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1.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 113, 2022 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501889

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Empathy is an important key driver of any therapeutic relationship. It is beneficial for both physicians and patients. Enhancing physician's empathy should be an important goal of medical education. As there was a literature gap regarding the topic of empathy among medical students in Greece, this study aimed to contribute to filling this gap. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the 52-item Greek version of the Toronto composite empathy scale (TCES) for measuring the cognitive and emotional aspects of empathy in both personal and professional life was administered to all the medical students in the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, in Greece. Descriptive statistics were displayed for demographics. The associations of the variables were quantified by Chi-2 independence tests and Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire was determined by Cronbach's α, Hotelling's T-Squared Test, and Pearson correlation. Paired and Independent Sample T-Tests and One-way ANOVAs indicated statistically significant mean differences among the variables or subgroups of the variables. RESULTS: The 52-item TCES, 26 for the personal (Per) setting and another 26 for professional (Pro) life, equally divided into cognitive (Cog) and emotional (Emo) empathy in each case. The overall reliability of the TCES questionnaire was found to be high (Cronbach's α = 0.895, significant positive correlations between the subscales). The mean total score of empathy showed that students had a moderately high empathy. Further, there was a statistically significant difference in means between the Per-Cog and Per-Emo settings (p < 0.001), the Pro-Cog and Pro-Emo (p < 0.001), the Per-Cog and Pro-Cog (p = 0.004), and the Per-Emo and Pro-Emo (p < 0.001). Females had significantly higher empathy scores (mean score 208.04) than males (192.5) on the Per-Cog, Per-Emo and Pro-Emo subscales. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between empathy and factors such as love for animals, interest in medical ethics, belief in God, having an ill person in the family, class year or carrier intention. CONCLUSIONS: The TCES is applicable to medical students. For the most part our findings were consistent with previous literature. However, we identified some nuances that might draw researchers' attention. The results of this study may contribute to plan interventions in the curriculum to enhance empathy in the medical students.


Asunto(s)
Empatía , Estudiantes de Medicina , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Grecia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 812700, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493388

RESUMEN

Background: The global burden of chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) disproportionally affects Roma populations. Health interventions addressing CRD among Roma or other vulnerable groups often fail to be effective, as their implementation strategy misaligns with the local context. To design context-driven strategies, we studied CRD-related beliefs, perceptions, and behaviors among a Greek Roma population, focussing on asthma and COPD. Methods: For this qualitative study in Crete, Greece, we used a Rapid Assessment Process. We conducted interviews and focus groups with purposively selected Roma community members (CMs), key informants (KIs) and healthcare professionals (HPs) serving the population. Data were triangulated using observations of households and clinical consultations. Key themes were identified using Thematic Content Analysis. The Health Belief Model, the Explanatory Model of Illness, and the Theory of Planned Behavior that are complementary is some aspects, guided our methodology with the several variables from them to be integrated to better understand CRD risk preventative behavior. Results: We conducted six focus groups, seven interviews and 13 observations among 15 CMs, four KIs, and three HPs. Five themes emerged: (1) Poor CRD-awareness (smoking and household air pollution were perceived as harmful, but almost exclusively associated with acute rather than chronic symptoms); (2) Low perceived susceptibility to CRD (and CMs tended to ignore respiratory symptoms); (3) High risk exposure (smoking was common, and air pollution was perceived inevitable due to financial constraints); (4) Healthcare seeking (healthcare was sought only for persistent, severe symptoms, daily needs were a priority); (5) Perceived barriers/facilitators to care (health illiteracy, perceived discrimination and financial constraints were main barriers; established trust the main facilitator). Conclusion: These five themes highlight that strategies to tackle CRD in the studied Roma setting require a multilevel approach: bridging awareness gaps at the population level, providing resources to enhance the adoption of healthy behaviors, and fighting discrimination at the societal level, whilst establishing trusted relationships at the local level. Similar methodologies to address local context may strengthen the implementation of effective interventions for similarly vulnerable and/or low-resource populations.


