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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(1)2022 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35009947

RESUMEN

The moisture content of stored rice is dependent on the surrounding and environmental factors which in turn affect the quality and economic value of the grains. Therefore, the moisture content of grains needs to be measured frequently to ensure that optimum conditions that preserve their quality are maintained. The current state of the art for moisture measurement of rice in a silo is based on grab sampling or relies on single rod sensors placed randomly into the grain. The sensors that are currently used are very localized and are, therefore, unable to provide continuous measurement of the moisture distribution in the silo. To the authors' knowledge, there is no commercially available 3D volumetric measurement system for rice moisture content in a silo. Hence, this paper presents results of work carried out using low-cost wireless devices that can be placed around the silo to measure changes in the moisture content of rice. This paper proposes a novel technique based on radio frequency tomographic imaging using low-cost wireless devices and regression-based machine learning to provide contactless non-destructive 3D volumetric moisture content distribution in stored rice grain. This proposed technique can detect multiple levels of localized moisture distributions in the silo with accuracies greater than or equal to 83.7%, depending on the size and shape of the sample under test. Unlike other approaches proposed in open literature or employed in the sector, the proposed system can be deployed to provide continuous monitoring of the moisture distribution in silos.


Asunto(s)
Oryza , Grano Comestible , Aprendizaje Automático
2.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(2): 62, 2022 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994875

RESUMEN

Fusariosis affects cereal grain crops worldwide and is responsible for devastating crops, reducing grain quality and yield, and producing strong mycotoxins. Benzimidazoles and triazoles were recommended to combat fusariosis; however, there were reports of resistance, making it necessary to reflect on the reasons for this occurrence. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the fusariosis resistance to the main agricultural fungicides, to observe whether this resistance can cause changes in the production of mycotoxins, and to verify the influence of resistance on the cereal grain production chain. Scientific articles were selected from the ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Pubmed databases, published at maximum 10 years ago and covering the main fungicide classes that combat phytopathogenesis and mycotoxin production. A high occurrence of resistance to carbendazim was found, while few reports of resistance to triazoles are available. The effectiveness of strobilurins is doubtful, due to an increase of mycotoxins linked to it. It is possible to conclude that the large-scale use of fungicides can select resistant strains that will contribute to an increase in the production of mycotoxins and harm sectors of the world economy, not only the agriculture, but also sanitation and foreign trade.


Asunto(s)
Fungicidas Industriales , Fusarium , Micotoxinas , Grano Comestible , Fungicidas Industriales/farmacología , Enfermedades de las Plantas
3.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 4, 2022 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983391

RESUMEN

BACKGROUNDS: Grain size is a key factor in crop yield that gradually develops after pollination. However, few studies have reported gene expression patterns in maize grain development using large-grain mutants. To investigate the developmental mechanisms of grain size, we analyzed a large-grain mutant, named tc19, at the morphological and transcriptome level at five stages corresponding to days after pollination (DAP). RESULTS: After maturation, the grain length, width, and thickness in tc19 were greater than that in Chang7-2 (control) and increased by 3.57, 8.80, and 3.88%, respectively. Further analysis showed that grain width and 100-kernel weight in tc19 was lower than in Chang7-2 at 14 and 21 DAP, but greater than that in Chang7-2 at 28 DAP, indicating that 21 to 28 DAP was the critical stage for kernel width and weight development. For all five stages, the concentrations of auxin and brassinosteroids were significantly higher in tc19 than in Chang7-2. Gibberellin was higher at 7, 14, and 21 DAP, and cytokinin was higher at 21 and 35 DAP, in tc19 than in Chang7-2. Through transcriptome analysis at 14, 21, and 28 DAP, we identified 2987, 2647 and 3209 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between tc19 and Chang7-2. By using KEGG analysis, 556, 500 and 633 DEGs at 14, 21 and 28 DAP were pathway annotated, respectively, 77 of them are related to plant hormone signal transduction pathway. ARF3, AO2, DWF4 and XTH are higher expressed in tc19 than that in Chang7-2. CONCLUSIONS: We found some DEGs in maize grain development by using Chang7-2 and a large-grain mutant tc19. These DEGs have potential application value in improving maize performance.


