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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1317: 17-33, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945130

RESUMEN

Facial reconstruction is employed in medical science and archaeology. Though quite popular as anthropological method, it has not so far been used in the orthodox ecclesiastical tradition. This work presents the facial reconstruction of St Eftychios of Crete, who lived between the ninth and tenth centuries. Computed tomography and reverse engineering methods were employed to complete the task. Reconstruction of the mandible and the missing left zygomatic arch was implemented following the Sassouni method. The American method was followed for the soft tissues, with clay deposition of appropriate thickness, on the surface of the skull model. The eyes, nose, and lips were added based on the dimensions of the underlying bone structures. Long hair and beard were added, according to the classic Byzantine tradition pattern of the time period. The final bust developed was then digitized, using a 3D non-contact laser scanner. The 3D geometry produced was employed to produce a mold with vacuum casting techniques. This mold provides the ability to produce copies of the bust, if needed. At the same time, a realistic 3D representation of the Saint's bust was developed, with the aid of special software, in order to compare the traditional forensic reconstruction to the pure digital one. This work is the first case of a Saint's facial reconstruction in the Orthodox Church. The facial reconstruction process, with all the limitations considered, offers the ability to present a realistic aspect of a Greek Orthodox Church Saint, in a form that is easily accessible. Both physical and digital facial reconstruction processes were based on scientific data, so they were as accurate as possible, considering that the mandible was missing in the skull. The facial reconstruction was entirely implemented in Greece creating the basis for similar work in the future. The final bust developed was donated to the Odigitria Monastery, to be exhibited to its visitors.


Asunto(s)
Cara , Cráneo , Medicina Legal , Grecia , Recreación
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1317: 35-51, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945131

RESUMEN

Human remains have been displayed in museums in Europe since many centuries for historical, cultural, and educational reasons. Of particular interest are skeletal remains and body parts that have suffered violent deaths and such remains often feature in Criminology Museums. Despite the well-acknowledged value of human remains in medical education, bioarchaeology, and research, the display of human remains still raises ethical considerations ranging in severity depending on the cultural substrate and legal framework of each country. Recent developments in medical imaging and visualisation are offering an alternative way. Taking into account the emerging issues regarding exhibition and handling of human remains, this research project aims to use virtual methods to reconstruct the circumstances of the death of a nineteenth-century outlaw comprising one of the human exhibits at the Criminology Museum of Athens in Greece.For the purpose of the project, the severed head of the outlaw Stavrou was CT scanned, and the data were used to reconstruct and to evaluate the ballistic trauma sustained at the time of his death. From the scans, it was possible to determine the minimum number of shots, entrance and exit wounds, approximate calibre of the bullets, approximate distance from which they were fired, and general velocity of the round.Shots are fired from the lateral left and backside of the head and bullets exited from the right frontal and temporal area causing extensive damage to the right craniofacial region. The direction of the shots coming from the back and left suggests that Stavrou was more likely ambushed by gendarmerie squads and not shot in a fair fight which would have caused entry wounds in the anterior surface of the body. This is in agreement with historical evidence that placed him in gunfire with his fellow gang member Karapanos against a government squad. On the other hand, the possibility of being captured alive and executed cannot be rejected based only on wound ballistics.This work would be excellent supplementary material to the actual human exhibit for the accurate presentation of Stavrou's history at the Criminology Museum. In addition, it would allow the virtual exhibition of the material for historical and teaching purposes to museums and universities anywhere in Greece and along the globe, thus overcoming the obstacles of moving the actual remains.


