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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 893, 2022 05 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513805

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Public acceptance of governmental measures are key to controlling the spread of infectious diseases. The COVID-19 pandemic has placed a significant burden on healthcare systems for high-income countries as well as low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The ability of LMICs to respond to the challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic has been limited and may have affected the impact of governmental strategies to control the spread of COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate and compare public opinion on the governmental COVID-19 response of high and LMICs in the Middle East and benchmark it to international countries. METHODS: An online, self-administered questionnaire was distributed among different Middle Eastern Arab countries. Participants' demographics and level of satisfaction with governmental responses to COVID-19 were analyzed and reported. Scores were benchmarked against 19 international values. RESULTS: A total of 7395 responses were included. Bahrain scored highest for satisfaction with the governmental response with 38.29 ± 2.93 on a scale of 40, followed by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (37.13 ± 3.27), United Arab Emirates (36.56 ± 3.44), Kuwait (35.74 ± 4.85), Jordan (23.08 ± 6.41), and Lebanon (15.39 ± 5.28). Participants' country of residence was a significant predictor of the satisfaction score (P < 0.001), and participants who suffered income reduction due to the pandemic, had a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and held higher educational degrees had significantly lower satisfaction scores (P < 0.001). When benchmarked with other international publics, countries from the Gulf Cooperation Council had the highest satisfaction level, Jordan had an average score, and Lebanon had one of the lowest satisfaction scores. CONCLUSION: The political crisis in Lebanon merged with the existing corruption were associated with the lowest public satisfaction score whereas the economical instability of Jordan placed the country just before the lowest position. On the other hand, the solid economy plus good planning and public trust in the government placed the other countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council on top of the scale. Further investigation is necessary to find out how the governments of other low-income countries may have handled the situation wisely and gained the trust of their publics. This may help convey a clearer picture to Arab governments that have suffered during the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Árabes , COVID-19/epidemiología , Gobierno , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiología , Pandemias , Satisfacción Personal , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7526, 2022 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534516

RESUMEN

To control the COVID-19 pandemic, countries around the world have implemented non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), such as school closures or stay-at-home orders. Previous work has estimated the effectiveness of NPIs, yet without examining variation in NPI effectiveness across countries. Based on data from the first epidemic wave of [Formula: see text] countries, we estimate country-specific differences in the effectiveness of NPIs via a semi-mechanistic Bayesian hierarchical model. Our estimates reveal substantial variation between countries, indicating that NPIs have been more effective in some countries (e. g. Switzerland, New Zealand, and Iceland) as compared to others (e. g. Singapore, South Africa, and France). We then explain differences in the effectiveness of NPIs through 12 country characteristics (e. g. population age, urbanization, employment, etc.). A positive association with country-specific effectiveness of NPIs was found for government effectiveness, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, population ages 65+, and health expenditures. Conversely, a negative association with effectiveness of NPIs was found for the share of informal employment, average household size and population density. Overall, the wealth and demographic structure of a country can explain variation in the effectiveness of NPIs.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Anciano , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Gobierno , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268733, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594304

RESUMEN

This study aims to explore the effects of COVID-19 indicators and the oil price crash on the Saudi Exchange (Tadawul) Trading Volume and Tadawul Index (TASI) for the period from January 1, 2020, to December 2, 2020. The independent variable is oil price, and the COVID-19 indicators are lockdown, first and second decreases of Repo and Reverse Repo rates, Saudi government response, and cumulative deceased cases. The study adopts two phases. In the first phase, linear regression is used to identify the most influential variables affecting Trading volume and TASI. According to the results, the trading volume model is significant with an adjusted R2 of 65.5% and a standard error of 81. The findings of this model indicate a positive effect of cumulative deceased cases and first decrease of Repo and Reverse Repo rates and a negative effect of oil prices on Trading Volume. The TASI model is significant with an adjusted R2 of 86% and a standard error of 270. The results of this model indicate that lockdown and first decrease of Repo and Reverse Repo rates have a significant negative effect on TASI while the cumulative decrease in cases and oil prices have a positive effect on TASI. In the second phase, linear regression, and neural network predictors (with and without validation) are applied to predict the future TASI values. The neural network model indicates that the neural networks can achieve the best results if all independent variables are used together. By combining the collected results, the study finds that oil price has the most substantial effect on the changes in TASI as compared to the COVID-19 indicators. The results indicate that TASI rapidly follows the changes in oil prices.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Gobierno , Humanos , Pandemias , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología
5.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 03 03.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499551