Asunto(s)
Transcriptoma , Zea mays , Grano Comestible/genética , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas , Zea mays/genética
4.
Planta ; 255(2): 40, 2022 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038036

RESUMEN

MAIN CONCLUSION: QTL hotspots identified for selected source-sink-related traits provide the opportunity for pyramiding favorable alleles for improving sorghum productivity under diverse environments. A sorghum bi-parental mapping population was evaluated under six different environments at Hays and Manhattan, Kansas, USA, in 2016 and 2017, to identify genomic regions controlling source-sink relationships. The population consisted of 210 recombinant inbred lines developed from US elite post-flowering drought susceptible (RTx430) and a known post-flowering drought tolerant cultivar (SC35). Selected physiological traits related to source (effective quantum yield of photosystem II and chlorophyll index), sink (grain yield per panicle) and panicle neck diameter were recorded during grain filling. The results showed strong phenotypic and genotypic association between panicle neck diameter and grain yield per panicle during mid-grain filling and at maturity. Multiple QTL model revealed 5-12 including 2-5 major QTL for each trait. Among them 3, 7 and 8 QTL for quantum yield, panicle neck diameter and chlorophyll index, respectively, have not been identified previously in sorghum. Phenotypic variation explained by QTL identified across target traits ranged between 5.5 and 25.4%. Panicle neck diameter and grain yield per panicle were positively associated, indicating the possibility of targeting common co-localized QTL to improve both traits simultaneously through marker-assisted selection. Three major QTL hotspots, controlling multiple traits were identified on chromosome 1 (52.23-61.18 Mb), 2 (2.52-11.43 Mb) and 3 (1.32-3.95 Mb). The identified genomic regions and underlying candidate genes can be utilized in pyramiding favorable alleles for improving source-sink relationships in sorghum under diverse environments.


Asunto(s)
Sorghum , Mapeo Cromosómico , Grano Comestible/genética , Fenotipo , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo/genética , Sorghum/genética
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 171: 226-239, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973889

RESUMEN

Tungsten nanoparticles (WNPs) could induce hazard impact on plant growth and development; however, no study investigated their phytotoxicity. On the other hand, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can effectively reduce WNPs toxicity. To this end, Nocardiopsis sp. was isolated and employed to mitigate the phytotoxic effect of WNPs on three crops (wheat, barley, and oat). Soil contamination with WPNs induced the W accumulation in all tested crops, inhibited both growth and photosynthesis and induced oxidative damage. On the other hand, pre-inoculation with Nocardiopsis sp. significantly reduced W level in treated plants. Concomitantly, Nocardiopsis sp. strikingly mitigated the inhibitory effect of WNPs by augmenting both growth and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. To cope with heavy metal stress, all the tested species orchestrated their antioxidant homeostasis through enhancing the production of antioxidant metabolites (e.g., phenolics, flavonoids and tocopherols) and elevated the activities of ROS-scavenging enzymes (e.g., APX, POX, CAT, as well as the enzymes involved in AsA/GSH cycle). Moreover, pre-inoculation with Nocardiopsis sp. improved the detoxification metabolism by enhancing the accumulation of phytochelatins (PCs), metallothionein (MTC) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in grasses grown in WNPs-contaminated soils. Overall, restrained ROS homeostasis and improved WNPs detoxification systems were the bases underlie the WNPs stress mitigating impact of Nocardiopsis sp treatment.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas , Tungsteno , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Grano Comestible/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo
6.
Planta ; 255(2): 35, 2022 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015132

RESUMEN

MAIN CONCLUSION: SorghumBase provides a community portal that integrates genetic, genomic, and breeding resources for sorghum germplasm improvement. Public research and development in agriculture rely on proper data and resource sharing within stakeholder communities. For plant breeders, agronomists, molecular biologists, geneticists, and bioinformaticians, centralizing desirable data into a user-friendly hub for crop systems is essential for successful collaborations and breakthroughs in germplasm development. Here, we present the SorghumBase web portal ( https://www.sorghumbase.org ), a resource for the sorghum research community. SorghumBase hosts a wide range of sorghum genomic information in a modular framework, built with open-source software, to provide a sustainable platform. This initial release of SorghumBase includes: (1) five sorghum reference genome assemblies in a pan-genome browser; (2) genetic variant information for natural diversity panels and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutant populations; (3) search interface and integrated views of various data types; (4) links supporting interconnectivity with other repositories including genebank, QTL, and gene expression databases; and (5) a content management system to support access to community news and training materials. SorghumBase offers sorghum investigators improved data collation and access that will facilitate the growth of a robust research community to support genomics-assisted breeding.