Asunto(s)
Romaní , Grupos Focales , Grecia , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa
3.
Med Lav ; 113(2): e2022016, 2022 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35481582

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The electromagnetic spectrum spans over an enormous range from 0 up to more than 1020 Hz in the deep ionizing region, significant exposures exist in specific occupational environments. Between the ionizing and the electromagnetic fields (EMF) part of the spectrum, the 'optical radiation' (OR) region has specific properties. Comparative and concise evaluation enables action prioritization. METHODS: Following the transposition and implementation periods of the artificial optical radiation (AOR) and EMF European Directives, the Hellenic Ministry of Labour in collaboration with the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (EEAE) and the National Technical University of Athens, conducted thorough occupational exposure investigation in Greece. Using dedicated measuring equipment and procedures, the majority of EMF emitting installations in Greece and also AOR emitting installations including arc welding, lasers and PC monitors has been assessed. RESULTS: Measurement results from occupational settings reveal that it is the non-coherent metal arc welding AOR that can pose even sub-second overexposures. Rare EMF overexposures are manageable and EMF concern is not justified. Maintenance procedures demand proper attention. Preliminary laser safety assessment reveals OHS gaps and potential eye and skin hazards. Blue light exposure from computer monitors is well below safety limits. CONCLUSIONS: This electromagnetic spectrum risk assessment conducted in Greece enables the justification of the real occupational hazards, in this sense: i) EMF exposure assessment has to be concentrated to maintenance procedures; ii) AOR measuring setups are challenging and standardized measurement procedures are missing, and iii) AOR overexposures from arc welding pose significant eye and skin hazards.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Profesional , Exposición a la Radiación , Campos Electromagnéticos/efectos adversos , Grecia , Humanos
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(3): 173, 2022 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482257

RESUMEN

Brucellosis is a worldwide distributed infectious disease. Ruminants and other animal species (swine, dogs, equids, etc.), as well as wild mammals, can be affected. The disease can be transmitted to humans through the food chain or by direct contact with infected animals. Because of the relatively high economic burden due to abortions within a herd, significant efforts have been employed and hence the disease in most European countries has been eradicated. Accordingly, Greece applies both control and eradication programs concerning small ruminants (sheep and goats) and bovines depending on the geographical area. Current challenges in the standard antibody-based laboratory methods used for Brucella detection are the failure to differentiate antibodies against the wild strain from the ones against the vaccine strain Rev1 and antibodies against B. melitensis from those against B. abortus. The aim of the study was to reexamine and combine previously published protocols based on PCR analysis and to generate a rapid, not expensive, and easy to perform diagnostic tool able to confirm the doubtful results delivered from serology. For this reason, 264 samples derived from 191 ruminants of the farm and divided in 2 groups (male/female) were examined with a modified DNA extraction and PCR protocol. Molecular examination revealed the presence of Brucella spp. in 39 out of 264 samples (derived from 30 animals). In addition, Brucella spp. was detected in infected tissues such as testicles, inguinal lymph nodes, fetal liver, and fetal stomach content.


Asunto(s)
Brucella , Brucelosis , Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Perros , Enfermedades de las Cabras , Enfermedades de las Ovejas , Enfermedades de los Porcinos , Animales , Brucella/genética , Brucelosis/diagnóstico , Brucelosis/epidemiología , Brucelosis/veterinaria , Bovinos , Perros , Femenino , Enfermedades de las Cabras/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de las Cabras/epidemiología , Cabras , Grecia/epidemiología , Masculino , Embarazo , Rumiantes , Ovinos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología , Porcinos
5.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265780, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417474

RESUMEN

The global body-fossil record of marine 'fishes' from the time interval immediately preceding the Cretaceous-Paleogene Extinction is markedly poor. This deficiency appears to be further exacerbated with regards to offshore and deep-water taxa, obscuring our understanding of the state and composition of corresponding vertebrate faunas at the onset of this major extinction event. Recent fieldwork in the mid-late Maastrichtian exposures of the Pindos Unit in Gavdos Island, Greece, yielded a small but informative sample of fossil 'fishes', which inhabited the Tethys approximately three to four million years before the extinction. In this work we describe this sample, which comprises between eight and nine discrete morphotypes of various size classes, belonging to †Ichthyodectoidei, Aulopiformes (†Dercetidae, †Enchodontidae, †Ichthyotringidae), cf. †Sardinioididae, as well as the hexanchid shark †Gladioserratus sp. The new material expands the faunal list for the Maastrichtian of Gavdos Island, and the Pindos Unit as a whole, and further allows for the description of a new genus and species of †Enchodontidae and a new species of †Ichthyotringidae. The two new taxa are found to be widespread in the Maastrichtian of the Pindos Unit. The overall character of the assemblage agrees with previous interpretations of an offshore and rather deep depositional environment for the fossiliferous horizons. Furthermore, it exhibits a higher diversity than, and little taxonomic overlap with penecontemporaneous teleost assemblages from the Tethys, and informs on the otherwise poorly known Maastrichtian offshore and deep-water marine ichthyofaunas of the region.