RESUMEN

The new Dutch government has the ambition to implement several health-related food taxes. We provide an evidence-based agenda for improving population health with these policy ambitions. First, we argue that a sugary drinks tax should be at least 10, preferably 20%, comparable to the UK sugar industry levy. The new government omits alcohol, whereas Minimum Unit Pricing provides a proportionate measure for decreasing alcohol abuse. A broader tax on unhealthy foods, such as a tax on foods high in added sugar, and a zero rate on value-added taxes for fruits and vegetables, are effective in improving overall diet. However, these policies will encounter more legal and technical hurdles, although there are proofs of success in other countries. The listed policy ambitions will have a higher chance of success if implementation issues are seriously considered, and if public health goals are coupled to goals of public finance and environmental sustainability.


Asunto(s)
Gobierno , Impuestos , Alimentos , Humanos , Salud Pública , Azúcares
6.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 04 14.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499700

RESUMEN

The Rutte IV administration can and will spend much less on healthcare than its predecessor. A difficult task. Providing less low-value care, that is healthcare with no or little benefit for the patient given the alternatives, by physicians is one way to improve quality and reduce costs. Less low-value care will therefore play a crucial role in the plans of the Rutte IV administration. Low-value care is attractive on paper, but radical implementation will lead to new dilemmas. The government must therefore be prepared to make and manage more choices itself. Besides tension on professional autonomy, there is also the risk of (even) more administrative burdens for healthcare professionals, which has a bad effect on captivating and retaining healthcare professionals. How to keep the intrinsic motivation of professionals intact within the paradigm of appropriate care could well become the real dilemma for the new administration of Mark Rutte.


Asunto(s)
Gobierno , Médicos , Presupuestos , Atención a la Salud , Personal de Salud , Humanos
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(5): 1883-1894, 2022 May.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544816

RESUMEN

This study displays an assessment of SUS management in a Brazilian interstate health region. An evaluative study was conducted with levels of regional analysis and data production, combining interviews with key informants and documentary analysis. Sources and data were compared and linked to analytical categories of the Government Triangle, showing a cutout of the outcomes and the government's capacity assessment. There is a low capacity for government in interstate health regions when managers and co-management spaces are unable to influence regional political decisions, limiting themselves to normative and ratifying government strategies. Disparities in the management capacity among the border states prevent the sustainability of coordinating state decision-making goals, exposing that management strategies are not enough to institutionalize interstate regionalization. There is a predominance of low SUS governance capacity in interstate health regions, and its political pattern becomes an unclear project restricted to the ideological level. The broad documentary appreciation with the use of powerful theoretical referential are methodological contributions of this research for the political analysis of SUS management in spaces that were the least examined, such as interstate borders.


Esta pesquisa apresenta uma análise da gestão do SUS em região interestadual de saúde brasileira. Realizou-se um estudo avaliativo com níveis de análise regional e produção de dados, combinando entrevistas com informantes-chave e análise documental. Cotejaram-se fontes e dados com as categorias analíticas do Triângulo de Governo, apresentando um recorte dos resultados e da análise da capacidade de governo. Há baixa capacidade de governo de regiões interestaduais de saúde quando os gestores e espaços de cogestão têm não conseguem influenciar as decisões políticas regionais, limitando-se a estratégias de governo normativas e homologatórias. Assimetrias na capacidade de gestão entre os estados da fronteira impedem a sustentabilidade de articulação das agendas decisórias estaduais, revelando que as estratégias de gestão são insuficientes para institucionalizar a regionalização interestadual. Predomina baixa capacidade de governo do SUS em regiões interestaduais de saúde, e seu desenho político tende a se tornar projeto incerto e restrito ao plano ideológico. A ampla apreciação documental com uso de potente referencial teórico são contribuições metodológicas deste estudo para análise política da gestão do SUS em espaços pouco investigados, como as fronteiras interestaduais.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Gobierno , Brasil , Humanos
8.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 5207003, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535184