Asunto(s)
Sorghum , Bases de Datos Genéticas , Grano Comestible , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genómica , Internet , Fitomejoramiento , Sorghum/genética
7.
Planta ; 255(2): 38, 2022 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031833

RESUMEN

MAIN CONCLUSION: Three known sugarcane aphid-resistant pollinator parents were sterilized in A3 cytoplasmic male sterility and were confirmed in this study to be resistant to sugarcane aphid allowing for the development of sugarcane aphid-resistant forage hybrids. We utilized A3 cytoplasmic male sterility and converted known sugarcane aphid-resistant sorghum TX 2783, and newly released R. LBK1 (Reg. No. GP-865, PI 687244) and R. LBK2 (Reg. No. GP-866, PI 687245) into A3 sterility to determine if the sterile counterparts would also equally express tolerance and or antibiosis to sugarcane aphid. Free-choice flat screen trials and life-table demographic studies were utilized and compared to know susceptible/fertile entries KS 585, and TX 7000, and known resistant/fertile entries TX 2783 and DKS 37-07. The R. LBK1 fertile entry was more tolerant than the known susceptible entries KS 585 and TX 7000, but was not as resistant as the other resistant entries, sustaining a damage rating of 6.0 across two different screen trials. The sterile A3 R. LBK2 showed a greater tolerance and expressed higher levels of antibiosis during aphid reproductive studies when compared to the known resistant and fertile TX 2783. All other fertile (R. LBK2, TX2783) and the A3 male sterile counterparts (A3 R. LBK2, A3 TX2783) were very similar in expression of high levels of tolerance and exhibited statistically similar damage ratings of 3.3-4.3 when exposed to sugarcane aphids. No entry, either fertile or sterile, was as tolerant as DKS 37-07, a known resistant commercial hybrid. Other plant measurements including percent loss in chlorophyll content, difference in plant height, and number of true leaves for sugarcane aphid infested versus non-infested were very consistent and highly correlated with damage ratings. Antibiosis was also exhibited in both fertile and sterile versions of the resistant lines. There was a 2 × reduction in fecundity between the R. LBK1 fertile and its sterile A3 R. LBK1 when compared to the susceptible KS 585 and TX 7000; however, the remaining fertile and sterile entries had 3.8 × to 5.8 × decrease in fecundity when compared to the susceptible KS 585 and TX 7000. Other measurements in life-table statistics such as nymphs produced/female/d, and the intrinsic rates of increased were significantly lower for all fertile and sterile lines, showing that antibiosis significantly affected sugarcane aphid reproduction. In conclusion, the A3 cytoplasmic male sterility shows consistency for maintaining the single dominant trait SCA-resistant trait of TX 2783 for expressing both antibiosis and tolerance, and great utility in the development of sugarcane aphid-resistant forage sorghums.


Asunto(s)
Áfidos , Infertilidad Vegetal , Sorghum , Animales , Grano Comestible , Sorghum/genética
8.
Talanta ; 239: 123125, 2022 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34920257

RESUMEN

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination is a severe threat to food safety and human health, and requires continuous monitoring. In this study, we developed a biotin-streptavidin-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BA-ELISA) by using biotinylated nanobody Nb26 and streptavidin-conjugated polymerized horseradish peroxide (SA-PolyHRP) for sensitive and rapid detection of AFB1 in cereal. Under the optimal condition, the IC50 value of the BA-ELISA was improved to 0.21 ng mL-1 for AFB1, satisfying the requirement of detection limit in practical applications. The total assay time of our strategy is reduced to 50 min from 2 h in conventional competitive ELISA. Additionally, the BA-ELISA saves as much as 98% of the antibody in comparison to the previous classic ELISA. Our work also demonstrated an interesting phenomenon that the biotinylated Nb26 achieved better selectivity to AFB1, which could possibly result from the steric hindrance that interferes reaction between the Nb26 and the AFB1 analogs. Furthermore, the assay was used to detect AFB1 in two cereal samples, and the results were in good agreement with that obtained by high performance liquid chromatography. The developed BA-ELISA can be used for routine screening analysis of AFB1, and offers a promising strategy for measuring low concentrations of food contaminants.


