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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546144

RESUMEN

In this article, we aim to develop a political economy of mass hysteria. Using the background of COVID-19, we study past mass hysteria. Negative information which is spread through mass media repetitively can affect public health negatively in the form of nocebo effects and mass hysteria. We argue that mass and digital media in connection with the state may have had adverse consequences during the COVID-19 crisis. The resulting collective hysteria may have contributed to policy errors by governments not in line with health recommendations. While mass hysteria can occur in societies with a minimal state, we show that there exist certain self-corrective mechanisms and limits to the harm inflicted, such as sacrosanct private property rights. However, mass hysteria can be exacerbated and self-reinforcing when the negative information comes from an authoritative source, when the media are politicized, and social networks make the negative information omnipresent. We conclude that the negative long-term effects of mass hysteria are exacerbated by the size of the state.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Gobierno , Histeria , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Comunicación , Política de Salud , Humanos , Internet , Política
2.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(2): 92-101, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551503

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate how public perceptions and trust in government communications affected the adoption of protective behaviour in Singapore during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: We launched our community-based cohort to assess public perceptions of infectious disease outbreaks in mid-2019. After the first case of COVID-19 was reported in Singapore on 23 January, we launched a series of seven COVID-19 surveys to both existing and regularly enrolled new participants every 2 weeks. As well as sociodemographic properties of the participants, we recorded changing responses to judge awareness of the situation, trust in various information sources and perceived risk. We used multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate associations with perceptions of risk and self-reported adopted frequencies of protective behaviour. Findings: Our cohort of 633 participants provided 2857 unique responses during the seven COVID-19 surveys. Most agreed or strongly agreed that information from official government sources (99.1%; 528/533) and Singapore-based news agencies (97.9%; 522/533) was trustworthy. Trust in government communication was significantly associated with higher perceived threat (odds ratio, OR: 2.2; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.6-3.0), but inversely associated with perceived risk of infection (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.8) or risk of death if infected (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9). Trust in government communication was also associated with a greater likelihood of adopting protective behaviour. Conclusion: Our findings show that trust is a vital commodity when managing an evolving outbreak. Our repeated surveys provided real-time feedback, allowing an improved understanding of the interplay between perceptions, trust and behaviour.


Asunto(s)
Gobierno , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Opinión Pública , Confianza , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Medición de Riesgo , Singapur , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
3.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(2): 138-147, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551507

RESUMEN

Objective: To assess the current state of national ethics committees and the challenges they face. Methods: We surveyed national ethics committees between 30 January and 21 February 2018. Findings: In total, representatives of 87 of 146 national ethics committees (59.6%) participated. The 84 countries covered were in all World Bank income categories and all World Health Organization regions. Many national ethics committees lack resources and face challenges in several domains, like independence, funding or efficacy. Only 40.2% (35/87) of committees expressed no concerns about independence. Almost a quarter (21/87) of committees did not make any ethics recommendations to their governments in 2017, and the median number of reports, opinions or recommendations issued was only two per committee Seventy-two (82.7%) national ethics committees included a philosopher or a bioethicist. Conclusion: National ethics (or bioethics) committees provide recommendations and guidance to governments and the public, thereby ensuring that public policies are informed by ethical concerns. Although the task is seemingly straightforward, implementation reveals numerous difficulties. Particularly in times of great uncertainty, such as during the current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, governments would be well advised to base their actions not only on technical considerations but also on the ethical guidance provided by a national ethics committee. We found that, if the advice of national ethics committees is to matter, they must be legally mandated, independent, diverse in membership, transparent and sufficiently funded to be effective and visible.


