetate. Finally, the pathway was further extended for hydroxytyrosol acetate production by overexpression of 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase HpaBC.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli , Alcohol Feniletílico , Acetatos , Escherichia coli/genética , Glucosa , Humanos , Aceite de Oliva , Alcohol Feniletílico/análogos & derivados
13.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112270, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474829

RESUMEN

Glucose determination is one of the most common analyses in clinical chemistry. Employing biosensors for this purpose has become the method of choice for home use for diabetic patients. To limit the impact of dissolved O2 concentration or possible interferences (known hindrances in the classical glucose detection approach), a variety of mediated pathways have been explored. Herein, an ingenious, facile and low-cost approach for immobilization of redox mediator within nanofibrous mats is presented. This '2nd generation' biosensor is able to avoid common issues such as leaching or diffusion barriers whilst providing the necessary close contact between the enzyme and the redox shuttle, for enhancing the detection accuracy and accelerate the response. Polyacrylonitrile nanofibers loaded with carbon nanotubes and ferrocene (PAN/Fc/MWCNT-COOH NFs) have been successfully prepared and applied as biosensing matrices upon cross-linking of glucose oxidase (GOD). The morphology of the NFs was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX) and correlated to the kinetics of mediated electron transfer and to the efficiency in glucose detection, which were evaluated through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric measurements. The content of Fc was varied from 0.5 to 5.0 wt%, with optimum biosensor performance at 1.0 wt% exhibiting a linear range up to 8.0 × 10-3 M with sensitivity of ~27.1 mAM-1 cm-2 and 4.0 µM LOD. Excellent stability (RSD 2.68%) during 40 consecutive measurements along with insignificant interference and accurate recovery in real sample analysis (~100%) make for a very reliable sensor that can easily render itself to miniaturization and has the potential for a wide range of practical applications.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles , Nanofibras , Nanotubos de Carbono , Enzimas Inmovilizadas , Glucosa , Glucosa Oxidasa , Humanos , Metalocenos
15.
Talanta ; 235: 122730, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517598

RESUMEN

The enzyme sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) is an emerging biomarker of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). This paper introduces determination of SDH in microliter samples of human serum at commercial glucose test strips. The determination relies on the oxidation of NADH cofactor, which is used by SDH reacting with its substrates. The strips could detect NADH down to 5.0 µM (5 pmol), which was two orders of magnitude better than the prior relevant limit of detection. The concentration of cofactors (NADH, NAD+) and substrates (fructose, sorbitol) for SDH determination at a strip was optimized via internally-calibrated amperometric assays at a chitosan/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube electrode. Such an electrode provided reliable assay data for over 3 months with no need for its reactivation. The assays yielded kinetic parameters Km and kcat and demonstrated higher apparent affinity of SDH for NADH and fructose than NAD+ and sorbitol. The glucose strips detected SDH down to 98 pM (98 amol) in buffers and 200 pM (200 amol) in human serum after 20-min incubation with an optimized (c ≥ 10Km) mixture of cofactor + substrate. The charge ΔQ flowing through a strip was linear (R2, 0.994) up to 6.0 nM SDH, which covered enzyme's clinical range. The ΔQ was selective for SDH, independent of sample matrix, and free of interferences from indigenous glucose. The use of glucose strip as an electrolytic microcell to detect picomoles of NADH and attomoles of SDH is a step toward a point-of-care monitoring of DILI.


Asunto(s)
L-Iditol 2-Deshidrogenasa , Sorbitol , Fructosa , Glucosa , Humanos , Cinética , L-Iditol 2-Deshidrogenasa/metabolismo , NAD
16.
Talanta ; 235: 122799, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517657

RESUMEN

An accurate measurement of sweat glucose is a promising alternative to invasive finger prick blood test, and may provide effective self-monitoring of blood glucose with good patient compliance. Herein, an interrelated catalytic enzyme system has been developed, termed as CataFlower, which is composed of nanoflower MoS2 (peroxidase) decorated with GOx (glucose oxidase) and MnO2 (oxygen generator), and exhibits synergistic oxidative capability for sensitively monitoring sweat glucose. CataFlower can not only generate oxygen in situ to maximize GOx activity, but promote peroxidase-triggered H2O2 oxidation of methylene blue, resulting in sensitive colorimetric detection of glucose. We identify that CataFlower can precisely detect glucose with a detection limit of 10 µM, allowing for measuring glucose levels in different biological samples, such as blood and urine. Particularly, CataFlower is capable of monitoring dynamic changes in sweat glucose with high sensitivity and accuracy during exercise. Therefore, CataFlower provides a stepping stone to eliminate invasive blood tests, significantly improving the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles , Glucosa , Colorimetría , Glucosa Oxidasa , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Límite de Detección , Compuestos de Manganeso , Óxidos , Sudor
17.
Urologiia ; (4): 41-46, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486273

RESUMEN

AIM: to perform a comparative analysis of the results of morphofunctional and morphoanatomical studies for the clinical assessment of the viability of the renal parenchyma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on a random sampling method, the results of whole-body PET/CT scan with 18F-FDG glucose in 134 patients with various non-urological disorders were analyzed. However, 13.3% of the participants had concomitant chronic kidney diseases without exacerbation. At the same time, the morphological and anatomical manifestations of chronic kidney disease were studied in 32 patients of the same age and sex in order to evaluate the severity of structural changes in nephron. RESULTS: It was found that among individuals undergone to whole-body PET/CT scan with 18F-FDG glucose for various diseases without a urological history and patients with chronic kidney disease, the parenchyma tropism to energy-intensive labeled glucose molecules had certain differences that correlated with morphoanatomical manifestations of structural changes in the nephron in chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSIONS: The modern morphofunctional PET/CT study of the whole-body viability with 18F-FDG glucose, including the kidneys, is an advanced diagnostic tool that may supplement the results of morphoanatomical studies and monitor the efficiency of treatment.