Asunto(s)
Heridas por Arma de Fuego , Europa (Continente) , Balística Forense , Grecia , Humanos , Masculino , Radiografía
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806126

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Health care service quality has been equated with preparedness to provide, accessibility, suitability, adequacy, friendliness and ongoing support and has been connected to service excellence. The main aim of this study was to investigate patients' perceptions and expectations regarding the quality of health services. (2) Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out in 5 public general hospitals and convenience sampling was used as the sampling technique. Questionnaires were distributed to inpatients and outpatients and 700 valid questionnaires were returned. The SERVQUAL questionnaire was used for data collection in this survey. (3) Results: Overall, in this study, it became apparent that patients' expectations as regarding the quality of the provided services were not met. All of the five quality dimensions had a negative gap between patients' expectations and perceptions. (4) Conclusions: The findings suggested that hospital managers and health care professionals should be interested about patient expectations and subsequently they should search out ways and means to meet them. Open communication with patients, individualized attention, as well as responsiveness to their requirements, polite behavior, trustful atmosphere across the hospital and better physical facilities are the key elements that determine the patient's judgment about quality.


Asunto(s)
Satisfacción del Paciente , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Estudios Transversales , Grecia , Hospitales Públicos , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112406, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827027

RESUMEN

The erosion of sandy beaches creates a significant impact on the local society, the economy and the environment. The present study is an attempt to adapt the innovative DESSIN (Demonstrate Ecosystem Services Enabling Innovation in the Water Sector) framework that specializes in freshwater applications, to urban coastal systems. The framework is applied in the case of Kamari beach, Santorini (Greece), to assess the sustainability of all possible anti-erosion measures. To identify the most vulnerable parts of the coastline, the study used two sensitivity indices: the Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI), and the Socioeconomic Index (SocCVI). A supply-demand model was applied for the integration of all three aspects that characterize the system: social, economic, and environmental. To project the impact of erosion in the future, the system's state was analyzed in three steps a) the present, b) after the installation of the coastal protection measures and c) a scenario where no protection actions were taken (RCP4.5 scenario). In the current situation the most susceptible part of the coastline due to anthropogenic and environmental pressures is the central one, which does not immediately affect the socio-economic activities of the urban area. In contrast, future changes brought about by climate change will endanger the system's equilibrium and anti-erosion actions are necessary. With the application of the adapted DESSIN framework, the combined installation of submerged breakwaters with sediment replacement is the most sustainable action, promoting socio-economic growth and the protection of essential ecosystem services.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Aclimatación , Agua Dulce , Grecia
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803770

RESUMEN

There is plenty of proof that environmental noise is a major pollutant in the urban environment. Several approaches were successfully applied for its calculation, visualization, prediction and mitigation. The goal of all strategy plans regards its reduction and the creation of quietness. This study aims to revisit the concept of quietness in the urban environment and attempts to portray a new understanding of the specific phenomena. "Quietness" as a term retains an ambiguity, and so far, it can be described as the lack of something, meaning the lack of noise that is portrayed by means of intensity. Several studies describe quietness as the combination of perceptual soundscape elements and contextual factors that can be quantified, combined, weighed and used as indicators of healthy soundscapes. In this research, the focus is on setting aside all indicators, either measuring the intensity or contextual ones and use solely quantifiable metrics regarding the acoustic environment, thus introducing a new composite index called the composite urban quietness index (CUQI). After testing the CUQI, in order to verify the results of previous research regarding the identification of quiet Areas in the city of Mytilene (Lesbos Island, Greece), the study concludes that CUQI is efficiently functioning even in this early stage of development.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Ruido , Acústica , Ciudades , Grecia , Humanos , Ruido/efectos adversos , Salud Urbana
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804500