Asunto(s)
Fósiles , Gastrópodos , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Peces , Grecia , Vertebrados , Agua
6.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0263977, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446847

RESUMEN

The results of a simulation-based evaluation of several policies for vaccine rollout are reported, particularly focusing on the effects of delaying the second dose of two-dose vaccines. In the presence of limited vaccine supply, the specific policy choice is a pressing issue for several countries worldwide, and the adopted course of action will affect the extension or easing of non-pharmaceutical interventions in the next months. We employ a suitably generalised, age-structure, stochastic SEIR (Susceptible → Exposed → Infectious → Removed) epidemic model that can accommodate quantitative descriptions of the major effects resulting from distinct vaccination strategies. The different rates of social contacts among distinct age-groups (as well as some other model parameters) are informed by a recent survey conducted in Greece, but the conclusions are much more widely applicable. The results are summarised and evaluated in terms of the total number of deaths and infections as well as life years lost. The optimal strategy is found to be one based on fully vaccinating the elderly/at risk as quickly as possible, while extending the time-interval between the two vaccine doses to 12 weeks for all individuals below 75 years old, in agreement with epidemic theory which suggests targeting a combination of susceptibility and infectivity. This policy, which is similar to the approaches adopted in the UK and in Canada, is found to be effective in reducing deaths and life years lost in the period while vaccination is still being carried out.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas , Anciano , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Grecia/epidemiología , Humanos , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación
7.
J Environ Manage ; 313: 115011, 2022 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398642

RESUMEN

The existing cultivated land in the Mediterranean region faces great pressure from various sources. A suitability evaluation of potential arable land is urgent for helping adaptation measures to mitigate the impacts of climate change and human pressure on agricultural production in the Mediterranean region. We integrated 15 biophysical and socio-economic factors from GIS and remote sensing data to perform a suitability evaluation of potential arable land in the Mediterranean region using analytical hierarchy process and radial basis function artificial neural network methods. Moreover, we analyzed the gap between potential arable land and existing cultivated land and compared the evaluation results between the analytical hierarchy process and artificial neural network methods. The results show that the suitability index of potential arable land based on artificial neural network with 6 neurons has the best correlation with average yield and average harvested area. The land area with a suitability grade over medium level accounts for 62.95% of the potential arable land area, of which 45.71% is uncultivated land. Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Lebanon, Portugal, Spain and Turkey have great opportunities for agricultural development. Radial basis function artificial neural network outperforms analytical hierarchy process, has better verification results, and requires less input. This study provides an initial insight into the agricultural land suitability of 16 countries around the Mediterranean Sea and introduces a research idea for agricultural land suitability evaluation.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Cambio Climático , Agricultura/métodos , Francia , Grecia , Humanos , Región Mediterránea
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457427

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on health, economy, society and education. In the effort to return to normalcy, according to the instructions of the Greek Government for the resumption of the operation of schools, a screening Rapid Antigen Detection Test with the method of self-testing is required for students twice per week, for the early identification and isolation of positive cases. We aimed to pivotally investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to self-testing procedures against COVID-19 among Greek students. A questionnaire was distributed to a convenient sample of students in the region of Athens. Information about the vaccination coverage against SARS-CoV-2 was also obtained. Our study included 1000 students, with 70% of them having an average grade at school. Most of the participants were aware of coronavirus (98.6%) and the self-test (95.5%). The vast majority of students (97%) performed self-testing twice per week, with the 70% them being assisted by someone else. Nearly one sixth of the participants had been infected by COVID-19 (14%) while 36% of them have already been vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. In conclusion, we report high compliance with the COVID-19 self-testing procedure among students in Attica, Greece. Older age adolescents are more likely to not comply with the regulations of self-testing. Consequently, tailored interventions targeted at older age adolescents are warranted in order to increase the acceptability of self-testing.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescente , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Grecia/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Proyectos Piloto , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoevaluación , Estudiantes
9.
Philos Ethics Humanit Med ; 17(1): 7, 2022 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440062