Asunto(s)
Bioética , Comités de Ética/organización & administración , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estudios Transversales , Gobierno , Humanos , Internacionalidad
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25429, 2021 02 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523826

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As the number of COVID-19 cases increased precipitously in the United States, policy makers and health officials marshalled their pandemic responses. As the economic impacts multiplied, anecdotal reports noted the increased use of web-based crowdfunding to defray these costs. OBJECTIVE: We examined the web-based crowdfunding response in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States to understand the incidence of initiation of COVID-19-related campaigns and compare them to non-COVID-19-related campaigns. METHODS: On May 16, 2020, we extracted all available data available on US campaigns that contained narratives and were created between January 1 and May 10, 2020, on GoFundMe. We identified the subset of COVID-19-related campaigns using keywords relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. We explored the incidence of COVID-19-related campaigns by geography, by category, and over time, and we compared the characteristics of the campaigns to those of non-COVID-19-related campaigns after March 11, when the pandemic was declared. We then used a natural language processing algorithm to cluster campaigns by narrative content using overlapping keywords. RESULTS: We found that there was a substantial increase in overall GoFundMe web-based crowdfunding campaigns in March, largely attributable to COVID-19-related campaigns. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic persisted and progressed, the number of campaigns per COVID-19 case declined more than tenfold across all states. The states with the earliest disease burden had the fewest campaigns per case, indicating a lack of a case-dependent response. COVID-19-related campaigns raised more money, had a longer narrative description, and were more likely to be shared on Facebook than other campaigns in the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Web-based crowdfunding appears to be a stopgap for only a minority of campaigners. The novelty of an emergency likely impacts both campaign initiation and crowdfunding success, as it reflects the affective response of a community. Crowdfunding activity likely serves as an early signal for emerging needs and societal sentiment for communities in acute distress that could be used by governments and aid organizations to guide disaster relief and policy.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Colaboración de las Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Apoyo Financiero , /economía , Costo de Enfermedad , Estudios Transversales , Colaboración de las Masas/economía , Gobierno , Humanos , Narración , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25734, 2021 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529153

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In a fast-evolving public health crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple pieces of relevant information can be posted sequentially on a social media platform. The interval between subsequent posting times may have a different impact on the transmission and cross-propagation of the old and new information that results in a different peak value and a final size of forwarding users of the new information, depending on the content correlation and whether the new information is posted during the outbreak or quasi-steady-state phase of the old information. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to help in designing effective communication strategies to ensure information is delivered to the maximal number of users. METHODS: We developed and analyzed two classes of susceptible-forwarding-immune information propagation models with delay in transmission to describe the cross-propagation process of relevant information. A total of 28,661 retweets of typical information were posted frequently by each opinion leader related to COVID-19 with high influence (data acquisition up to February 19, 2020). The information was processed into discrete points with a frequency of 10 minutes, and the real data were fitted by the model numerical simulation. Furthermore, the influence of parameters on information dissemination and the design of a publishing strategy were analyzed. RESULTS: The current epidemic outbreak situation, epidemic prevention, and other related authoritative information cannot be timely and effectively browsed by the public. The ingenious use of information release intervals can effectively enhance the interaction between information and realize the effective diffusion of information. We parameterized our models using real data from Sina Microblog and used the parameterized models to define and evaluate mutual attractiveness indexes, and we used these indexes and parameter sensitivity analyses to inform optimal strategies for new information to be effectively propagated in the microblog. The results of the parameter analysis showed that using different attractiveness indexes as the key parameters can control the information transmission with different release intervals, so it is considered as a key link in the design of an information communication strategy. At the same time, the dynamic process of information was analyzed through index evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Our model can carry out an accurate numerical simulation of information at different release intervals and achieve a dynamic evaluation of information transmission by constructing an indicator system so as to provide theoretical support and strategic suggestions for government decision making. This study optimizes information posting strategies to maximize communication efforts for delivering key public health messages to the public for better outcomes of public health emergency management.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Educación en Salud , Difusión de la Información , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Opinión Pública , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Comunicación , Brotes de Enfermedades , Gobierno , Humanos , Pandemias , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401512