RESUMEN

The Transmission Reduction Intervention Project (TRIP) was a network-based, enhanced contact tracing approach, targeting recently HIV-infected people who inject drugs (PWID) in Athens, Greece (2013-2015). This analysis examines behavioral changes of participants in TRIP and their determinants between baseline and follow-up visits to the program. All participants of TRIP were tested for HIV and interviewed using a questionnaire with items on drug injection-related and sexual behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine potential relationships between participants' behaviors and sociodemographic or other characteristics. The analysis included 292 participants. At follow-up, the percentage of participants who injected drugs decreased [92.5%, n = 270 versus 72.3%, n = 211 (p < 0.001)], and more participants adopted safer behaviors. Employment, age, and gender were significantly associated with some behavioral changes. For instance, unemployed participants were half as likely as the employed to stop drug injection [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.475, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.228, 0.988]. Increasing age was associated with lower probability of sharing syringes at follow-up (aOR: 0.936, 95%CI: 0.887, 0.988). Finally, females were less likely than males to improve their behavior related to sharing cookers, filters, or rinse water (aOR: 0.273, 95% CI: 0.100, 0.745). In conclusion, adoption of safer behaviors was observed following TRIP implementation. Future prevention programs should focus on younger PWID and especially females. Social efforts to support employment of PWID are also important.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa , Femenino , Grecia/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Humanos , Masculino , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Red Social , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa/epidemiología
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 309, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789574

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Population external validity is the extent to which an experimental study results can be generalized from a specific sample to a defined population. In order to apply the results of a study, we should be able to assess its population external validity. We performed an investigator-initiated randomized controlled trial (RCT) (AIDA study), which compared colistin-meropenem combination therapy to colistin monotherapy in the treatment of patients infected with carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In order to examine the study's population external validity and to substantiate the use of AIDA study results in clinical practice, we performed a concomitant observational trial. METHODS: The study was conducted between October 1st, 2013 and January 31st, 2017 (during the RCTs recruitment period) in Greece, Israel and Italy. Patients included in the observational arm of the study have fulfilled clinical and microbiological inclusion criteria but were excluded from the RCT due to receipt of colistin for > 96 h, refusal to participate, or prior inclusion in the RCT. Non-randomized cases were compared to randomized patients. The primary outcome was clinical failure at 14 days of infection onset. RESULTS: Analysis included 701 patients. Patients were infected mainly with Acinetobacter baumannii [78.2% (548/701)]. The most common reason for exclusion was refusal to participate [62% (183/295)]. Non-randomized and randomized patients were similar in most of the demographic and background parameters, though randomized patients showed minor differences towards a more severe infection. Combination therapy was less common in non-randomized patients [31.9% (53/166) vs. 51.2% (208/406), p = 0.000]. Randomized patients received longer treatment of colistin [13 days (IQR 10-16) vs. 8.5 days (IQR 0-15), p = 0.000]. Univariate analysis showed that non-randomized patients were more inclined to clinical failure on day 14 from infection onset [82% (242/295) vs. 75.5% (307/406), p = 0.042]. After adjusting for other variables, non-inclusion was not an independent risk factor for clinical failure at day 14. CONCLUSION: The similarity between the observational arm and RCT patients has strengthened our confidence in the population external validity of the AIDA trial. Adding an observational arm to intervention studies can help increase the population external validity and improve implementation of study results in clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01732250 on November 22, 2012.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Acinetobacter/tratamiento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Infecciones por Acinetobacter/microbiología , Acinetobacter baumannii/aislamiento & purificación , Anciano , Carbapenémicos/uso terapéutico , Colistina/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Grecia , Humanos , Israel , Italia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Meropenem/uso terapéutico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e045425, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795310

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to review SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence studies conducted in Europe to understand how they may be used to inform ongoing control strategies for COVID-19. DESIGN: Scoping review of peer-reviewed publications and manuscripts on preprint servers from January 2020 to 15 September 2020. PRIMARY MEASURE: Seroprevalence estimate (and lower and upper CIs). For studies conducted across a country or territory, we used the seroprevalence estimate and the upper and lower CIs and compared them to the total number of reported infections to calculate the ratio of reported to expected infections. RESULTS: We identified 23 population-based seroprevalence studies conducted in Europe. Among 12 general population studies, seroprevalence ranged from 0.42% among residual clinical samples in Greece to 13.6% in an area of high transmission in Gangelt, Germany. Of the eight studies in blood donors, seroprevalence ranged from 0.91% in North-Western Germany to 23.3% in a high-transmission area in Lombardy region, Italy. In three studies which recruited individuals through employment, seroprevalence ranged from 0.5% among factory workers in Frankfurt, Germany, to 10.2% among university employees in Milan, Italy. In comparison to nationally reported cases, the extent of infection, as derived from these seroprevalence estimates, is manyfold higher and largely heterogeneous. CONCLUSION: Exposure to the virus in Europe has not reached a level of infection that would prevent further circulation of the virus. Effective vaccine candidates are urgently required to deliver the level of immunity in the population.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , /sangre , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Alemania , Grecia , Humanos , Italia , Pandemias
9.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805678