Asunto(s)
Aflatoxina B1 , Grano Comestible , Aflatoxina B1/análisis , Grano Comestible/química , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Humanos , Límite de Detección
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127361, 2022 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879560

RESUMEN

The excessive accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in rice grains is highly determined by the expression of specific genes in different tissues. Targeted gene regulation in rice plants is a long-standing challenge. Herein, a new strategy for regulating target gene expression responsible for Cd absorption and translocation in roots and leaves was developed by complexing Fe(II) with organic matter (i.e., Fe-OM) with the optimal mass ratio of 1. Results showed that Fe-OM noticeably reduced the grain Cd content from 0.48 ± 0.04 mg kg-1 to 0.25 ± 0.03 mg kg-1, exhibiting a significantly higher capacity in mitigating Cd accumulation in grains than Fe(II) or OM alone. The translocation factor (TF) was reduced from 0.14 (control) to 0.08 by Fe-FA from root to grain, which could be due to the preferential Cd translocation to leaves (i.e., TFroot to leaves was enhanced four times by the complex of Fe(II) with fulvic acid (Fe-FA). Further gene analysis revealed that the cooperative effects of OsNramp1 and OsNramp5 downregulation in roots/stems and OsLCT1 upregulation in leaves contributed to the mitigation of Cd in grains. This work provides a new strategy to regulating target gene expression in specific tissues to alleviate Cd accumulation in grains.


Asunto(s)
Oryza , Contaminantes del Suelo , Cadmio/análisis , Grano Comestible/química , Expresión Génica , Oryza/genética , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 115: 403-410, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969468

RESUMEN

A simple and efficient dithizone-functionalized solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure, online coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, was developed for the first time for enrichment and determination of ultra-trace mercury (Hg) species (inorganic divalent Hg (Hg(II)), methylmercury (CH3Hg(II)) and ethylmercury (C2H5Hg(II)) in cereals and environmental samples. In the proposed method, functionalization of the commercial C18 column with dithizone, enrichment, and elution of the above Hg species can be completed online with the developed SPE device. A simple solution of 2-mercaptoethanol (1% (V/V)) could be used as an eluent for both the SPE and HPLC separation of Hg species, significantly simplifying the method and instrumentation. The online SPE method was optimized by varying dithizone dose, 2-mercaptoethanol concentration, and sample volume. In addition, the effect of pH, coexisting interfering ions, and salt effect on the enrichment was also discussed. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of Hg species for 5 mL water sample were 0.15 ng/L for Hg(II), 0.07 ng/L for CH3Hg(II), and 0.04 ng/L for C2H5Hg(II) with recoveries in the range of 85%-100%. The developed dithizone-functionalized C18 SPE column can be reused after a single functionalization, which significantly simplifies the enrichment step. Moreover, the stability of Hg species enriched on the SPE column demonstrated its suitability for field sampling of Hg species for later laboratory analysis. This environment-friendly method offers a robust tool to detect ultra-trace Hg species in cereals and environmental samples.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Ditizona , Grano Comestible , Extracción en Fase Sólida
11.
Plant Sci ; 314: 111065, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895534

RESUMEN

Sucrose-proton symporters play important roles in carbohydrate transport during plant growth and development. Their physiological functions have only been partly characterized and their regulation mechanism is largely unclear. Here we report that the knockout of a sucrose transporter gene, OsSUT1, by CRISPR-Cas9 mediated gene editing resulted in a slightly dwarf size and complete infertility of the gene's homozygous mutants. Observation of caryopsis development revealed that the endosperm of OsSUT1 mutants failed to cellularize and did not show any sign of seed-filling. Consistently, OsSUT1 was identified to express strongly in developing caryopsis of wild-type rice, particularly in the nucellar epidermis and aleurone which are critical for the uptake of nutrients into the endosperm. These results indicate that OsSUT1 is indispensable during the rice reproductive stage particularly for caryopsis development. Interestingly, OsSUT1 possesses at least 6 alternative splicing transcripts, including the 4 transcripts deposited previously and the other two identified by us. The differences among these transcripts primarily lie in their coding region of the 3' end and 3' UTR region. Real-time PCR showed that 4 of the 6 transcripts had different expressional patterns during rice vegetative and reproductive growth stages. Given the versatility of the gene, addressing its alternative splicing mechanism may expand our understanding of SUT's function substantially.