RESUMEN

Today's societies are connected to a level that has never been seen before. The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the vulnerabilities of such an unprecedently connected world. As of 19 November 2020, over 56 million people have been infected with nearly 1.35 million deaths, and the numbers are growing. The state-of-the-art social media analytics for COVID-19-related studies to understand the various phenomena happening in our environment are limited and require many more studies. This paper proposes a software tool comprising a collection of unsupervised Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) machine learning and other methods for the analysis of Twitter data in Arabic with the aim to detect government pandemic measures and public concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic. The tool is described in detail, including its architecture, five software components, and algorithms. Using the tool, we collect a dataset comprising 14 million tweets from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for the period 1 February 2020 to 1 June 2020. We detect 15 government pandemic measures and public concerns and six macro-concerns (economic sustainability, social sustainability, etc.), and formulate their information-structural, temporal, and spatio-temporal relationships. For example, we are able to detect the timewise progression of events from the public discussions on COVID-19 cases in mid-March to the first curfew on 22 March, financial loan incentives on 22 March, the increased quarantine discussions during March-April, the discussions on the reduced mobility levels from 24 March onwards, the blood donation shortfall late March onwards, the government's 9 billion SAR (Saudi Riyal) salary incentives on 3 April, lifting the ban on five daily prayers in mosques on 26 May, and finally the return to normal government measures on 29 May 2020. These findings show the effectiveness of the Twitter media in detecting important events, government measures, public concerns, and other information in both time and space with no earlier knowledge about them.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Gobierno , Pandemias , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Arabia Saudita
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435337

RESUMEN

Little is understood of the social and cultural effects of coronaviruses such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV). This systematic review aims to synthesize existing findings (both qualitative and quantitative) that focus on the social and cultural impacts of coronaviruses in order to gain a better understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic. Utilizing a predetermined search strategy, we searched CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science to identify existing (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods) studies pertaining to the coronavirus infections and their intersection with societies and cultures. A narrative synthesis approach was applied to summarize and interpret findings of the study. Stemming from SARS outbreak in 2003, qualitative and quantitative findings (twelve adopted quantitative methods and eight exclusively used qualitative methods) were organized under five topical domains: governance, crisis communication and public knowledge, stigma and discrimination, social compliance of preventive measures, and the social experience of health workers. The selected studies suggest that current societies are not equipped for effective coronavirus response and control. This mixed-methods systematic review demonstrates that the effects of coronaviruses on a society can be debilitating.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Cultura , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Gobierno , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio , Pandemias , Cooperación del Paciente , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Discriminación Social
9.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 3, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398078

RESUMEN

This N = 173,426 social science dataset was collected through the collaborative COVIDiSTRESS Global Survey - an open science effort to improve understanding of the human experiences of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic between 30th March and 30th May, 2020. The dataset allows a cross-cultural study of psychological and behavioural responses to the Coronavirus pandemic and associated government measures like cancellation of public functions and stay at home orders implemented in many countries. The dataset contains demographic background variables as well as measures of Asian Disease Problem, perceived stress (PSS-10), availability of social provisions (SPS-10), trust in various authorities, trust in governmental measures to contain the virus (OECD trust), personality traits (BFF-15), information behaviours, agreement with the level of government intervention, and compliance with preventive measures, along with a rich pool of exploratory variables and written experiences. A global consortium from 39 countries and regions worked together to build and translate a survey with variables of shared interests, and recruited participants in 47 languages and dialects. Raw plus cleaned data and dynamic visualizations are available.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Comparación Transcultural , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Gobierno , Humanos , Personalidad , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Confianza
10.
Global Health ; 17(1): 14, 2021 01 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478558

RESUMEN

With the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, healthcare systems across the world have been pushed to the brink. The approach of traditional healthcare systems to disaster preparedness and prevention has demonstrated intrinsic problems, such as failure to detect early the spread of the virus, public hospitals being overwhelmed, a dire shortage of personal protective equipment, and exhaustion of healthcare workers. Consequently, this situation resulted in manpower and resource costs, leading to the widespread and exponential rise of infected cases at the early stage of the epidemic. To limit the spread of infection, the Chinese government adopted innovative, specialized, and advanced systems, including empowered Fangcang and Internet hospitals, as well as high technologies such as 5G, big data analysis, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence. The efficient use of these new forces helped China win its fight against the virus. As the rampant spread of the virus continues outside China, these new forces need to be integrated into the global healthcare system to combat the disease. Global healthcare system integrated with new forces is essential not only for COVID-19 but also for unknown infections in the future.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Planificación en Desastres/organización & administración , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Inteligencia Artificial , China/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Gobierno , Personal de Salud/organización & administración , Humanos
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(1)2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514593