RESUMEN

Previous studies showed that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown imposed changes in adults' lifestyle behaviors; however, there is limited information regarding the effects on youth. The COV-EAT study aimed to report changes in children's and adolescents' lifestyle habits during the first COVID-19 lockdown and explore potential associations between changes of participants' lifestyle behaviors and body weight. An online survey among 397 children/adolescents and their parents across 63 municipalities in Greece was conducted in April-May 2020. Parents self-reported changes of their children's lifestyle habits and body weight, as well as sociodemographic data of their family. The present study shows that during the lockdown, children's/adolescents' sleep duration and screen time increased, while their physical activity decreased. Their consumption of fruits and fresh fruit juices, vegetables, dairy products, pasta, sweets, total snacks, and breakfast increased, while fast-food consumption decreased. Body weight increased in 35% of children/adolescents. A multiple regression analysis showed that the body weight increase was associated with increased consumption of breakfast, salty snacks, and total snacks and with decreased physical activity. The COV-EAT study revealed changes in children's and adolescents' lifestyle behaviors during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Greece. Effective strategies are needed to prevent excessive body weight gain in future COVID-19 lockdowns.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estilo de Vida , Aumento de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Grecia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Padres , Conducta Sedentaria
10.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923341

RESUMEN

Adolescents' daily life has dramatically changed during the COVID-19 era due to the social restrictions that have been imposed, including closures of schools, leisure centers and sport facilities. The purpose of this study was to examine levels of well-being and mood and their relations with physical (in)activity and eating behaviors in adolescents during a lockdown period in Greece. A total of 950 adolescents (Mean Age = 14.41 years ± 1.63) participated in a web-based survey while education was conducted online and organized sport activities were interrupted. Participants showed poor well-being, insufficient physical activity levels and moderate scores of healthy eating behavior. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that, after controlling for the effect of gender and body mass index, increased physical activity and healthier eating behavior predicted better well-being (b = 0.24, p < 0.01 and b = 0.19, p < 0.01, respectively), whereas sedentariness predicted worse well-being (b = -0.16, p < 0.01). Furthermore, it was revealed that days of physical activity per week was a stronger predictor of well-being than minutes of physical activity per week, and that both in-house and out-of-house physical activity were beneficial. Considering that well-being in our study was below the threshold recommended by the World Health Organization as indicative of possible depressive symptoms, measures to increase physical activity, decrease sedentariness and improve eating behavior should become a priority for communities and policy makers.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria , Conducta Sedentaria , Adolescente , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Depresión/epidemiología , Dieta Saludable , Femenino , Grecia/epidemiología , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Calidad de Vida , Aislamiento Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 249, 2021 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829338