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Asclepion of Epidaurus is one of the first healing environments in the world. Descendants of Asclepius, specifically medical students, have been singularly deprived of any information concerning this legacy. This article illuminates the role of Asclepion of Epidaurus and examines the view of medical students upon the subject and the possible benefits of this knowledge in their medical education. METHODS: The participants were 105 senior-year students from the Athens Medical School, who attended a multi-media assisted lecture related to the structure and the role of the Asclepion of Epidaurus. Afterwards, they answered anonymously a questionnaire of 12 pairs of opposite adjectives in order to describe their view regarding the meaning of Asclepion. The method used in the evaluation of their answers was that of semantic differential. RESULTS: The attitude of the students towards the meaning of Asclepion was positive, showing interest and excitement about a powerful, though unfamiliar piece of knowledge. CONCLUSION: Today's novice doctors have welcomed the concept of Asclepion as essential knowledge for the service they will be called to fulfill. The potential benefits of the Asclepian ideals in medical education and ethos are thoroughly discussed.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/historia , Médicos/historia , Estudiantes de Medicina , Actitud , Grecia , Antigua Grecia , Humanos , Estudiantes de Medicina/historia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Hell J Nucl Med ; 25(1): 43-56, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388804

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine if single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can discriminate between variants of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). As a secondary investigation we identify and establish the linguistic differences between those variants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), 8 with non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) and 17 with behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) were compared on Addenbrooke's cognitive examination-revised (ACE-R), auditory comprehension, oral expression and verbal fluency. All patients were also compared with healthy controls. Patients were evaluated using technetium-99m-hexamethylproyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) brain SPECT as a measure of regional cerebral flow. RESULTS: Significant group differences between all patients and controls were found for ACE-R, auditory comprehension and oral expression. Semantic variant primary progressive aphasia patients performed higher in letter compared to category fluency with significant deficits in auditory comprehension and oral expression. Non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia patients showed significant deficits in auditory comprehension but not oral expression while performed lightly worse in letter fluency compared to category. Behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia patients showed deficits in auditory comprehension and oral expression and performed similar in category and letter fluency. Single photon emission computed tomography analysis revealed left frontotemporal hypoperfusion extending to the right frontotemporal region in svPPA patients. Non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia patients presented left frontotemporal hypoperfusion with participation of the left parietal and right frontotemporal regions. Behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia patients showed bilateral frontotemporal hypoperfusion compared to parietal and visual cortices. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that SPECT may assist in the discrimination of the FTD variants. We also confirmed that bvFTD patients share similar language deficits with svPPA patients.


Asunto(s)
Afasia Progresiva Primaria , Demencia Frontotemporal , Afasia Progresiva Primaria/diagnóstico por imagen , Demencia Frontotemporal/diagnóstico por imagen , Grecia , Humanos , Lenguaje , Tomografía Computarizada de Emisión de Fotón Único
11.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458488

RESUMEN

In-depth understanding of the immune response provoked by SARS-CoV-2 infection is necessary, as there is a great risk of reinfection and a difficulty in achieving herd immunity due to a decline in both antibody concentration and avidity. Avidity testing, however, could overcome variability in the immune response associated with sex or clinical symptoms, and thus differentiate between recent and past infections. In this context, here, we analyzed SARS-CoV-2 antibody kinetics and avidity in Greek hospitalized (26%) and non-hospitalized (74%) COVID-19 patients (N = 71) in the course of up to 15 months after their infection to improve the accuracy of the serological diagnosis in dating the onset of the infection. The results showed that IgG-S1 levels decline significantly at four months (p = 0.0239) in both groups of patients and are higher in hospitalized ones (up to 2.1-fold, p < 0.001). Additionally, hospitalized patients' titers drop greatly and are equalized to non-hospitalized ones only at a time-point of twelve to fifteen months. Antibody levels of women in total remain more stable months after infection, compared to men. Furthermore, we examined the differential maturation of IgG avidity after SARS-CoV-2 infection, showing an incomplete maturation of avidity that results in a plateau at four months after infection. We also defined 38.2% avidity (sensitivity: 58.9%, specificity: 90.91%) as an appropriate "cut-off" that could be used to determine the stage of infection before avidity reaches a plateau.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Formación de Anticuerpos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Femenino , Grecia , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G , Cinética , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Occup Environ Med ; 64(4): e191-e196, 2022 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467601