RESUMEN

In this study, we use a tripartite evolutionary game model to analyze the financial support for science-tech enterprises' innovation with government participation. Based on the game model, the study uses replication dynamics to analyze the stability of evolutionary trajectory in the eight scenarios of enterprises, the government, and the financial institutes. Then, we discuss the effect of the reputation multiplier, the efficiency of firms' innovation output, and the positive socio-economic externalities multiplier by simulation as the important innovative points in this study. The study draws the following conclusions: (1) enterprises will choose high R&D intensity instead of low R&D intensity if the output of former exceeds that of the latter, (2) enterprises' R&D output is closely related to the strategy choices of the government and financial institutes, and (3) enterprises can attract government subsidy by boosting economic and social externalities. The government subsidies to enterprises with high R&D intensity will improve the innovation output by the innovation investment and reputation multiplier. So, the government can implement subsidy policy to boost high-intensive R&D activity. Financial institutes' strategy choice between equity investment and debt investment is influenced by investment yield difference and can influence enterprises' R&D intensity choices.


Asunto(s)
Gobierno , Inversiones en Salud , China , Apoyo Financiero
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 816530, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35517647

RESUMEN

Introduction: Like many other countries, the federal government of Malaysia took the initiative to implement nationwide home confinement as a preventive measure in response to the pandemic COVID-19 outbreak, better known as Movement Control Order (MCO). Many have suffered economically, which led to poor states of well-being. This study investigates the relationship between lifestyle, psychological factors affecting eating habits, and physical activity among government servants in states with the highest cumulative cases during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 210 government servants from four states (Selangor, Sabah, Kuala Lumpur, and Johor) from May 2021 to June 2021. Three validated questionnaires were used, namely, Emotional-Eater Questionnaire (EEQ), and Malay International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-M) from López-Moreno et al. (1). Results: There were significant gender differences (P < 0.001) for supplement intake, with 30.4% among men and 62.3% in women. Almost half (49.1%) were classified as emotional or very emotional eaters. Also, a significant difference (P < 0.005) was found in the perception of boredom and apathy between men (35.7%) and women (31.8%). A majority (56.2%) stated that their mood positively affected their eating habits. The total metabolic equivalent of task (MET) for 132 subjects was 3495.8 ± 3862.7 min/week for physical activity. Significant differences were observed between MET and gender (Mann-Whitney U-test: P = 0.019), with men showing higher MET value (5001.4 ± 5354.0 min/week men, 2864.3 ± 2754.3 min/week women). A significant difference was observed among women for body weight and body mass index (BMI) before and during MCO (P < 0.001). For the emotional eater, there were correlations with eating habits before the MCO for quantity of food intake (P = 0.003), frequency of mealtime (P < 0.001), changes of food habits (P = 0.005), cooking methods (P = 0.016), and frequency of food intake (P = 0.020). There is no correlation (P = 0.577) between psychological factors affecting eating habits and physical activity during COVID-19. Conclusion: Changes were reported before and during MCO on lifestyle, eating habits, and physical activity. Such information will help design strategies to improve the economic and health status among government servants in Malaysia during the implementation of MCO or something similar.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Femenino , Gobierno , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Malasia/epidemiología , Masculino , Pandemias
10.
Int J Popul Data Sci ; 7(1): 1732, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35520098

RESUMEN

The Population Health Research Network (PHRN) is an Australian national data linkage infrastructure that links a wide range of health and human services data in privacy-preserving ways. The data linkage infrastructure enables researchers to apply for access to routinely collected, linked, administrative data from the six states and two territories which make up the Commonwealth of Australia, as well as data collected by the Australian Government. The PHRN is a distributed network where data is collected and managed at the respective jurisdictional and/or cross-jurisdictional levels. As a result, access to linked data from multiple jurisdictions requires complex approval processes. This paper describes Australia's approach to enabling access to linked data from multiple jurisdictions. It covers the identification of, and agreement to, a minimum set of data items to be included in a unified national application form, the development and implementation of a national online application system and the harmonisation of business processes for cross-jurisdictional research projects. Utilisation of the online application system and the ongoing challenges of data linkage across jurisdictions are discussed. Changes to the data custodian and ethics committee approval criteria were out of scope for this project.


