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1.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 67, 2021 Jul 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217366

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Since the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) began, necessary measures to prevent virus transmission and reduce mortality have been implemented, including mandatory public use of masks, regular hand-sanitizing and hand-washing, social distancing, avoidance of crowds, remote work, and cancellation of public events. During and after the introduction of COVID-19 lockout, we performed a systematic review of available published literature to investigate the incidence of seasonal influenza and other respiratory viral infections. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Research Gate, and the World Health Organization databases and websites were systematically searched for original studies concerning the impact of COVID-19 prevention means and measures on other common respiratory infectious diseases during the pandemic published by March 2021. RESULTS: The findings showed that the adherence to health protocols to prevent COVID-19 could help to reduce the incidence of other infectious diseases such as influenza, pneumonia, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. CONCLUSION: The implemented prevention measures and protocols might have reduced the incidence of influenza and some other common respiratory infections. However, controversies exist on this matter and future large population-based studies might provide further information to address these controversies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Enfermedades Respiratorias/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Humanos , Incidencia , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Enfermedades Respiratorias/prevención & control , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/prevención & control
2.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO5830, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231825

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with non-vaccination against influenza in the risk group. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based study, carried out in the city of Rio Grande (RS). The outcome was defined as belonging to risk groups and not having been vaccinated in the last 12 months. Demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral variables, and access for health services were analyzed. RESULTS: In this study, 680 individuals participated. The prevalence was 46.0% (95%CI: 41.8-50.3), ranging from 27.9% (elderly) to 81.8% (pregnant women). Young adults, single, intermediate socioeconomic bracket, smoker, with depressive symptoms, who did not perform physical activity and did not consult a physician in the last year, had a higher prevalence of non-vaccination. CONCLUSION: Half of the sample was not vaccinated in the period. Due to the similarity of influenza-like illness and the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19), increasing vaccination would minimize mortality and use of hospital beds due to influenza, optimizing the response of hospital capacity.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Embarazo , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación , Cobertura de Vacunación , Adulto Joven
3.
Vaccine ; 39(32): 4510-4515, 2021 07 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217571

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 continues to ravage the world with economies and life significantly and negatively affected. Fortunately, there has been significant progress in the production of vaccines to stem the infection. However, with controversies and myths surrounding vaccinations, it is timely to examine individuals' willingness to vaccinate. The present study adapted the Motors of Influenza Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-Flu Scale) into the Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) for validation and assessed the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination utilizing the cognitive model of empowerment (CME). METHODS: A total of 3145 university students (mean age = 20.80 years; SD = 2.09) were recruited for the present study between January 5 and 16, 2021. Two MoVac-COVID19S scales (9-item and 12-item) were adapted from the MoVac-Flu Scale, an instrument developed using CME. Psychometric tests were conducted to ascertain reliability and validity properties. RESULTS: The findings indicated that the MoVac-COVID19S had high internal consistency in both the 9-item version (ω = 0.921) and 12-item version (ω = 0.898). The factor structure of the MoVac-COVID19S (9-item and 12-item versions) corresponded well with CME theory. All the fit indices were satisfactory (comparative fit index = 0.984, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.971, root mean square error of approximation = 0.088, standardized root mean square residual = 0.058) but the 9-item MoVac-COVID had better fit indices than the 12-item MoVac-COVID due to the negative wording effects existing in the 12-item MoVac-COVID19S. The scale had satisfactory known-group validity in both 9-item and 12-item versions. CONCLUSIONS: The MoVac-COVID19S has promising psychometric properties based on internal consistency, factor structure, and known-group validity.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Gripe Humana , Adulto , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , China , Humanos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Vacunación , Adulto Joven
4.
Euro Surveill ; 26(29)2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296673