Asunto(s)
Repeticiones Palindrómicas Cortas Agrupadas y Regularmente Espaciadas , Fertilidad/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Membrana/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Sacarosa/metabolismo , Empalme Alternativo , Productos Agrícolas/genética , Productos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Grano Comestible/genética , Grano Comestible/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo
12.
Food Chem ; 366: 130544, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314932

RESUMEN

The potential of travelling wave ion mobility spectroscopy in combination with collision induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-TWIMS-MS/MS) to separate cereal-derived isomeric arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (A)XOS was investigated. Three trisaccharide, four tetrasaccharide, and four pentasaccharide (A)XOS isomers were analyzed by positive and negative ionization TWIMS-MS and CID-TWIMS-MS/MS. The tri- and pentasaccharide isomers were distinguishable by the ATDs of the precursor ions. The CID-TWIMS-MS/MS could separate most of the isomeric fragment ions produced from tetra- and pentasaccharide (A)XOS. Finally, the base peak mobility spectrum is introduced as a practical tool for (A)XOS fingerprinting.


Asunto(s)
Grano Comestible , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Espectrometría de Movilidad Iónica , Oligosacáridos , Xilanos
13.
Food Chem ; 367: 130669, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365252

RESUMEN

Analysis of digital images by smartphone was used for copper quantification in sugarcane spirit (cachaça) samples through the formation of blue complex between copper and cuprizone. An experimental design was carried out to evaluate the best complexation reaction conditions. Moreover, different image acquisition procedures (external camera coupled to a smartphone or the smartphone camera) with different regions of interest sizes, distances in image acquisition, and concentration ranges of the calibration curve and the influence of processing the curve in univariate and multivariate modes, by PLS, were evaluated. The results obtained in three real samples and two spikes were compared with those of UV-Vis spectrophotometry, used as a reference method, and they show the potential of the proposed method for the accurate determination of copper. When compared to traditional techniques, the proposed method has the advantages of portability and low cost in addition to requiring a smaller amount of reagents.


Asunto(s)
Cobre , Saccharum , Grano Comestible , Proyectos de Investigación , Teléfono Inteligente
14.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131827, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403897

RESUMEN

Precision farming using nanoparticles is a cutting-edge technology for safe cultivation of crop plants in marginal areas afflicted with environmental/climatic stresses like salinity, drought, extremes of temperature, ultraviolet B stress or polluted with xenobiotics like toxic heavy metals and fluoride. Major cereal crops like rice, wheat, maize, barley, sorghum and millets which provide the staple food for the entire global population are mainly glycophytes and are extremely susceptible to abiotic stress-induced oxidative injuries. Nanofertilization/exogenous spraying of beneficial nanoparticles alleviates the oxidative damages in cereals by altering the homeostasis of phytohormones like abscisic acid, gibberellins, cytokinins, auxins, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and melatonin and by triggering the synthesis of gasotransmitter nitric oxide. Signaling cross-talks of nanoparticles with plant growth regulators enable activation of the defence machinery, comprising of antioxidants, thiol-rich compounds and glyoxalases and restrict xenobiotic mobilization by suppressing the expression of associated transporters. Accelerated nutrient uptake and grain biofortification under the influence of nanoparticles result in optimum crop productivity under sub-optimal conditions. However, over-dosing of even beneficial nanoparticles promotes severe phytotoxicity. Hence, the concentration of nanoparticles and mode of administering need to be thoroughly standardized before large-scale field applications, to ensure sustainable cereal cultivation with minimum ecological imbalance.


Asunto(s)
Grano Comestible , Nanopartículas , Homeostasis , Nanopartículas/toxicidad , Nutrientes , Estrés Fisiológico , Xenobióticos/toxicidad
15.
Environ Res ; 203: 111857, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400164