RESUMEN

This study presents the development of an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of multiclass illicit drugs (cocainoids, opiates, amphetamines, and cannabinoids) and psychoactive pharmaceuticals (anxiolytics, hypnotics, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and antiparkinsonian), in municipal wastewater. The analytical method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. The recoveries (%) for the majority of the analytes ranged between 70 and 120%, while the method showed good repeatability (2.4-29.2%). The limits of detection (LOD) of the method ranged between 0.8 and 9.4 ng L-1. The method was implemented on influent and effluent samples from Thessaloniki (N. Greece) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and it revealed the daily presence of benzoylecgonine (BEG) (84.0-202.2 ng L-1), methadone (12.3-17.5 ng L-1), 11-Nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) (80.3-171.9 ng L-1), morphine (144.2-264.3 ng L-1), and 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) (5.8-12.0 ng L-1) in the influent samples of WWTP. Clozapine (101.6-315.5 ng L-1), quetiapine (33.5-109.7 ng L-1), and fluoxetine (20.9-124.4 ng L-1) were pharmaceutical psychotics with the highest concentration in the influents. Back calculation estimated that the daily consumption of cocaine, heroin, cannabis, and methadone was 36-95, 86-164, 2300-5400, and 8-12 mg day-1 per 1000 inhabitants, respectively. The consumption was estimated between 7-16 and 15 mg day-1 per 1000 inhabitants for methyl diethanolamine (MDEA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), respectively.


Asunto(s)
Drogas Ilícitas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Cromatografía Liquida , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Grecia , Extracción en Fase Sólida , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Aguas Residuales/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799791

RESUMEN

A COVID-19 outbreak occurred among residents of a Roma settlement in Greece (8 April-4 June 2020). The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with an increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures implemented. Data were analyzed from individuals that were tested for SARS-CoV-2 during contact tracing, population screening or hospital visits. RT-PCR was used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in oropharyngeal samples. Risk factors for household secondary attack rates (SAR) and hospitalization with COVID-19 were examined using chi-square tests, Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses. During the outbreak, 142 cases, 20 hospitalizations and 1 death were recorded, with a total of 2273 individuals tested. The risk of hospitalization was associated with age (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.07) and Cycle threshold (Ct) values (OR for a decrease in Ct values by 1: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.07-1.31). Household SAR was estimated at 38.62% (95% CI: 32.50-45.01%). After the designation of an isolation facility for cases, household SAR declined from 74.42% to 31.03%. Household size was associated with the risk of infection (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.00-7.07). The presence of COVID-19 symptoms among index cases was correlated with higher transmission (OR: 23.68, 95% CI 2.21-253.74) in multivariate analysis, while age was found to be associated with SAR only in univariate analysis. Roma communities can be particularly vulnerable to the spread of SARS-CoV-2. In similar settings, symptomatic cases are more important transmitters of SARS-CoV-2. Within these communities, immediate measures should be implemented to mitigate disease spread.


Asunto(s)
Roma , Brotes de Enfermedades , Grecia/epidemiología , Humanos
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802501

RESUMEN

From 7 November 2020, Greece adopted a second nationwide lockdown policy to mitigate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (the first took place from 23 March to 4 May 2020), just as the second wave of COVID-19 was advancing, as did other European countries. To secure the full benefits of mass vaccination, which started in early January 2021, it is of utmost importance to complement it with mid-term non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). The objective was to minimize human losses and to limit social and economic costs. In this paper a two-phase stochastic dynamic network compartmental model (a pre-vaccination SEIR until 15 February 2021 and a post-vaccination SVEIR from 15 February 2021 to 30 June 2021) is developed. Three scenarios are assessed for the first phase: (a) A baseline scenario, which lifts the national lockdown and all NPIs in January 2021; (b) a "semi-lockdown" scenario with school opening, partial retail sector operation, universal mask wearing, and social distancing/teleworking in January 2021; and (c) a "rolling lockdown" scenario combining a partial lifting of measures in January 2021 followed by a third nationwide lockdown in February 2021. In the second phase three scenarios with different vaccination rates are assessed. Publicly available data along with some first results of the SHARE COVID-19 survey conducted in Greece are used as input. The results regarding the first phase indicate that the "semi-lockdown" scenario clearly outperforms the third lockdown scenario (5.7% less expected fatalities); the second phase is extremely sensitive on the availability of sufficient vaccine supplies and high vaccination rates.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Europa (Continente) , Grecia , Humanos , Vacunación Masiva , Políticas
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804505