RESUMEN

The non-pharmaceutical interventions implemented to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2 have had consequences on the transmission of other respiratory viruses, most notably paediatric respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza. At the beginning of 2020, lockdown measures in the southern hemisphere led to a winter season with a marked reduction in both infections. Intermittent lockdowns in the northern hemisphere also appeared to interrupt transmission during winter 2020/21. However, a number of southern and northern hemisphere countries have now seen delayed RSV peaks. We examine the implications of these unpredictable disease dynamics for health service delivery in Europe, such as paediatric hospital and intensive care bed space planning, or palivizumab prophylaxis. We discuss the challenges for RSV vaccine trials and influenza immunisation campaigns, and highlight the considerable research opportunities that have arisen with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We argue that the rapid advances in viral whole genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and open data sharing during the pandemic are applicable to the ongoing surveillance of RSV and influenza. Lastly, we outline actions to prepare for forthcoming influenza seasons and for future implementation of RSV vaccines.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Gripe Humana , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano , Niño , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Filogenia , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Euro Surveill ; 26(29)2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296675

RESUMEN

BackgroundIn South Africa, COVID-19 control measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 spread were initiated on 16 March 2020. Such measures may also impact the spread of other pathogens, including influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) with implications for future annual epidemics and expectations for the subsequent northern hemisphere winter.MethodsWe assessed the detection of influenza and RSV through facility-based syndromic surveillance of adults and children with mild or severe respiratory illness in South Africa from January to October 2020, and compared this with surveillance data from 2013 to 2019.ResultsFacility-based surveillance revealed a decline in influenza virus detection during the regular season compared with previous years. This was observed throughout the implementation of COVID-19 control measures. RSV detection decreased soon after the most stringent COVID-19 control measures commenced; however, an increase in RSV detection was observed after the typical season, following the re-opening of schools and the easing of measures.ConclusionCOVID-19 non-pharmaceutical interventions led to reduced circulation of influenza and RSV in South Africa. This has limited the country's ability to provide influenza virus strains for the selection of the annual influenza vaccine. Delayed increases in RSV case numbers may reflect the easing of COVID-19 control measures. An increase in influenza virus detection was not observed, suggesting that the measures may have impacted the two pathogens differently. The impact that lowered and/or delayed influenza and RSV circulation in 2020 will have on the intensity and severity of subsequent annual epidemics is unknown and warrants close monitoring.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Gripe Humana/diagnóstico , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
6.
Internist (Berl) ; 62(8): 801-806, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236439

RESUMEN

Influenza is the infectious disease with the highest population-based mortality. It mainly affects those aged 60 years and older, mainly due to immune senescence, which also favors complicated courses and compromises vaccine effectiveness. Therefore, various approaches have been developed for more immunogenic vaccines, which are now available for use. The Ständige Impfkommission (STIKO) has taken this into account in its current recommendation on influenza vaccination and has recommended a quadrivalent, inactivated high-dose vaccine as the standard vaccine for all ≥ 60-year-olds. Despite these successes, vaccination for prevention remains underutilized. Germany has never reached the WHO vaccination target of 75% of the elderly population. The main reasons for this are a lack of confidence in the effectiveness of vaccination, a lack of/restricted risk perception of the disease, and barriers to implementation. Initial approaches to overcoming these barriers, such as low-threshold vaccination services by involving pharmacies, are being implemented. However, further steps are needed to realize the potential of influenza vaccination, especially for such vulnerable groups as older adults.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Anciano , Alemania , Humanos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vacunación
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e049369, 2021 07 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257095

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the likelihood of having the seasonal influenza vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic in individuals who were eligible to receive it. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey in July 2020. We included predictors informed by previous research, in the following categories: sociodemographic variables; uptake of influenza vaccine last winter and beliefs about vaccination. PARTICIPANTS: 570 participants (mean age: 53.07; 56.3% female, 87.0% white) who were eligible for the free seasonal influenza vaccination in the UK. RESULTS: 59.7% of our sample indicated they were likely to have the seasonal influenza vaccination, 22.1% reported being unlikely to have the vaccination and 18.2% were unsure. We used logistic regression to investigate variables associated with intention to receive a seasonal influenza vaccine in the 2020-2021 season. A positive attitude to vaccination in general predicted intention to have the influenza vaccine in 2020-2021 (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.77, p<0.001) but the strongest predictor of intention was previous influenza vaccination behaviour (OR 278.58, 95% CI 78.04 to 994.46, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Previous research suggests that increasing uptake of the influenza vaccination may help contain a COVID-19 outbreak, so steps need to be taken to convert intention into behaviour and to reach those individuals who reported being unlikely or unsure about having the vaccine.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Estaciones del Año , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Vacunación
8.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05012, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221359