RESUMEN

Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a phytotoxic pollutant that leads to a reduction in crop yield. Nanotechnology offers promising solutions to stem such yield losses against abiotic stresses. Silver nanoparticles are major nanomaterials used in consumer products however, their impact on crops under abiotic stress is limited. In this study, we evaluated the anti-ozonant efficacy of biogenic silver nanoparticles (B-AgNPs) and compared them with a model anti-ozonant ethylenediurea (EDU) against ozone phyto-toxicity. Growth, physiology, antioxidant defense, and yield parameters in two wheat cultivars (HD-2967 & DBW-17), treated with B-AgNPs (25 mg/L and 50 mg/L) and EDU (150 mg/L and 300 mg/L), were studied at both vegetative and reproductive stages. During the experimental period, the average ambient ozone concentration and accumulated dose of ozone over a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) (8 h day-1) were found to be 60 ppb and 6 ppm h, respectively, which were sufficient to cause ozone-induced phyto-toxicity in wheat. Growth and yield for B-AgNPs as well as EDU-treated plants were significantly higher in both the tested cultivars over control ones. However, 25 mg/L B-AgNPs treatment showed a more pronounced effect in terms of yield attributes and its lower accumulation in grains for both cultivars. DBW-17 cultivar responded better with B-AgNPs and EDU treatments as compared to HD-2967. Meanwhile, foliar exposure of B-AgNPs (dose; 25 mg/L) significantly enhanced grain weight plant-1, thousand-grain weight, and harvest index by 54.22 %, 29.46 %, and 14.21 %, respectively in DBW-17, when compared to control. B-AgNPs could enhance ozone tolerance in wheat by increasing biochemical and physiological responses. It is concluded that B-AgNPs at optimum concentrations were as effective as EDU, hence could be a promising ozone protectant for wheat.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas del Metal , Ozono , Grano Comestible , Nanopartículas del Metal/toxicidad , Ozono/toxicidad , Plata/toxicidad , Triticum
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126838, 2022 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411960

RESUMEN

Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in food is a serious threat to public health. There is an urgent need for development of rapid and sensitive methods for OTA detection, to minimize consumer exposure to OTA. In this study, we constructed two OTA-specific fluonanobodies (FluoNbs), with a nanobody fused at the carboxyl-terminal (SGFP-Nb) or the amino-terminal (Nb-SGFP) of superfolder green fluorescence protein. SGFP-Nb, which displayed better fluorescence performance, was selected as the tracer for OTA, to develop a FluoNb-based nanosensor (FN-Nanosens) via the fluorescence resonance energy transfer, where the SGFP-Nb served as the donor and the chemical conjugates of OTA-quantum dots served as the acceptor. After optimization, FN-Nanosens showed a limit of detection of 5 pg/mL, with a linear detection range of 5-5000 pg/mL. FN-Nanosens was found to be highly selective for OTA and showed good accuracy and repeatability in recovery experiments using cereals with various complex matrix environments. Moreover, the contents of OTA in real samples measured using FN-Nanosens correlated well with those from the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Therefore, this work illustrated that the FluoNb is an ideal immunosensing tool and that FN-Nanosens is reliable for rapid detection of OTA in cereals with ultrahigh sensitivity.


Asunto(s)
Ocratoxinas , Puntos Cuánticos , Grano Comestible/química , Transferencia Resonante de Energía de Fluorescencia , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Ocratoxinas/análisis
17.
Pest Manag Sci ; 78(1): 143-149, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463021

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health scouting of crops by satellite, airplanes, unmanned aerial (UAV) and ground vehicles can only evaluate the crop from above. The visible leaves may show no disease symptoms, but lower, older leaves not visible from above can do. A mobile in-canopy sensor was developed, carried by a tractor to detect diseases in cereal crops. Photodiodes measure the reflected light in the red and infrared wavelength range at 10 different vertical heights in lateral directions. RESULTS: Significant differences occurred in the vegetation index NDVI of sensor levels operated inside and near the winter wheat canopy between infected (stripe rust: 2018, 2019 / leaf rust: 2020) and control plots. The differences were not significant at those sensor levels operated far above the canopy. CONCLUSIONS: Lateral reflectance measurements inside the crop canopy are able to distinguish between disease-infected and healthy crops. In future mobile in-canopy scouting could be an extension to the common above-canopy scouting praxis for making spraying decisions by the farmer or decision support systems. © 2021 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Basidiomycota , Grano Comestible , Agricultura , Productos Agrícolas , Hojas de la Planta , Triticum
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150503, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600204