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has put a spotlight on political leadership around the world. Differences in how leaders address the pandemic through public messages have practical implications for building trust and an effective response within a country. METHODS: We analysed the speeches made by 20 heads of government around the world (Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Finland, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Scotland, Sint Maarten, United Kingdom, United States and Taiwan) to highlight the differences between men and women leaders in discussing COVID-19. We used an inductive analytical approach, coding speeches for specific themes based on language and content. FINDINGS: Five primary themes emerged across a total of 122 speeches on COVID-19, made by heads of government: economics and financial relief, social welfare and vulnerable populations, nationalism, responsibility and paternalism, and emotional appeals. While all leaders described the economic impact of the pandemic, women spoke more frequently about the impact on the individual scale. Women leaders were also more often found describing a wider range of social welfare services, including: mental health, substance abuse and domestic violence. Both men and women from lower-resource settings described detailed financial relief and social welfare support that would impact the majority of their populations. While 17 of the 20 leaders used war metaphors to describe COVID-19 and the response, men largely used these with greater volume and frequency. CONCLUSION: While this analysis does not attempt to answer whether men or women are more effective leaders in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic, it does provide insight into the rhetorical tools and types of language used by different leaders during a national and international crisis. This analysis provides additional evidence on the differences in political leaders' messages and priorities to inspire citizens' adhesion to the social contract in the adoption of response and recovery measures. However, it does not consider the influence of contexts, such as the public audience, on leaders' strategic communication approaches.


Asunto(s)
Gobierno , Comunicación en Salud , Liderazgo , /epidemiología , Femenino , Salud Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Política , Factores Sexuales
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443149

RESUMEN

Effective states govern by some combination of enforcement and voluntary compliance. To contain the COVID-19 pandemic, a critical decision is the extent to which policy makers rely on voluntary as opposed to enforced compliance, and nations vary along this dimension. While enforcement may secure higher compliance, there is experimental and other evidence that it may also crowd out voluntary motivation. How does enforcement affect citizens' support for anti-COVID-19 policies? A survey conducted with 4,799 respondents toward the end of the first lockdown in Germany suggests that a substantial share of the population will support measures more under voluntary than under enforced implementation. Negative responses to enforcement-termed control aversion-vary across the nature of the policy intervention (e.g., they are rare for masks and frequent for vaccination and a cell-phone tracing app). Control aversion is less common among those with greater trust in the government and the information it provides, and among those who were brought up under the coercive regime of East Germany. Taking account of the likely effectiveness of enforcement and the extent to which near-universal compliance is crucial, the differing degrees of opposition to enforcement across policies suggest that for some anti-COVID-19 policies an enforced mandate would be unwise, while for others it would be essential. Similar reasoning may also be relevant for policies to address future pandemics and other societal challenges like climate change.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Aglomeración/psicología , Política de Salud , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Gobierno , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Política , Cuarentena , Confianza , Adulto Joven
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467179

RESUMEN

We analysed issues concerning the establishment of compulsory vaccination against COVID-19, as well as the role of misinformation as a disincentive-especially when published by health professionals-and citizen acceptance of measures in this regard. Data from different surveys revealed a high degree of hesitation rather than outright opposition to vaccines. The most frequent complaint related to the COVID-19 vaccination was the fear of side effects. Within the Spanish and European legislative framework, both compulsory vaccination and government regulation of FN (Fake News) appear to be feasible options, counting on sufficient legal support, which could be reinforced by additional amendment. However, following current trends of good governance, policymakers must have public legitimation. Rather than compulsory COVID-19 vaccination, an approach based on education and truthful information, persuading the population of the benefits of a vaccine on a voluntary basis, is recommended. Disagreements between health professionals are positive, but they should be resolved following good practice and the procedures of the code of ethics. Furthermore, citizens do not support the involvement of government authorities in the direct control of news. Collaboration with the media and other organizations should be used instead.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación/normas , Vacunación/psicología , Comunicación , Gobierno , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos
14.
J Environ Manage ; 283: 111922, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485267