RESUMEN

Background: Strategic planning is critical for successful pandemic management. This study aimed to identify and review the scope and analytic depth of situation analyses conducted to understand their utility, and capture the documented macro-level factors impacting pandemic management. Methods: To synthesise this disparate body of literature, we adopted a two-step search and review process. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify all studies since 2000, that have 1) employed a situation analysis; and 2) examined contextual factors influencing pandemic management. The included studies are analysed using a seven-domain systems approach from the discipline of strategic management. Results: Nineteen studies were included in the final review ranging from single country (6) to regional, multi-country studies (13). Fourteen studies had a single disease focus, with 5 studies evaluating responses to one or more of COVID-19, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Influenza A (H1N1), Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease pandemics. Six studies examined a single domain from political, economic, sociological, technological, ecological or wider industry (PESTELI), 5 studies examined two to four domains, and 8 studies examined five or more domains. Methods employed were predominantly literature reviews. The recommendations focus predominantly on addressing inhibitors in the sociological and technological domains with few recommendations articulated in the political domain. Overall, the legislative domain is least represented. Conclusions: Ex-post analysis using the seven-domain strategic management framework provides further opportunities for a planned systematic response to pandemics which remains critical as the current COVID-19 pandemic evolves.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Gripe Humana , Pandemias/prevención & control , Infección por el Virus Zika , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Humanos , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Zika , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología , Infección por el Virus Zika/prevención & control
9.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(26): 2029-2036, 2021 Jul 13.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275235

RESUMEN

The disease burden and economic burden of seasonal influenza is substantial in China, and the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought new challenges to the prevention and control of influenza. As a priority group of influenza vaccination, the elderly are at higher risk of influenza-associated severe symptoms and deaths, and they are more price-sensitive vaccine users with better cost-effectiveness of vaccination program. Therefore, a reasonable financing mechanism of influenza vaccination should be designed for the elderly to increase their vaccination rate. This study proposes three financing strategies of influenza vaccination for the elderly in China, trying to explore the distribution of vaccination costs among individuals, central government and local governments under different financing strategies, including the individual-central-local mechanism (strategy 1), the central-local mechanism (strategy 2), and the local payment mechanism (strategy 3). Strategy 1 is feasible and sustainable for most regions in the short term. Strategy 2 is conducive to further increasing the vaccine coverage rate of the elderly. Strategy 3 encourages local fiscal payments to help relieve the financial pressure of the central government. The results revealed a relatively heavy financial burden of influenza vaccination for the elderly, and it is recommended to promote the development of a multiparty co-payment mechanism gradually based on local conditions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Gripe Humana , Anciano , China , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación
10.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48249

RESUMEN

Nove grupos prioritários estão incluídos na terceira etapa da campanha de vacinação contra a gripe. Com início nesta quarta-feira (9), essa fase vai incluir pessoas com comorbidades, com deficiência permanente, caminhoneiros, portuários, profissionais das forças de segurança e salvamento, das forças armadas, funcionários do sistema de privação de liberdade e população privada de liberdade.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Vacunación , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Prioridades en Salud/organización & administración
11.
Vaccine ; 39(31): 4291-4295, 2021 07 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172330

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This investigation sought to determine whether early season rates of pediatric influenza vaccination changed in a season when there was a concurrent COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study used cohort and cross sectional data from an academic primary care division in Southcentral Pennsylvania that serves approximately 17,500 patients across 4 practice sites. Early season (prior to November 1) vaccination rates in 2018, 2019 and 2020 were recorded for children, age 6 months to 17 years. To explore the impact of COVID-19 on vaccination, we fit a model with a logit link (estimated via generalized estimating equations to account for clustering by patient over time) on calendar year, adjusted for race, ethnicity, age, and insurance type. We examined interaction effects of demographic covariates with calendar year. RESULTS: Early vaccination rates were lower in 2020 (29.7%) compared with 2018 and 2019 (34.2% and 33.3%). After adjusting for covariates and accounting for clustering over time, the odds of early vaccination in 2020 were 19% lower compared to 2018 (OR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.78-0.85). In 2020, children with private insurance were more likely to receive early vaccination than in 2018 (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15), whereas children with public insurance were less likely to receive early vaccination in 2020 than in 2018 (OR 0.62, 95% CI: 1.38-1.65). CONCLUSIONS: Early influenza vaccination rates declined in a year with a concurrent COVID-19 pandemic. Modeling that accounts for individual trends and demographic variables identified specific populations with lower odds of early vaccination in 2020. Additional research is needed to investigate whether the COVID-19 pandemic impacted parental intent to obtain the influenza vaccine, or introduced barriers to healthcare access.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Pandemias , Pennsylvania/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación
12.
Vaccine ; 39(28): 3678-3695, 2021 06 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090700