Asunto(s)
Almacenamiento y Recuperación de la Información , Web Semántica , Australia/epidemiología , Recolección de Datos , Gobierno , Humanos
11.
Int J Popul Data Sci ; 7(1): 1718, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35520099

RESUMEN

Introduction: Administrative data are a valuable research resource, but are under-utilised in the UK due to governance, technical and other barriers (e.g., the time and effort taken to gain secure data access). In recent years, there has been considerable government investment in making administrative data "research-ready", but there is no definition of what this term means. A common understanding of what constitutes research-ready administrative data is needed to establish clear principles and frameworks for their development and the realisation of their full research potential. Objective: To define the characteristics of research-ready administrative data based on a systematic review and synthesis of existing literature. Methods: On 29th June 2021, we systematically searched seven electronic databases for (1) peer-reviewed literature (2) related to research-ready administrative data (3) written in the English language. Following supplementary searches and snowball screening, we conducted a thematic analysis of the identified relevant literature. Results: Overall, we screened 2,375 records and identified 38 relevant studies published between 2012 and 2021. Most related to administrative data from the UK and US and particularly to health data. The term research-ready was used inconsistently in the literature and there was some conflation with the concept of data being ready for statistical analysis. From the thematic analysis, we identified five defining characteristics of research-ready administrative data: (a) accessible, (b) broad, (c) curated, (d) documented and (e) enhanced for research purposes. Conclusions: Our proposed characteristics of research-ready administrative data could act as a starting point to help data owners and researchers develop common principles and standards. In the more immediate term, the proposed characteristics are a useful framework for cataloguing existing research-ready administrative databases and relevant resources that can support their development.


Asunto(s)
Gobierno , Publicaciones , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Investigadores
12.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 70(3): 109-116, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491335

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Three months after the first appearance of the new coronavirus (COVID-19), Senegal recorded its first case on March 2, 2020. Faced with this pandemic, the State reacted quickly with public measures : instituting a curfew, placing a ban on travel between regions, and closing shops and places of worship. This research aims to study the acceptability of these non-pharmaceutical measures by the Senegalese population. METHOD: This study was a cross-sectional and analytical survey conducted in June and July 2020 among Senegalese over 18 years old. Sampling by the representative quota method was distributed proportionally to age, gender and region. We constructed the questionnaire using the theoretical framework of acceptability of health interventions. Through a telephone call center synchronised to an internet server, we collected data on personal characteristics, knowledge of the disease, trust in information sources, trust in government, concern about the pandemic, and the seven dimensions of acceptability. We performed descriptive analysis and structural equation with R software version 4.0.2. RESULTS: This study included a total of 813 individuals. The average age was 34.7 years ( ± 14.2 years). They were predominantly male (54.6 %), with no education (42.6 %). The increased level of knowledge of the disease was associated with confidence in national media information sources provided by the administrative and health authorities (ß=0.11, p<0.01). The increase in the level of trust in the government in response to COVID-19 was positively related to the acceptability of curfew (ß=0.16, p<0.001), travel ban between regions (ß=0.11, p<0.001), and closure of places of worship (ß=0.1, p<0.01) and markets (ß=0.09, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: In Senegal, the acceptability of the measures depended on knowledge of the disease, perception of the risk of the disease, and trust in the government. There is a need to strengthen awareness and risk communication of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Gobierno , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Senegal/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
BMJ ; 377: o1216, 2022 05 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577354
14.
BMJ ; 377: o1220, 2022 05 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577355
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536325

RESUMEN

Curiosity-driven research is fundamental for neuroethology and depends crucially on governmental funding. Here, we highlight similarities and differences in funding of curiosity-driven research across countries by comparing two major funding agencies-the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the United States and the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG). We interviewed representatives from each of the two agencies, focusing on general funding trends, levels of young investigator support, career-life balance, and international collaborations. While our analysis revealed a negative trend in NSF funding of biological research, including curiosity-driven research, German researchers in these areas have benefited from a robust positive trend in DFG funding. The main reason for the decrease in curiosity-driven research in the US is that the NSF has only partially been able to compensate for the funding gap resulting from the National Institutes of Health restricting their support to biomedical research using select model organisms. Notwithstanding some differences in funding programs, particularly those relevant for scientists in the postdoctoral phase, both the NSF and DFG clearly support curiosity-driven research.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Animales , Gobierno , Estados Unidos
16.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267232, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507588