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine and associated factors in a sample of healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: An on-line cross-sectional study with 885 HCWs was conducted in Greece during August 2021. We measured socio-demographic data of HCWs and attitudes towards vaccination and the COVID-19 pandemic. A convenience sample was used since the questionnaire was distributed through social media and emails. RESULTS: The majority of HCWs were vaccinated against the COVID-19 (91.5%). Females and HCWs with a history of seasonal influenza vaccination had a greater probability to get a COVID-19 vaccine. Also, increased self-perceived knowledge regarding the COVID-19 pandemic and increased trust in COVID-19 vaccines were associated with COVID-19 vaccine uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Policymakers and scientists should develop novel strategies to improve COVID-19 vaccine uptake among HCWs.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Actitud del Personal de Salud , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Grecia , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Vacunas contra la Influenza/uso terapéutico , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Pandemias
13.
Zootaxa ; 5087(2): 372-382, 2022 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390912

RESUMEN

Amphimallon alexandri Uliana Montreuil, new species, is described from continental Greece, near Volos. The species has diurnal activity and is close to A. arianae (Fairmaire, 1879), A. krali Montreuil, 2002, and A. spartanum (Brenske, 1884), but is well characterized and easily distinguished from all of them by several morphological characters. Detailed comparative illustrations of the main diagnostic traits of the new species and the most similar one (A. krali) are provided. After reviewing the available information, Amphimallon atrum is removed from the Greek fauna.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Animales , Grecia
14.
Health Informatics J ; 28(1): 14604582221080100, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435749

RESUMEN

Menopausal transition and post-menopause constitute windows of increased vulnerability to depression. Recently, the Meno-D was introduced, a novel 12-item, with five distinct subscales. The aim of our study was to translate and validate the electronic version of the Meno-D among Greek post-menopausal women. Translation and back-translation were performed by an expert group, while face validity was assessed by five experts. Along with the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Meno-D scale was distributed online to 502 post-menopausal women. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to investigate construct validity and both convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated. The data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and AMOS. The 5-factor model of Meno-D achieved adequate levels of goodness-of-fit indices, scoring lower values in discriminant validity examined with heterotrait-monotrait ratio and composite reliability. The significant correlation with the Beck Depression Inventory-ΙΙ revealed for all subscales was indicative of good convergent validity. An exploratory factor analysis was additionally performed, suggesting a 12-item tool comprising two subscales: (i) psychological and (ii) biological and achieving good levels of fit. Our data confirmed that the electronic version of Meno-D is a valid tool that can be used for screening and evaluation of depression in Greek post-menopausal women.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Posmenopausia , Depresión/diagnóstico , Electrónica , Femenino , Grecia , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266962, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421179

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Improving the quality of life (QoL) of people living with HIV (PLWH) has been proposed as a new priority in HIV care. The objective of this cross-sectional, qualitative study was to explore the perspectives of PLWH in Greece regarding their QoL. DESIGN: Twenty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with PLWH receiving care across six HIV clinics in Greece. The thematic analysis of the transcribed interviews resulted in four themes and eleven subthemes. RESULTS: First, fear of repercussions (e.g., stigmatization) makes PLWH reluctant to disclose their diagnosis in public settings or disclose accounting for factors like the confidant's discretion. Second, participants are challenged by HIV's unique biopsychosocial facets (e.g., uncertainty about symptoms) and fear for the future (e.g., a confidant revealing their HIV status without consent). Third, support received by specialist services is satisfactory in contrast to non-HIV specialist services, where significant improvements are needed to reduce stigmatization. Finally, the experiences of PLWH include contrasting elements of post-traumatic growth and an inability to accept their seropositivity (e.g., avoiding social interactions). CONCLUSIONS: Empowering PLWH in these QoL areas is greatly needed. Increasing the life expectancy of PLWH is only the initial step; their QoL needs to be secured as the next priority in HIV care.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Transversales , Grecia/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Estereotipo
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5253, 2022 03 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347171

RESUMEN

The Mediterranean Sea hosts two subduction systems along the convergent Africa-Eurasia plate boundary that have produced strong ground shaking and generated tsunamis. Based on historical descriptions and sedimentary records, one of these events, in 365 CE, impacted a broad geographical area, including tsunami evidence for distances of 700-800 km from the source event, qualifying it as a 'megatsunami'. Understanding how megatsunamis are produced, and where they are more likely, requires a better understanding of the different secondary processes linked to these events such as massive slope failures, multiple turbidity current generation, and basin seiching. Our sedimentary records from an extensive collection of cores located in distal and disconnected basins, identify turbidites which are analyzed using granulometry, elemental (XRF), micropaleontological, and geochemical data in order to reconstruct their coastal or marine source. The results show that the 365 CE basin floor sediments are a mixture of inner shelf and slope materials. The tsunami wave produced multiple far-field slope failures that resulted in stacked basal turbidites. It also caused transport of continent-derived organic carbon and deposition over basal turbidites and into isolated basins of the deep ocean. The composition of sediment in isolated basins suggests their deposition by large-scale sheet like flows similar to what has been caused by the Tohoku earthquake associated tsunamis. This is significant for rectifying and resolving where risk is greatest and how cross-basin tsunamis are generated. Based on these results, estimates of the underlying deposits from the same locations were interpreted as possible older megatsunamis.