RESUMEN

The effect of influenza vaccination on influenza severity remains uncertain. We reviewed the literature for evidence to inform the question of whether influenza illness is less severe among individuals who received influenza vaccination compared with individuals with influenza illness who were unvaccinated prior to their illnesses. We conducted a narrative review to identify published findings comparing severity of influenza outcomes by vaccination status among community-dwelling adults and children ≥ 6 months of age with laboratory-confirmed influenza illness. When at least four effect estimates of the same type (e.g., odds ratio) were available for a specific outcome and age category (children versus adults), data were pooled with meta-analysis to generate a summary effect estimate. We identified 38 published articles reporting ≥ 1 association between influenza vaccination status and one of 21 indicators of severity of influenza illness among individuals with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Study methodologies and effect estimates were highly heterogenous, with only five severity indicators meeting criteria for calculating a combined effect. Among eight studies, influenza vaccination was associated with 26% reduction in odds of ICU admission among adults with influenza-associated hospitalization (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.58, 0.93). Among five studies of adults with influenza-associated hospitalization, vaccinated patients had 31% reduced risk of death compared with unvaccinated patients (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.52, 0.92). Among four studies of children with influenza virus infection, vaccination was associated with an estimated 45% reduction in the odds of manifesting fever (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.42, 0.71). Vaccination was not significantly associated with receiving a clinical diagnosis of pneumonia among adults hospitalized with influenza (OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.82, 1.04) or with risk of hospitalization following outpatient influenza illness among adults (OR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.28, 1.28). Overall, our findings support the hypothesis that influenza vaccination may attenuate the course of disease among individuals with breakthrough influenza virus infection.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Neumonía , Adulto , Niño , Hospitalización , Humanos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Oportunidad Relativa , Vacunación
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e046545, 2021 06 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155074

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the social determinants of influenza and pertussis vaccine uptake among pregnant women in England. DESIGN: Nationwide population-based cohort study. SETTING: The study used anonymised primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and linked Hospital Episode Statistics secondary care data. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women eligible for pertussis (2012-2015, n=68 090) or influenza (2010/2011-2015/2016, n=152 132) vaccination in England. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Influenza and pertussis vaccine uptake. RESULTS: Vaccine uptake was 67.3% for pertussis and 39.1% for influenza. Uptake of both vaccines varied by region, with the lowest uptakes in London and the North East. Lower vaccine uptake was associated with greater deprivation: almost 10% lower in the most deprived quintiles compared with the least deprived for influenza (34.5% vs 44.0%), and almost 20% lower for pertussis (57.7% vs 76.0%). Lower uptake for both vaccines was also associated with non-white ethnicity (lowest among women of black ethnicity), maternal age under 20 years and a greater number of children in the household. The associations between all social factors and vaccine uptake were broadly unchanged in fully adjusted models, suggesting the social determinants of uptake were largely independent of one another. Among 3111 women vaccinated against pertussis in their first eligible pregnancy and pregnant again, 1234 (40%) were not vaccinated in their second eligible pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting promotional campaigns to pregnant women who are younger, of non-white ethnicity, with more children, living in areas of greater deprivation or the London or North East regions, has potential to reduce vaccine-preventable disease among infants and pregnant women, and to reduce health inequalities. Vaccination promotion needs to be sustained across successive pregnancies. Further research is needed into whether the effectiveness of vaccine promotion strategies may vary according to social factors.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Tos Ferina , Adulto , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Femenino , Número de Embarazos , Humanos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Londres , Vacuna contra la Tos Ferina , Embarazo , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Vacunación , Tos Ferina/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
14.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253451, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143839