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Although the outbreak of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred on a global scale, governments from different countries adopted different policies and achieved different anti-epidemic effects. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether and how the government response affected the transmission scale of COVID-19 on the dynamic perspective. METHODOLOGY: This paper uses a dynamic generalized moment method to research the relationship between the government response and COVID-19 case fatality rate by using panel data from eight countries: China, United States, Canada, Australia, Italy, France, Japan, and South Korea. FINDINGS: We have the following findings: 1. Government responses have a significant impact on the scale of COVID-19 transmission. 2. The rate of increase of government responses on the growth rate of COVID-19 case fatality rate has the characteristics of cyclicity and repeatability, that is, with the increase in the growth rate of government responses, the COVID-19 case fatality rate shows the following cyclical motion law: increasing first, reaching the maximum point, and then declining, and finally reaching the minimum point and then rising; ultimately, its convergence becomes 0. The cyclical fluctuations of COVID-19 in the long term may be caused by the decline in the level of government response, the mutation of the virus, and the violation of restrictive policies by some citizens. 3. The government response has a lag in controlling the spread of COVID-19. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Since there is a lack of literature on the impact of government responses on the development of COVID-19 from a long-term and dynamic perspective. This paper fills this gap in empirical research. We provide and expand new empirical evidence based on the current literature. This paper provides the basis for government decision-making and will help to formulate the response to other major public health events that may occur in the future.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Gobierno , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
17.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267010, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507589

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: By adopting Agenda 2030, governments agreed to review and report on their approach and action for achievement of sustainable development goals annually through the High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) on Sustainable Development. Health and well-being are at the heart of the United Nations Agenda 2030. Given the social and economic harm that can be done by alcohol, reducing the consumption of alcohol is a pre-requisite to achieve the sustainable development goals. We explored how selected European countries have considered alcohol-related harm as an obstacle to achievement of SDGs and the extent to which they view alcohol policy as a solution to the achievement of sustainable development by analysing their voluntary national reviews (VNRs) submitted to the HLPF between years 2016 and 2020. METHODS: We developed our own framework with 260 questions reflecting three dimensions of alcohol-harm considerations: indication, action, and evaluation. We analysed 36 VNRs of 32 European countries by first assessing them against the 260 questions to find out how they report on alcohol harm and whether they, in their action, refer to evidence-based, cost-effective alcohol policy solutions. Afterwards we used content analysis to assess the extent to which the countries addressed alcohol related harm, whether they refer to alcohol harm within SDG 3 (good health and well-being) or look beyond the health goal and consider alcohol harm having impact on goals other than the Goal 3. FINDINGS: Nine countries (28.1%) did not mention alcohol in their report. Only eight countries (25%) mentioned one or more of the alcohol policy best buys among the actions they are taking to reduce alcohol related harm and only three (9.3%) explicitly elaborated on their impact on goals other than goal 3. Only five countries referred to the agreed indicator 3.5.2 measuring alcohol per capita consumption in the adult population. Many of the remaining countries used a range of terminology rather than alcohol per capita consumption, including "excessive use of alcohol", "heavy use", "too much alcohol ", "harmful alcohol consumption", "use among young people". INTERPRETATION: Alcohol use is, for example, associated with violence (SDG 5 and 16), it contributes to inequalities (SDG 5 and 10), it hinders economic growth (SDG 8), disrupts sustainable consumption (SDG 12) and it adversely impacts environment (SDG 13 and 14). The findings of this study show that these effects are not considered in the design of measures to achieve these goals. Moreover, inaccurate language related to alcohol harm indicates a gap in understanding of extend of alcohol burden and the consequences for sustainable development. So does the choice of ineffective measures to reduce alcohol consumption. Education programs and awareness raising campaigns focusing on individual lifestyle are neither in line with WHO Global Strategy to reduce the harm caused by alcohol that all selected countries adopted in 2010, nor do they reflect the seriousness of the problems related to alcohol use. Effective alcohol policy measures, so called three best buys, are missing from the transformative action that the Agenda 2030 calls for and governments committed to.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Sostenible , Naciones Unidas , Adolescente , Adulto , Desarrollo Económico , Objetivos , Gobierno , Humanos , Política Pública
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 763, 2022 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428287