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to adversely affect the mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs). The public healthcare system in Greece was already facing serious challenges at the outset of the outbreak following years of austerity and an escalating refugee crisis. This multi-center, cross-sectional study aims to assess the levels and associated risk factors of anxiety, depression, traumatic stress and burnout of frontline staff in Greece. A total of 464 self-selected HCWs in six reference hospitals completed a questionnaire comprising sociodemographic and work-related information and validated psychometric scales. The proportion of HCWs with symptoms of moderate/severe depression, anxiety and traumatic stress were 30%, 25% and 33%, respectively. Burnout levels were particularly high with 65% of respondents scoring moderate/severe in emotional exhaustion, 92% severe in depersonalization and 51% low/moderate in personal accomplishment. Predictive factors of adverse psychological outcomes included fear, perceived stress, risk of infection, lack of protective equipment and low social support. The psychological burden associated with COVID-19 in healthcare professionals in Greece is considerable, with more than half experiencing at least mild mental health difficulties. Findings signal the need for immediate organizational and individually tailored interventions to enhance resilience and support wellbeing under pandemic conditions.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Grecia/epidemiología , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Prevalencia
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112182, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652246

RESUMEN

This study investigates the knowledge and attitudes of the Greek public towards marine plastic pollution and the EU Single-Use Plastics Directive by interpreting the results of a questionnaire. In Greece, the issue of marine plastic pollution has been highlighted by scientists. Public consultation processes about the implementation of the Directive into the national law have been also carried out. However, the results of our study showed that participants were not informed about the issue of marine plastic pollution nor the EU Single-Use Plastics Directive. Nevertheless, they expressed positive attitudes towards it including their willingness to pay and act in order to reduce their plastic waste. Thereby, it is recommended that more initiatives should support the publicity of the Directive so that the Greek public would be able to participating in the decision-making process and support its implementation. In addition, the current study suggests that the topic of microplastics should be integrated into the context of formal education.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Actitud , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental , Grecia , Humanos , Microplásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670797

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study investigates if a non-randomized controlled perinatal health intervention which offers (a) long-term midwife-led breastfeeding support and (b) psychosocial support of women, is associated with the initiation, exclusivity and duration of breastfeeding. METHODS: A sample of 1080 women who attended a 12-month intervention before and after childbirth, during a five-year period (January 2014-January 2019) in a primary mental health care setting in Greece, was examined. Multiple analyses of variance and logistic regression analysis were conducted. RESULTS: The vast majority of women (96.3%) initiated either exclusive breastfeeding (only breast milk) (70.7%) or any breastfeeding (with or without formula or other type of food/drink) (25.6%). At the end of the 6th month postpartum, almost half of the women (44.3%) breastfed exclusively. A greater (quantitatively) midwifery-led support to mothers seemed to correlate with increased chance of exclusive breastfeeding at the end of the 6th month postpartum (p = 0.034), and with longer any breastfeeding duration (p = 0.015). The absence of pathological mental health symptoms and of need for receiving long-term psychotherapy were associated with the longer duration of any breastfeeding (p = 0.029 and p = 0.013 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Continuous long-term midwife-led education and support, and maternal mental well-being are associated with increased exclusive and any breastfeeding duration.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Partería , Femenino , Grecia , Humanos , Leche Humana , Madres , Embarazo
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672946

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study has assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological distress between public sector professional groups. METHODS: Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered to healthcare personnel, schoolteachers, and municipality and regional personnel in the region of Western Greece. Mean scores on all SF-36 dimensions and HADS were compared among these professional groups as well as with the Greek national norms to assess if there were significant differences between our study sample and the general population. RESULTS: Healthcare personnel reported significantly lower SF-36 scores than teachers and municipality employees. Women reported poorer HRQoL than men on all SF-36 dimensions. This overall low score for health care workers masks the fact that male health care workers, primarily medical doctors, actually scored better than women, primarily nurses and auxiliary personnel. Average mean scores on all SF-36 dimensions reported by nurses and auxiliary personnel in healthcare were considerably lower than the ones from employees in all other occupational types. The impact on HRQoL observed mainly in vitality, social functioning and mental health was important. Many participants have shown psychological burden and depression. CONCLUSIONS: The health inequalities among healthcare employees are significant. This study is important to suggest taking measures for improving the HRQoL of health workers.


