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1.
J Allied Health ; 49(3): 228-229, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877482

RESUMEN

Local governments, especially in rural settings, may look to collaborate with neighboring communities to maintain public health services and efficiencies in face of restrictive local budgets. Cross-jurisdictional partnerships of rural health departments have allowed offering an increased range of prevention programs and community health initiatives. Genesee and Orleans counties, in rural Western New York, developed a cross-jurisdictional partnership 7 years ago which has been integral for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) response for both county health departments. Using a cross-jurisdictional partnership and a joint incident command structure has allowed a coordinated approach towards contact tracing of COVID-19 confirmed cases.


Asunto(s)
Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Gobierno Local , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Administración en Salud Pública/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Conducta Cooperativa , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos
2.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 111036, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778316

RESUMEN

Assessing emissions-reduction pressure among Chinese cities is a critical task for local governments formulating and implementing environmental policies. From the perspectives of carbon intensity and carbon inequality, this study develops an improved carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions-reduction index to quantify emissions-reduction pressure on 284 cities in China. Results indicate that driven by the decrease of overall carbon intensity and the rise of inter-city carbon inequality, emissions-reduction pressure on 41.38% of provinces and 49.65% of cities was greater than the overall national level; emissions-reduction pressure on 52.35% of cities exceeded the provincial average level. The central government determines national emissions-reduction pressure by adjusting carbon-inequality tolerance between cities and determines carbon-inequality preference based on population and economic output principles. These determinations become benchmarks for local governments' CO2 emissions-reduction pressure. Provinces and cities that exceed benchmarks become foci for promoting energy savings, emissions reduction, and low-carbon development in the future.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Gobierno Local , China , Ciudades , Desarrollo Económico , Factores Socioeconómicos
3.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(4): 341-347, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804401

RESUMEN

Since the Stafford Act of 1988, the process of obtaining a formal Major Disaster Declaration has been codified for national implementation, with tasks defined at the smallest levels of local government up to the President. The Disas-ter Mitigation Act of 2000 (DMA 2000) placed additional requirements on local government to plan for mitigation ac-tivities within their jurisdictions. The goal of DMA 2000 was to not only implement more mitigative actions at the local level, but also initiate a process by which local governments could set up ongoing conversations and collaborative efforts with neighboring jurisdictions to ensure continuous, proactive measures were taken against the impacts of disasters. Based on the increased attention paid to mitigation and planning activities, a reasonable expectation would be to see a decline in the number of major disaster declarations since DMA 2000. However, simple correlation analy-sis shows that since DMA 2000, the number of major disaster declarations continues to increase. This article is in-tended as a preliminary study to encourage more detailed analysis in the future of the impacts of federal policy on local-level disaster prevention.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres/organización & administración , Desastres/prevención & control , Sistemas de Socorro/organización & administración , Desastres/economía , Humanos , Gobierno Local , Política Pública
4.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(4): 349-354, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804402

RESUMEN

This work is a companion paper to "Quantifying the Relationship Between Predisaster Mitigation Spending and Major Disaster Declarations for US States and Territories." Mitigation is a relatively new undertaking, especially for local jurisdictions, within the United States disaster policy. The Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 (DMA 2000) requires local jurisdictions to plan for and implement mitigative strategies in order to access federal grant funding options for emergency management. After DMA 2000 went into effect in the mid-2000s, a supporting study by the Multi-Hazard Mitigation Council (MMC 2005) found that on average, mitigation projects yielded a benefit-cost ratio of 4:1 at the local level.1 This paper evaluates and compares predisaster mitigation spending and postdisaster assistance spend-ing at the state and FEMA Regional levels, hypothesizing that as mitigation spending increases, postdisaster spend-ing should decrease. The results however indicate the opposite, with most states showing increasing in both types of spending over time.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres/economía , Desastres/economía , Organización de la Financiación/estadística & datos numéricos , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Humanos , Gobierno Local , Estados Unidos
5.
Am J Public Health ; 110(S2): S225-S231, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663080

RESUMEN

Objectives. To describe partnerships between US local health departments (LHDs) and community organizations and assess the relationship between the types of activities performed in these partnerships and LHD engagement in population-based activities to prevent mental health conditions.Methods. Data were derived from 457 LHDs that responded to module 1 of the 2016 Profile Study conducted by the National Association of County and City Health Officials. These data were used to assess the presence of partnerships with community organizations and examine associations between the types of activities performed in such partnerships and LHDs' participation in population-based activities to prevent mental health conditions.Results. LHDs had higher odds of participating in population-based activities to prevent mental health conditions if they shared personnel or resources or had written agreements with mental health or substance use disorder providers, held regularly scheduled meetings with hospitals, or shared personnel or resources with community health centers. Odds were reduced if they exchanged information with community health centers or shared personnel or resources with faith-based organizations.Conclusions. This study offers an improved understanding of how the types of activities performed in cross-sector partnerships affect LHDs' participation in population-based activities to prevent mental health conditions, which is important as public policies, programs, and funding initiatives continue to encourage cross-sector partnership building.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/prevención & control , Administración en Salud Pública/métodos , Asociación entre el Sector Público-Privado , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria , Conducta Cooperativa , Humanos , Gobierno Local , Estados Unidos
6.
Am J Public Health ; 110(S2): S197-S203, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663082