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Various public health measures have been implemented globally to counter the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate respiratory virus surveillance data to determine the effectiveness of such interventions in reducing transmission of seasonal respiratory viruses. METHOD: We retrospectively analysed data from the Respiratory Virus Detection Surveillance System in Canada, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, by interrupted time series regression. RESULTS: The national level of infection with seasonal respiratory viruses, which generally does not necessitate quarantine or contact screening, was greatly reduced after Canada imposed physical distancing and other quarantine measures. The 2019-2020 influenza season ended earlier than it did in the previous year. The influenza virus was replaced by rhinovirus/enterovirus or parainfluenza virus in the previous year, with the overall test positivity remaining at approximately 35%. However, during the 2019-2020 post-influenza period, the overall test positivity of respiratory viruses during the COVID-19 was still low (7.2%). Moreover, the 2020-2021 influenza season had not occurred by the end of February 2021. CONCLUSION: Respiratory virus surveillance data may provide real-world evidence of the effectiveness of implemented public health interventions during the current and future pandemics.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido/métodos , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Salud Pública/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Canadá/epidemiología , Humanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/virología , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Estadísticos , Pandemias , Distanciamiento Físico , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuarentena , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Estaciones del Año , Virus/clasificación
15.
Life Sci ; 280: 119744, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174324

RESUMEN

Viral respiratory tract infections have significantly impacted global health as well as socio-economic growth. Respiratory viruses such as the influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and the recent SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) typically infect the upper respiratory tract by entry through the respiratory mucosa before reaching the lower respiratory tract, resulting in respiratory disease. Generally, vaccination is the primary method in preventing virus pathogenicity and it has been shown to remarkably reduce the burden of various infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the efficacy of conventional vaccines may be hindered by certain limitations, prompting the need to develop novel vaccine delivery vehicles to immunize against various strains of respiratory viruses and to mitigate the risk of a pandemic. In this review, we provide an insight into how polymer-based nanoparticles can be integrated with the development of vaccines to effectively enhance immune responses for combating viral respiratory tract infections.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros/química , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Vacunación , Vacunas Virales/administración & dosificación , Animales , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Humanos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/virología , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/prevención & control , Infecciones por Orthomyxoviridae/virología , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/prevención & control , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/virología , Vacunación/métodos , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico
16.
Vaccine ; 39(28): 3645-3648, 2021 06 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078554

RESUMEN

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, many have worried that the additional burden of seasonal influenza would create a devastating scenario, resulting in overwhelmed healthcare capacities and further loss of life. However, many were pleasantly surprised: the 2020 Southern Hemisphere and 2020-2021 Northern Hemisphere influenza seasons were entirely suppressed. The potential causes and impacts of this drastic public health shift are highly uncertain, but provide lessons about future control of respiratory diseases, especially for the upcoming influenza season.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Humanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estaciones del Año
18.
Vaccine ; 39(29): 3964-3973, 2021 06 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092427

RESUMEN

DRIVE (Development of Robust and Innovative Vaccine Effectiveness) is an IMI funded public-private platform that aims to annually estimate brand-specific influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE), for public health and regulatory purposes. IVE analyses and reporting are conducted by public partners in the consortium. In 2019/20, four primary care-based test-negative design (TND) studies (Austria, England, Italy (n = 2)), eight hospital-based TND studies (Finland, France, Italy, Romania, Spain (n = 4)), and one population-based cohort study (Finland) were conducted. The COVID-19 pandemic affected influenza surveillance in all participating study sites, therefore the study period was truncated on February 29, 2020. Age-stratified (6 m-17y, 18-64y, ≥65y), confounder-adjusted, site-specific adjusted IVE estimates were calculated and pooled through meta-analysis. Parsimonious confounder-adjustment was performed, adjusting the estimates for age, sex and calendar time. TND studies included 3531 cases (351 vaccinated) and 5546 controls (1415 vaccinated) of all ages. IVE estimates were available for 8/11 brands marketed in Europe in 2019. Most children and adults < 64y were captured in primary care setting and the most frequently observed vaccine brand was Vaxigrip Tetra. The estimate against any influenza for Vaxigrip Tetra in primary care setting was 61% (95%CI 38-77) in children and 32% (95%CI -13-59) in adults up to 64y. Most adults ≥ 65y were captured in hospital setting and the most frequently observed brand was Fluad, with an estimate of 52% (95%CI 27-68). The population-based cohort covered 511,854 person-years and two vaccine brands. In children aged 2-6y, the IVE against any influenza was 68% (95%CI 58-75) for Fluenz Tetra and 71% (56-80) for Vaxigrip Tetra. In adults ≥ 65y, IVE against any influenza was 29% (20-36) for Vaxigrip Tetra. DRIVE is a growing platform. Public health institutes with surveillance data and hospitals in countries with high influenza vaccine coverage are encouraged to join DRIVE.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Adulto , Austria , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Inglaterra , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Finlandia , Francia , Humanos , Subtipo H3N2 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Italia , Pandemias , Rumanía , SARS-CoV-2 , Estaciones del Año , España , Vacunación
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e048109, 2021 06 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103321