Asunto(s)
Fluorodesoxiglucosa F18 , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Glucosa , Humanos , Riñón/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen de Cuerpo Entero
18.
Ann Ital Chir ; 92: 441-451, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524119

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Pancreaticoduodenectomy has been established as the treatment of choice for the management of benign and malignant lesions of the pancreatic head, and pancreaticojejunal or pancreaticogastric anastomosis seems to be the safer choice for the management of the pancreatic duct. However, in certain seldom, but still existing circumstances, pancreatic duct ligation or occlusion with a chemical substance is a valuable and viable alternative. The aim of the current study is to compare these two methods of occlusion of the pancreatic duct regarding the endocrine and exocrine function of the pancreas and its histopathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18 health mixed breed dog of both sexes were randomized in two groups: group A, in which the pancreatic duct was ligated and group B, in which the pancreatic duct was occluded with prolamine. RESULTS: None of the animals presented postoperatively steatorrhea and significant body weight changes. Peripancreatic inflammation at sacrifice, inflammatory cell infiltration and edema of the pancreas on the 15th postoperative day and 30th postoperative day were milder after occlusion with prolamine than after ligation. Ligation of pancreatic duct lead to significantly greater hyperamylasemia than prolamine occlusion every day until the 15th. Mild hyperglycemia presented from the first to the fourth day in both groups, which was associated with a significant drop in insulin. Glucagon remained within the normal values at all times during the experiment. None of glucose, insulin and glucagon differed between groups. CONCLUSION: Prolamine occlusion of the pancreatic duct causes milder hyperamylasemia and less extensive inflammation both macroscopically and microscopically than ligation. KEY WORDS: Pancreas, Pancreaticoduodenectomy, Hyperamylasemia.


Asunto(s)
Glucagón , Insulina , Amilasas , Animales , Perros , Femenino , Glucosa , Ligadura , Masculino , Páncreas/cirugía , Conductos Pancreáticos/cirugía , Fenilpropanolamina
19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(35): 19729-19739, 2021 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524307

RESUMEN

The fundamental understanding of glucose conversion to 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF) and ethyl levulinate (EL) (value-added chemicals from biomass) in ethanol solution catalyzed by a Brønsted acid is limited at present. Consequently, here, the reaction pathways and mechanism of glucose conversion to EMF and EL catalyzed by a Brønsted acid were studied, using an experimental method and quantum chemical calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(D) and B2PLYPD3/Def2TZVP level under a polarized continuum model (PCM-SMD). By further verification through GC/MS tests, the mechanism and reaction pathways of glucose conversion in ethanol solution catalyzed by a Brønsted acid were revealed, showing that glucose is catalyzed by proton and ethanol, and ethanol plays a bridging role in the process of proton transfer. There are three main reaction pathways: through glucose and ethyl glucoside (G/EG), through fructose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), levulinic acid (LA), and EL (G/F/H/L/EL), and through fructose, HMF, EMF, and EL (G/F/H/E/EL). The G/F/H/E/EL pathway with an energy barrier of 20.8 kcal mol-1 is considered as the thermodynamic and kinetics primary way, in which the reaction rate of this is highly related to the proton transfer in the isomerization of glucose to fructose. The intermediate HMF was formed from O5 via a ring-opening reaction and by the dehydration of fructose, and was further converted to the main product of EMF by etherification or by LA through hydrolysis. EMF and LA are both unstable, and can partially be transformed to EL. This study is beneficial for the insights aiding the understanding of the process and products controlling biomass conversion in ethanol solution.


Asunto(s)
Etanol/química , Furaldehído/análogos & derivados , Glucosa/química , Modelos Moleculares , Ácidos Sulfúricos/química , Biocombustibles , Catálisis , Teoría Funcional de la Densidad , Furaldehído/química , Ácidos Levulínicos/química , Termodinámica
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(38): 11417-11426, 2021 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519500

RESUMEN

During tea processing, roasting significantly affects the transformation pathway of catechins. When (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and glucose were roasted at different pH values, the degree of degradation and isomerization of EGCG was the lowest at pH 7 and the highest at pH 8. Thirty-five products were found in the model reaction of EGCG and glucose under high temperatures, of which four EGCG-glucose adducts were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In addition, catechins, gallic acid, and theanine in tea with added glucose were significantly reduced during roasting. The contents of four EGCG-glucose adducts were increased significantly at 150 °C after 30 min and dropped gradually after 60 min. Therefore, based on the present study, EGCG could form crosslinks with glucose under high temperatures in a short time, which provides insight for tea processing and synthesis of catechin-sugar adducts.


Asunto(s)
Catequina , Cromatografía Liquida , Glucosa , Polvos , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , , Temperatura
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