RESUMEN

The management of sugarcane ripening is essential to ensuring the supply of high-quality raw material for the sugar-alcohol industry; chemical ripeners are frequently used to accelerate sucrose accumulation in the stalks during harvesting. The potential ripening effect of a low dose of glyphosate was evaluated in sugarcane, along with its impact on productivity and sprouting in the next crop cycle. A field experiment was conducted in 2015 and 2016 using a randomized block design with eight replicates in a split-plot scheme, with the following treatments: (1) control with only water application, (2) glyphosate at a low dose of 1.8 g a.e. ha-1 (corresponding to 0.005 L ha-1 of the commercial product (cp)), and (3) glyphosate at the commercially recommended dose for a ripener at 180 g a.e. ha-1 (corresponding to 0.50 L ha-1 of the cp) applied at 60, 45, 30, and 15 days before harvest (DBH). The harvest was performed on May 25, 2016 (0 DBH), and a total of five periods were evaluated. This study showed that the application of a hormetic dose of glyphosate to stimulate sugarcane ripening is promising, despite the limited duration of the effect. The application of the hormetic dose (1.8 g a.e. ha-1) at 30 DBH improved the technological quality of sugarcane in terms of Brix% juice, pol% cane, purity% juice, moisture% cane, reducing sugars, total reducing sugars, and total recoverable sugar. Additionally, it increased pol productivity, and did not affect ratoon sprouting in the subsequent cycle. Thus, this study provides a strategy for ripening management with a low environmental impact for sugarcane producers through a low (hormetic) dose of glyphosate.


Asunto(s)
Saccharum , Grano Comestible , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Hormesis
19.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 1): 132426, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606901

RESUMEN

Characterization of the country internal variability of arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grain across different rice production regions is very important in order to analyze its compliance with international and regional limits. A robust sampling study scheme (n = 150 samples) was performed to determine total arsenic (tAs) and inorganic (iAs) levels from polished rice grain covering all rice producing regions along two growing seasons. The mean and median concentration of tAs were 0.178 mg kg-1 and 0.147 mg kg-1, with a minimum and maximum value of 0.015 mg kg-1 and 0.629 mg kg-1, respectively and a coefficient of variation of 63.6%. The mean and median concentration of iAs were 0.062 mg kg-1 and 0.055 mg kg-1 respectively ranging from 0.005 mg kg-1 up to a maximum of 0.195 mg kg-1 and a coefficient of variation of 51.5%. A moderate correlation was revealed within iAs and tAs. Levels of iAs in all of the samples were below the international limits of 0.2 mg kg-1 according to the international limits for human health by the Codex Alimentarius (FAO and WHO, 2019). Rice fields cultivated on soils originated from igneous geological material reported lower arsenic levels accumulated in rice grain in relation to sedimentary soils. Japonica cultivars presented significantly lower tAs and iAs concentrations than Indica ones (p = 0.0121 and p < 0.0001; respectively). Consumption of rice by male and female adults in Uruguay is safe according to its level of annual consumption and based on the mean iAs levels determined in this study.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Oryza , Contaminantes del Suelo , Adulto , Arsénico/análisis , Grano Comestible/química , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Humanos , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150763, 2022 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619198

RESUMEN

The use of heavy farm machinery has resulted in widespread soil compaction in many regions of the world. Compacted soil limits the access of crops to soil water and nutrients and is expected to reduce crop productivity, but the influence of weather conditions on the interactions between compacted soil and crop productivity is unclear. Furthermore, early vigor has been regarded as a promising trait for improving the yield of crops grown under edaphic stress such as soil compaction. We aimed to assess the combined effects of soil compaction and contrasting weather conditions on growth and grain yield of spring wheat, and to evaluate the association between early vigor and grain yield under temporal variations of the soil physical conditions. Nine spring wheat genotypes were grown on compacted and non-compacted soils during two cropping seasons with contrasting weather conditions in Central Sweden. Compared to the non-compacted treatment, soil compaction increased the relative growth rate of shoot biomass from sowing to stem elongation, and from stem elongation to flowering in the drier year (2018), but decreased the same traits in the wetter year (2019). The contrasting effects of soil compaction on shoot growth in the two years could be explained by soil moisture and penetration resistance associated with the interactive effects of soil compaction and weather condition. Higher early vigor, here indicated by higher relative growth rate from sowing to stem elongation, was associated with reduced grain yield under the progressively drying and hardening soil conditions during the entire cropping season of both years. We conclude that the interactive effects of soil physical and weather conditions need to be considered when evaluating the impact of soil compaction on crop growth and productivity. The potential of early vigor to increase grain yield is strongly influenced by the temporal dynamics of soil physical conditions.


Asunto(s)
Suelo , Triticum , Productos Agrícolas , Grano Comestible , Tiempo (Meteorología)
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