Asunto(s)
Sedimentos Geológicos , Tsunamis , Carbono/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Grecia , Mar Mediterráneo
17.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 234: 109396, 2022 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349919

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A large HIV outbreak in People Who Inject Drugs (PWID) occurred in Athens, Greece in 2011-2013. In response, opioid substitution treatment (OST) and needle and syringe programs (NSP) were scaled-up and a seek-test-treat program was introduced in mid-2012. We aim to assess the impact of these interventions. METHODS: A mathematical model of HIV transmission among PWID was calibrated to data available over time (2009-2013) on HIV prevalence, NSP/antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and high-risk injection. A combined interventions scenario, including decrease in high-risk injection through linkage to OST and modification of risk behaviours and access to NSP and ART, was compared to a counterfactual scenario (no improvement at the levels of these interventions), with HIV incidence being the main outcome. RESULTS: HIV incidence increased from <0.1 new cases/100 person-years (in 2009) to 11.0 new cases/100 person-years (in 2012). Under both models, a subsequent decline was projected following early 2012, with incidence at the end of 2013 in the combined interventions scenario being lower by 77% compared to the counterfactual. The projected reduction in incidence under the intervention scenario was in agreement with empirical data. HIV prevalence would have escalated to 20.4% (95% CrI: 16.9%, 23.6%) in 2013 under the counterfactual scenario (vs. 16.8% (95% CrI: 11.2%, 23.0%) under the combined interventions scenario). In total, 31.4% of HIV cases (392) were averted over 2012-2013. CONCLUSION: These results underline the importance of high-coverage harm reduction programs and of community-based interventions to rapidly reach PWID most in need.


Asunto(s)
Consumidores de Drogas , Infecciones por VIH , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Grecia/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Programas de Intercambio de Agujas/métodos , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa/epidemiología
19.
Nature ; 603(7900): 235-236, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264748
20.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 22(3): 163-169, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35319918

RESUMEN

Brucellosis remains an important zoonosis in various parts of the world. In Greece, brucellosis is endemic in sheep and goats. Since 1998, animal control measures include vaccination of sheep and goats older than 3 months of age in the mainland (vaccination zone) and slaughtering of infected livestock on the islands (eradication zone). We retrieved data from the mandatory notification system for 2005-2020 to describe the epidemiology in humans and assess current public health measures. Overall, 1786 notifications and an additional 111 cases related to an outbreak in 2008 (eradication zone) were recorded. The mean annual notification rate was 0.9/100,000 population (standard deviation [SD]: 0.35). A substantial mean annual decline in notification rate was reported in 2019 and 2020. A statistically significant decreasing trend of brucellosis notification rate was observed over the whole 16-year period (p < 0.001). The mean annual notification rate was significantly higher in the vaccination zone (1.2/100,000) (SD: 036) compared with the eradication zone (0.2/100,000) (SD: 0.14) (p < 0.001). Seventy percent of cases was male (n = 1175) and the highest mean notification rate was recorded in the 45-64 age group (1.3/100,000). The majority of cases (71%) reported animal contact and almost half of the cases (49%) were stockbreeders by occupation. Consumption of unpasteurized dairy products, mainly of their own production, was reported by 57% of cases; for 115 (6.5%) cases, animal exposure or consumption of unpasteurized dairy products were not recorded. Despite animal control measures, brucellosis remains endemic in Greece with cases in the vaccination zone, as well as the eradication zone. We recommend re-evaluation and strengthening of animal control programs and training of people working in stock breeding regarding disease transmission in co-operation with local farmers' associations.


Asunto(s)
Brucelosis , Enfermedades de las Cabras , Enfermedades de las Ovejas , Animales , Brucelosis/epidemiología , Brucelosis/prevención & control , Brucelosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de las Cabras/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Cabras/prevención & control , Cabras , Grecia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Pública , Ovinos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/prevención & control , Zoonosis
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