RESUMEN

Indigenous nations worldwide are working with and lobbying private and public resource developers to ensure meaningful engagement in decisions tied to resource development in their territories. The diversity of approaches for engagement can be framed along a continuum, with voluntary practices at one end and legal responsibilities at the other. Given this continuum, the roles and responsibilities of various actors involved have become blurred, which leads to poor practice. In an effort to bring clarity, the aim of this research was to understand the distinctions between voluntary practices and legal responsibilities among key actors, identify how key actors understood their different roles and responsibilities, and explain the implications of these differences. In partnership with a First Nation and a public power utility in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, we employed semi-structured interviews and group workshops with Indigenous, industry, and government actors who participate in environmental management and resource development decisions. We found that actors had distinct motivations for interacting with one another, that perceptions of voluntary practices and legal responsibilities aligned among some participants but not among others, and that participants were indeed confused about their roles and responsibilities in relation to legal requirements and voluntary engagement activities. Furthermore, we learned that clarifying the intended roles of those involved in resource development decisions would be insufficient for improving practice. This is because improved clarity may not address underlying mistrust of government by Indigenous people, or may not be possible where rights and interests are intertwined under a broad conception of Indigenous rights. Findings also suggest the need for government and industry to work with Indigenous nations as self-determining entities, rather than imposing unilateral processes upon them. Consequently, more serious scrutiny, understanding and action is needed by government and industry when employing and assessing voluntary actions and legal measures for Indigenous inclusion in resource development decision-making processes.


Asunto(s)
Participación de la Comunidad , Grupos de Población , Canadá , Gobierno , Humanos , Percepción
15.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111840, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360550

RESUMEN

The Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) program has provided policy innovation for global environmental affairs. China, the largest developing country in the world, is also faced with serious environmental problems. China developed a unique environmental policy - ecological compensation (Eco-compensation), which combined the flexibility of the PES mechanism with efficient government management. The paper studies the efficiency of eco-compensation policy in a large-scale region and the stability of policy in a long-time. We use the counterfactual method - Synthetic Control Method (SCM) to analyze the eco-compensation policy. Zhejiang province, China, which is the first province to implement Eco-compensation policy, chose as study case. We run several robustness checks to discuss the influence of other factors, including economy, politics and geology. The result shows that the eco-compensation policy improve the region's environment significantly. And it never has negative impact for the economy of Zhejiang. We discuss some experiences and challenges of this policy. The paper thinks that localization and the hybrid of government and market could provide successful experience for this policy.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , China , Política Ambiental , Gobierno
19.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111470, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069146

RESUMEN

Improving air quality is an era task for China to transform its economic development model and enhance its environmental governance capabilities. This article take the Chinese government's Three-year Action Plan to Win the Blue Sky Defense War (abbreviated as the Blue Sky Defense War) as a quasi-natural experiment and use regression discontinuity design (RDD) to evaluate the governance effect of this policy. The study found that the Blue Sky Defense War reduced the monthly average concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 in cities by 14.49 and 23.43, respectively. Heterogeneity analysis shows that the Blue Sky Defence War has a more prominent effect on urban air quality management based on PM10 assessment; Jing-Jin-Ji region and surrounding areas are the key points to ensure the achievement of air management. Consistent and effective environmental governance policies, transparent and timely information disclosure and structural adjustment are all powerful guarantees for the effectiveness of the Blue Sky Defense War. These research conclusions provide new ideas for developing countries to formulate practical environmental pollution control policies.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , China , Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Política Ambiental , Gobierno , Material Particulado/análisis
20.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243094, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318710

RESUMEN

Recent research suggests that democratic presidential elections held using a runoff rule produce presidents that are more likely to protect human rights, in comparison to those elected under plurality rule; with this follow-up article, I seek to highlight the importance of advancing to a runoff round for those elections held using a runoff rule. I find that for presidential democracies that already have a runoff rule in place, country-years where the president has been elected after a runoff round are more likely to be associated with high government respect for human rights, in comparison to country-years where the president has been elected after only one round (that could have advanced to a runoff round, but did not). This article provides decision-makers with more information regarding the human rights consequences of runoff rounds, so that the costs and benefits of adopting (or retaining) variations of a runoff rule can be better weighed.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Política , Toma de Decisiones , Gobierno , Humanos
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