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We integrated an established participant-centred active vaccine safety surveillance system with a cloud-based pharmacy immunisation-recording program in order to measure adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) reported via the new surveillance system in pharmacies, compared with AEFI reported via an existing surveillance system in non-pharmacy sites (general practice and other clinics). DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Individuals >10 years receiving influenza immunisations from 22 pharmacies and 90 non-pharmacy (general practice and other clinic) sites between March and October 2020 in Western Australia. Active vaccine safety surveillance was conducted using short message service and smartphone technology, via an opt-out system. OUTCOME MEASURES: Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the primary outcome: differences in proportions of AEFI between participants immunised in pharmacies compared with non-pharmacy sites, adjusting for confounders of age, sex and influenza vaccine brand. A subgroup analysis of participants over 65 years was also performed. RESULTS: Of 101 440 participants (6992 from pharmacies; 94 448 from non-pharmacy sites), 77 498 (76.4%) responded; 96.1% (n=74 448) within 24 hours. Overall, 4.8% (n=247) pharmacy participants reported any AEFI, compared with 6% (n=4356) non-pharmacy participants (adjusted OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76 to 0.99; p=0.039). Similar proportions of AEFIs were reported in pharmacy (5.8%; n=31) and non-pharmacy participants (6; n=1617) aged over 65 years (adjusted OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.65 to 1.35; p=0.725). The most common AEFIs in pharmacy were: pain (2%; n=104), tiredness (1.9%; n=95) and headache (1.7%; n=88); and in non-pharmacy sites: pain (2.3%; n=1660), tiredness (1.9%; n=1362) and swelling (1.5%; n=1121). CONCLUSIONS: High and rapid response rates demonstrate good participant engagement with active surveillance in both pharmacy and non-pharmacy participants. Significantly fewer AEFIs reported after pharmacist immunisations compared with non-pharmacy immunisations, with no difference in older adults, may suggest different cohorts attend pharmacy versus non-pharmacy immunisers. The integrated pharmacy system is rapidly scalable across Australia with global potential.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Farmacias , Sistemas de Registro de Reacción Adversa a Medicamentos , Anciano , Australia/epidemiología , Humanos , Vacunas contra la Influenza/efectos adversos , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Estudios Prospectivos , Estaciones del Año , Vacunación , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
20.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(2): 178-184, 2021 04.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184707

RESUMEN

In Chile, the Immunization Department of the Ministry of Health has carried out the seasonal influenza vaccination campaign annually since 1982 in collaboration with the national health services, regional health offices, and primary health care centres. With the aim of preventing deaths and serious morbidity in high-risk groups and preserving the integrity of health services, the seasonal influenza campaign had been the largest implemented in Chile until 2020, since in 2021 the vaccination campaign against SARS-CoV-2 is expected to become the largest ever implemented. In response to local demographic and epidemiological changes, and taking into account the new scientific evidence on the safety and immunogenicity of vaccines, the influenza vaccines available in Chile would increase annually as a result of campaign planning. In 2020, the influenza campaign had to be re-planned while in progress due to the addition of new high-risk groups to be vaccinated in accordance with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic health alert modification of March 6th, 2020. Over the course of three weeks, the Immunization Department managed to increase the doses of available influenza vaccines from 6,799,800 previously agreed upon to 8,480,325 and thus serve high-risk groups, guaranteeing their access to state funded influenza vaccination.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la Influenza , Gripe Humana , Chile/epidemiología , Humanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Pandemias , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Estaciones del Año , Vacunación
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