RESUMEN

Successful mitigation of emerging infectious disease requires that the public adopt recommended behaviours, which is directly influenced by effective crisis communication. Social media has become an important communication channel during COVID-19 where official actors, influencers, and the public are co-creating crisis messages. Our research examined COVID-19-related crisis messages across Canadian influencer accounts within news media, politicians, public health and government, science communicators, and brand influencer and celebrities, posted on Instagram between December 2019 and March 2021 for Health Belief Model and Extended Parallel Processing Model constructs and the corresponding public comment sentiment and engagement. Thirty-three influencer accounts resulted in a total of 2,642 Instagram posts collected, along with 461,436 comments, which showed overall low use of constructs in both captions and images. Further, most posts used no combinations (n = 0 or 1 construct per post) of constructs in captions and images and very infrequently used captions that combined threat (severity and susceptibility) with cues to action and efficacy. Brand influencers and celebrities, politicians, and science communicators had above average post engagement while public health and government and news media had lower. Finally, most influencers saw the largest proportion of neutral sentiment comments. Crisis messages must be designed to include combinations of constructs that increase message acceptance and influence risk perception and efficacy to increase the adoption of recommended and mandated behaviours.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , COVID-19/epidemiología , Canadá/epidemiología , Gobierno , Humanos , Salud Pública
19.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267231, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427392

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite it being easily preventable, still diabetes mellitus is found in every population in the world and all regions, with the greatest escalation in low and middle-income countries. Moreover, undiagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes can lead to lower limb amputation, blindness, and kidney disease. However, there is a paucity of information on the magnitude and associated factors among adult populations in rural pastoral areas. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the magnitude of diabetes mellitus and associated factors among Guji Zone Government Civil Servants, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1-14/2018, among 437 randomly selected Government employees of Guji Zone. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were coded and entered using Epi-data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to identify significant factors associated with the magnitude of DM. P<0.05 was used to declare statistical significance and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were calculated. RESULT: The median (±IQR) age of participants was 33 (±14) years of age. Overall, the prevalence of DM in the study population was found to be 16 (3.9%) [95% CI: 2.2-5.6%]. The prevalence of DM among males and females was 3.8% and 4.2% respectively. Age (<35 years) [0.21 (0.04-0.94)], increasing salt amount in dietary feeding [14.31(1.28-159.2)], Consumption of vegetable &fruit once per week [23.38(2.01-269.17)], diagnosed with HTN [21.35(2.28-199.37)], and Family history of DM [9.42(1.72-51.42)] were significantly associated with DM. CONCLUSION: Comparably lower prevalence of previously undiagnosed DM was found by this study. Being old, excess salt consumption, intake of vegetables & fruit once per week, hypertension, and family history of DM were significantly associated with DM. Therefore, the zonal Health department should enhance and strengthen the provision of health education programs and counseling about nutrition, weight control, and appropriate physical activity and advised the communities for mass screening for diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensión , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Gobierno , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
20.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(1): 165-184, 2022.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442284

RESUMEN

This article analyzes the Associação Brasileira da Indústria Farmacêutica, an association created to represent Brazilian pharmaceutical manufacturers, pursue the interests of the sector, and ensure strategic stances within the government to advance favorable policy. To do so, the association worked with the government (through legal and non-legal means) to influence the public agenda so that public policies benefited the interests of its members. We examine the conditions that led to the creation of this organization, its political connections, schisms and internal tensions, as well as pressure on the limited government to take up its specific demands.


O artigo analisa a Associação Brasileira da Indústria Farmacêutica, entidade empresarial do setor farmacêutico criada para amparar os interesses das indústrias e garantir posições estratégicas no aparelho do Estado, impulsionando políticas favoráveis. A fim de alcançar essa meta, atuou junto ao Estado, de forma lícita e ilícita, para influenciar a agenda pública e para que as pautas das políticas públicas beneficiassem os interesses das suas associadas. O texto tem como objetivo analisar os condicionantes que levaram a sua formação, suas articulações políticas, suas fissuras e tensões internas e sua pressão junto ao Estado restrito para inscrever suas demandas específicas.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Gobierno , Brasil , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Política Pública
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