RESUMEN

Objectives. To examine spending and resource allocation decision-making to address health and social service integration challenges within and between governments.Methods. We performed a mixed methods case study to examine the integration of health and social services in a large US metropolitan area, including a city and a county government. Analyses incorporated annual budget data from the city and the county from 2009 to 2018 and semistructured interviews with 41 key leaders, including directors, deputies, or finance officers from all health care-, health-, or social service-oriented city and county agencies; lead budget and finance managers; and city and county executive offices.Results. Participants viewed public health and social services as qualitatively important, although together these constituted only $157 or $1250 total per capita spending in 2018, and per capita public health spending has declined since 2009. Funding streams can be siloed and budget approaches can facilitate or impede service integration.Conclusions. Health and social services should be integrated through greater attention to the budgetary, jurisdictional, and programmatic realities of health and social service agencies and to the budget models used for driving the systems-level pursuit of population health.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/economía , Gobierno Local , Salud Pública/economía , Servicio Social/economía , Toma de Decisiones en la Organización , Financiación Gubernamental , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Asignación de Recursos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235250, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730256

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To elicit citizen preferences for national budget resource allocation in Uganda, examine respondents' preferences for health vis-à-vis other sectors, and compare these preferences with actual government budget allocations. METHODS: We surveyed 432 households in urban and rural areas of Mukono district in central Uganda.We elicited citizens' preferences for resource allocation across all sectors using a best-worst scaling (BWS) survey. The BWS survey consisted of 16 sectors corresponding to the Uganda national budget line items. Respondents chose, from a subset of four sectors across 16 choice tasks, which sectors they thought were most and least important to allocate resources to. We utilized the relative best-minus-worst score method and a conditional logistic regression to obtain ranked preferences for resource allocation across sectors. We then compared the respondents' preferences with actual government budget allocations. RESULTS: The health sector was the top ranked sector where 82% of respondents selected health as the most important sector for the government to fund, but it was ranked sixth in national budget allocation, encompassing 6.4% of the total budget. Beyond health, water and environment, agriculture, and social development sectors were largely underfunded compared to respondents' preferences. Works and transport, education, security, and justice, law and order received a larger share of the national budget compared to respondents' preferences. CONCLUSIONS: Among respondents from Mukono district in Uganda, we found that citizens' preferences for resource allocation across sectors, including for the health sector, were fundamentally misaligned with current government budget allocations. Evidence of respondents' strong preferences for allocating resources to the health sector could help stakeholders make the case for increased health sector allocations. Greater investment in health is not only essential to satisfy citizens' needs and preferences, but also to meet the government's health goals to improve health, strengthen health systems, and achieve universal health coverage.


Asunto(s)
Presupuestos/estadística & datos numéricos , Comportamiento del Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Gobierno Local , Asignación de Recursos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Presupuestos/organización & administración , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Vivienda/economía , Vivienda/organización & administración , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sector Público/economía , Sector Público/organización & administración , Asignación de Recursos/organización & administración , Participación de los Interesados , Transportes/economía , Uganda , Atención de Salud Universal , Remodelación Urbana/economía , Remodelación Urbana/organización & administración , Adulto Joven
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235227, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645013

RESUMEN

The growth of administrative data made available publicly, often in near-real time, offers new opportunities for monitoring conditions that impact community health. Urban blight-manifestations of adverse social processes in the urban environment, including physical disorder, decay, and loss of anchor institutions-comprises many conditions considered to negatively affect the health of communities. However, measurement strategies for urban blight have been complicated by lack of uniform data, often requiring expensive street audits or the use of proxy measures that cannot represent the multifaceted nature of blight. This paper evaluates how publicly available data from New York City's 311-call system can be used in a natural language processing approach to represent urban blight across the city with greater geographic and temporal precision. We found that our urban blight algorithm, which includes counts of keywords ('tokens'), resulted in sensitivity ~90% and specificity between 55% and 76%, depending on other covariates in the model. The percent of 311 calls that were 'blight related' at the census tract level were correlated with the most common proxy measure for blight: short, medium, and long-term vacancy rates for commercial and residential buildings. We found the strongest association with long-term (>1 year) commercial vacancies (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.16, p < 0.001). Our findings indicate the need of further validation, as well as testing algorithms that disambiguate the different facets of urban blight. These facets include physical disorder (e.g., litter, overgrown lawns, or graffiti) and decay (e.g., vacant or abandoned lots or sidewalks in disrepair) that are manifestations of social processes such as (loss of) neighborhood cohesion, social control, collective efficacy, and anchor institutions. More refined measures of urban blight would allow for better targeted remediation efforts and improved community health.