Asunto(s)
Distrés Psicológico , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Grecia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Sector Público , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672977

RESUMEN

(1) Background: A learning organizational culture is crucial to the safety of patients and the quality of public health care. The aim of this study was to assess the learning organizational culture and capacity of Greek public hospitals. (2) Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out in six public general hospitals and stratified sampling was used as the sampling technique. A total of 480 questionnaires were distributed to health care professionals and 380 valid questionnaires were returned (78% response rate). The comprehensive form of the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ), which was adapted and translated into Greek, was used for data collection in this survey. (3) Results: The level of learning organizational culture and capacity in the health units are very low. All seven dimensions of the learning organizational instrument are lower than the theoretically neutral median (3.0). Health care employees believe that the hospital's existing culture and management practices do not foster and contribute to continuing learning, which is the fundamental aspect of self-development, department development and performance improvement. (4) Conclusions: Greek public hospitals need to adopt different types of leadership practices and culture in order to be able to facilitate organizational learning. Organizational learning (OL) is based on collaborative working, a culture that encompasses learning as participation in the organizational work practice. This transformation of culture should take place at all levels of learning to enhance results.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Públicos , Cultura Organizacional , Estudios Transversales , Grecia , Humanos , Administración de la Seguridad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 40, 2021 03 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691632

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cherleria (Caryophyllaceae) is a circumboreal genus that also occurs in the high mountains of the northern hemisphere. In this study, we focus on a clade that diversified in the European High Mountains, which was identified using nuclear ribosomal (nrDNA) sequence data in a previous study. With the nrDNA data, all but one species was monophyletic, with little sequence variation within most species. Here, we use genotyping by sequencing (GBS) data to determine whether the nrDNA data showed the full picture of the evolution in the genomes of these species. RESULTS: The overall relationships found with the GBS data were congruent with those from the nrDNA study. Most of the species were still monophyletic and many of the same subclades were recovered, including a clade of three narrow endemic species from Greece and a clade of largely calcifuge species. The GBS data provided additional resolution within the two species with the best sampling, C. langii and C. laricifolia, with structure that was congruent with geography. In addition, the GBS data showed significant hybridization between several species, including species whose ranges did not currently overlap. CONCLUSIONS: The hybridization led us to hypothesize that lineages came in contact on the Balkan Peninsula after they diverged, even when those lineages are no longer present on the Balkan Peninsula. Hybridization may also have helped lineages expand their niches to colonize new substrates and different areas. Not only do genome-wide data provide increased phylogenetic resolution of difficult nodes, they also give evidence for a more complex evolutionary history than what can be depicted by a simple, branching phylogeny.


Asunto(s)
Caryophyllaceae , Peninsula Balcánica , Genotipo , Grecia , Filogenia
20.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669128

RESUMEN

In the present work, the emission and the absorption spectra of numerous Greek olive oil samples and mixtures of them, obtained by two spectroscopic techniques, namely Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Absorption Spectroscopy, and aided by machine learning algorithms, were employed for the discrimination/classification of olive oils regarding their geographical origin. Both emission and absorption spectra were initially preprocessed by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and were subsequently used for the construction of predictive models, employing Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). All data analysis methodologies were validated by both "k-fold" cross-validation and external validation methods. In all cases, very high classification accuracies were found, up to 100%. The present results demonstrate the advantages of machine learning implementation for improving the capabilities of these spectroscopic techniques as tools for efficient olive oil quality monitoring and control.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Automático , Aceite de Oliva/análisis , Análisis de Componente Principal , Análisis Discriminante , Grecia , Modelos Lineales , Espectrofotometría Atómica , Espectrofotometría Ultravioleta , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta
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