Asunto(s)
Participación de la Comunidad , Sistemas de Datos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Salud Urbana , Remodelación Urbana/organización & administración , Algoritmos , Humanos , Gobierno Local , Ciudad de Nueva York
9.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S99-S101, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-554162

RESUMEN

The response of Kerala state to COVID-19, led by the health department, was nested in larger social mobilization. Kerala has developed a strong government health system. Learning from managing the Nipah outbreaks, Kerala took effective prevention measures early. Local governments, actively involved in public health in Kerala, played an active role in controlling the epidemic and in cushioning the impact on the poor. Transparency in information and willingness of the government to take the people into confidence has contributed to enhancing trust in the government. These strengths will stand Kerala in good stead as it prepares to manage the next wave of COVID-19 infections.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Administración en Salud Pública , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Gobierno Local , Pobreza , Factores Socioeconómicos , Confianza
10.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S99-S101, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496235

RESUMEN

The response of Kerala state to COVID-19, led by the health department, was nested in larger social mobilization. Kerala has developed a strong government health system. Learning from managing the Nipah outbreaks, Kerala took effective prevention measures early. Local governments, actively involved in public health in Kerala, played an active role in controlling the epidemic and in cushioning the impact on the poor. Transparency in information and willingness of the government to take the people into confidence has contributed to enhancing trust in the government. These strengths will stand Kerala in good stead as it prepares to manage the next wave of COVID-19 infections.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Administración en Salud Pública , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Gobierno Local , Pobreza , Factores Socioeconómicos , Confianza
11.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(5): 457-460, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551751

RESUMEN

There is growing concern about the mental health and social impact of COVID-19 on underresourced children, youth, and families given widespread social disruption, school closures, economic impact, and loss of lives. In this commentary we describe how an existing public-public partnership between a large county mental health department and a state university responded to COVID-19. This partnership, originally designed to address workforce needs, rapidly pivoted to support providers through a trauma- and resilience-informed approach to mitigating adverse mental health effects among youth and families in Los Angeles County. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Información de Salud al Consumidor , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Educación a Distancia , Colaboración Intersectorial , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Trauma Psicológico , Resiliencia Psicológica , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Adolescente , Adulto , California , Niño , Humanos , Gobierno Local , Los Angeles , Servicios de Salud Mental , Desarrollo de Programa , Trauma Psicológico/prevención & control , Universidades , Adulto Joven
12.
J Aging Soc Policy ; 32(4-5): 439-449, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501753

RESUMEN

As the coronavirus crisis spreads swiftly through the population, it takes a particularly heavy toll on minority individuals and older adults, with older minority adults at especially high risk. Given the shockingly high rates of infections and deaths in nursing homes, staying in the community appears to be a good option for older adults in this crisis, but in order for some older adults to do so much assistance is required. This situation draws attention to the need for benevolent intervention on the part of the state should older adults become ill or lose their sources of income and support during the crisis. This essay provides a brief overview of public support and the financial and health benefits for older individuals who remain in the community during the pandemic. It reports the case example of Austin, Texas, a city with a rapidly aging and diverse population of almost a million residents, to ask how we can assess the success of municipalities in responding to the changing needs of older adults in the community due to COVID-19. It concludes with a discussion of what governmental and non-governmental leadership can accomplish in situations such as that brought about by the current crisis.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Vida Independiente , Gobierno Local , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Servicio Social/organización & administración , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Betacoronavirus , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Texas/epidemiología
13.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127140, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526467

RESUMEN

The recent increase in municipal sludge worldwide has led to a great deal of interest in developing an efficient and environmentally friendly sludge treatment method. In the paper, the treatment of municipal sludge by hydrothermal oxidation (HTO) process with H2O2 as the oxidant was proposed. The impacts of HTO temperature and H2O2 mass fraction on the distribution of products, the moisture content, the migration behaviors of the heavy metals (HMs) of the resulted solid products, the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and NH3-N contained in the resulted aqueous phase products and the pH value were investigated. The results indicated that the sludge reduction was achieved by HTO treatment, the increasing H2O2 mass fraction and HTO temperature can significantly improve the dewatering performance of the sludge. The potential toxicity fraction of Pb and Cd contained in the resulted solid residual increased with the increasing HTO severity and the potential toxicity fraction of solid residues was still lower than that of raw material. Acetic acid was the main VFAs produced from HTO treated sludge, and its concentration reached to the maximum value of 2923.41 mg/L at 230 °C under H2O2 mass fraction of 15%. The change in the pH of the resulted aqueous phase products was caused by the competition between the acidic (VFAs or CO2) or alkaline (NH3-N) substances derived from the sludge during HTO process. The HTO process was expected to be an efficient method for municipal sludge treatment due to its mild conditions and high heavy metal safety.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Ácidos , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Gobierno Local , Metales Pesados/química , Oxidantes , Oxidación-Reducción , Aguas del Alcantarillado/química , Temperatura
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 36147-36159, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556975

RESUMEN

To promote county economic prosperity and social development, China enacted a fiscal reform known as "province governing county" (PGC) in the early 2000s. Using the difference-in-differences (DID) method and a massive sample of enterprises from 2003 to 2011, this study investigates the effect of PGC reform on firm environmental performance. The results show that enterprises in reformed counties have significantly decreased their pollution intensity since the fiscal reform. Our research reveals that the environmental effects of fiscal decentralization are related to changes in the political assessment metrics of local officials. It also shows that PGC fiscal reform has a significant positive effect on the environmental performance of large, small, and micro enterprises. Furthermore, it suggests that PGC fiscal reform benefits the environmental performance due to the informational advantages of county governments. In terms of environmental governance, although local governments have an information advantage in the allocation of green fiscal funds, well-designed mechanisms are needed to strengthen their motivation.


Asunto(s)
Política Ambiental , Política , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Gobierno Local
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234485, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525916

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is the leading cause of death and disability in adult populations globally. Its prevalence is increasing rapidly in Ethiopia. Studies conducted to date address different population categories. However, there is lack of data on the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among civil servants working in various sectors and levels. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among civil servants in Sidama Zone, south Ethiopia. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1-30, 2019 on a sample of 546 civil servants selected randomly from different departments of Sidama Zone Administration. Data were collected using structured, face-to-face interviewer-administered questionnaire and standard physical measurements. The data were entered using Epi Data 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with hypertension. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed to assess the presence and strength of associations. RESULTS: A total of 546 civil servants responded resulting in a response rate of 94.9%. The prevalence of hypertension was 24.5% [95% CI: 23.3% - 25.6%]. The identified risk factors of hypertension were male sex (AOR 4.31[95% CI: 1.84-10.09]), moderate current alcohol consumption (AOR: 4.85; [95% CI: 1.73-13.61]), current khat chewing (AOR 2.97[95% CI: 1.38-6.40]), old age (AOR: 4.41[95% CI: 1.19-16.26]), being obese (AOR 5.94 [95% CI: 1.26-27.86]) and central obesity (AOR 3.57 [95% CI: 1.80-7.07]). CONCLUSIONS: One in four civil servants are hypertensive. Different demographic, behavioral and metabolic factors increase the odds of hypertension among civil servants. Prevention and control of hypertension shall involve promotion of healthy lifestyles such as weight management, regular physical activity and quitting or cutting down on harmful use of substances such as alcohol and khat.


Asunto(s)
Empleados de Gobierno/estadística & datos numéricos , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Conducta Sedentaria , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Hipertensión/etiología , Hipertensión/prevención & control , Gobierno Local , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
18.
Am J Public Health ; 110(8): 1184-1190, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552020

RESUMEN

Objectives. To determine if and how state and local public health departments present information about climate change on their Web sites, their most public-facing platform.Methods. We collected data from every functioning state (n = 50), county (n = 2090), and city (n = 585) public health department Web site in the United States in 2019 and 2020. We analyzed data for presence and type of climate-related content and to determine whether there existed clear ways to find climate change information. We analyzed Web sites providing original content about climate change for explanatory or attributional language.Results. Fewer than half (40%) of state health department Web sites, and only 1.6% of county and 3.9% of city Web sites, provided clear ways to find climate change information, whether through provision of original content or links to external agencies' Web sites. Among Web sites providing original content, 48% provided no explanation of climate change causes.Conclusions. National and global public health associations have identified climate change as a public health emergency, but most state and local public health departments are not delivering that message. These departments must be better supported to facilitate dissemination of reliable, scientific information about climate change and its effects on health.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Difusión de la Información , Gobierno Local , Salud Pública , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Gobierno Estatal , Humanos , Internet , Salud Pública/tendencias , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Estados Unidos
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