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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 354, 2022 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538483

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND:  The training of near-peer (NP) teachers and junior faculty instructors received major attention as a possible solution for the shortage of experienced anatomy instructors in faculties of medicine and health professions. Several studies described the training of NP teachers and junior instructors (≤ 2 years of teaching experience) using various methods. However, few publications include On the Job Training (OJT), which enables reflection and performance evaluation and encourages professionals to cope with their blind spots. Previous publications describing OJT did not include formal observation of the NP teacher or junior instructor. Therefore, this study aimed to present a novel approach to OJT inclusion during prosection laboratories based on the Lewinian experiential model. METHODS:  Eight physical therapy (PT) graduates were recruited as junior anatomy instructors into the prosection laboratories. All participated in a unique training program during two consecutive academic years (2017, 2018) and received OJT during the teaching sessions. Two questionnaires were filled out to evaluate the educational impact of the training program. Eighty-three first-year PT students participated in prosection laboratories in anatomy taught by junior instructors, and filled out a questionnaire evaluating the performance of both junior and senior instructors. In addition, we compared the final grades in anatomy obtained by students taught by senior instructors to the grades of those taught by junior instructors. RESULTS:  Each junior anatomy instructor participated in four OJT sessions. Based on self-reported measures, all professional and didactic aspects of the training program received a median score of 4.5 or higher on a five-point Likert scale. Students obtained similar grades in anatomy when taught by junior instructors compared with senior ones, and were similarly satisfied from the teaching performance of both senior and junior anatomy instructors. CONCLUSIONS:  OJT is applicable in a small-sized PT program facing a shortage of anatomy instructors. Including junior anatomy instructors in prosection laboratories for PT students is a viable solution to the shortage of experienced anatomy instructors. Further study, involving a larger cohort with a longer follow up will strengthen the preliminary results presented here.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía , Disección , Anatomía/educación , Disección/educación , Docentes , Humanos , Capacitación en Servicio , Grupo Paritario , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Enseñanza
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(5): 589-596, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35593600

RESUMEN

Background and Aims: : This study aims to evaluate the implication of peer-assisted learning model adopted in students' clinical skills training from the perspective of tutees and tutors at the end of a peer-tutored clinical skills program and peer tutors themselves. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Faculty of Medicine, Bursa Uludag in between January and March 2018. Following the clinical skills training, a questionnaire designed to assess the views of tutees and peer tutors was filled out on a voluntary basis by 159 tutees and 43 tutors. The statistical analysis of the collected and processed data was analyzed by using IBM SPSS 23.0 statistical program. The statistical significance level was maintained as α = 0.05. Results: According to the Likert scale, satisfaction with the tutors and the educational environment was high in general. The 2nd term tutees provided more negative feedback compared to other terms. Among all the terms, the most positive answers were provided by the 3rd term students. Although the tutors found themselves fully skilled in communication with colleagues, there were striking differences between the tutors in the 5th and 6th terms of providing a good role model for pre-clinical terms students. Conclusion: Considering peer assisted learning (PAL)'s positive responses from this study, the adoption of PAL has been started to be used as a supplementary teaching method for the clinical skills training at the Faculty of Medicine, Bursa Uludag University. PAL is considered a successful education model since it is cost-efficient for undergraduate medical training and improves the professional skills of both teacher and learner students. It can be availed of as an alternative method in medical faculties where especially the number of academic members is insufficient.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Estudiantes de Medicina , Estudios Transversales , Curriculum , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Grupo Paritario , Enseñanza
3.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 109, 2022 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501915

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In many African countries, cultural norms and values hinder conversations about sexuality among adolescents and their parents. Currently, there are no sex education classes in the curriculum at schools in Tanzania. Even when sex education is provided, the content is often abstinence-oriented, and there is a lack of in-depth instruction and exploration on the topic. To help overcome this, peer education is encouraged. After implementing peer-based adolescent education via a non-profit organization, this study aims to (1) identify students' and peer educators' perceptions of adolescent education and (2) identify the changes that occur as a result of adolescent education with peer educators. METHODS: This was a qualitative descriptive study using focus group discussions (FGDs). Secondary school students, including peer educators as well as students who received adolescent education, were asked about their perception of peer-based adolescent education. The FGDs were conducted in Swahili with the support of local collaborators. Data were transcribed and translated into English and Japanese. Content analysis was conducted to merge the categories and subcategories. RESULTS: A total of 92 students (57 girls and 35 boys) were included from three urban and three rural secondary schools where peer education was being implemented. Six FGDs were conducted for girls and four for boys, for a total of 10 FGDs. The students had both positive and negative perceptions of peer-based adolescent education. Both the peer educators and the other students felt that they gained more confidence through the process, based on the conversations they had and the trusting relationship that formed as a result. The peer educators were also successful in eliciting behavioral changes, and the students shared their sex-related knowledge with other peers as well. CONCLUSION: The peer education process helped students gain confidence in teaching their peers and elicit behavioral changes. Adult supervision for peer educators is suggested.


Peer education, such as sharing correct knowledge, skills, and behaviors, is encouraged for maintaining a healthy lifestyle in later life. The non-profit organization Class for Everyone conducted adolescent education in collaboration with a local NGO, the New Rural Children Foundation, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and social isolation among adolescent girls. In secondary schools, the NGO members provided adolescent education led by peer educators.In this study, we conducted focus group discussions to understand how peer educators and other secondary school students perceived peer-based adolescent education. The study included 92 students (57 girls and 35 boys) from three urban and three rural secondary schools where peer education was being implemented. We used content analysis to merge the categories and subcategories.We found that students had both positive and negative perceptions about peer-based adolescent education. The participants felt that they gained more confidence through the peer education process. The peer educators were also successful in eliciting behavioral changes. Moreover, the students receiving peer education shared their sex-related knowledge with other peers as well.In conclusion, the peer education process helped students gain confidence in teaching their peers and elicit behavioral change. Adult supervision for peer educators is suggested.


Asunto(s)
Grupo Paritario , Educación Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes , Tanzanía
5.
MedEdPORTAL ; 18: 11241, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35518385

RESUMEN

Introduction: An estimated 11% of medical students experience suicidal ideation during medical school. Many medical schools teach students how to intervene on behalf of patients experiencing suicidal ideation, but no curriculum in MedEdPORTAL teaches students how to intervene on behalf of peers. Methods: The authors designed, implemented, and evaluated a 2-hour workshop to equip medical students with skills and resources to intervene on behalf of a peer in crisis. This workshop comprised a peer-led didactic session and small-group sessions with role-plays and a guided debrief. The resource included a slide deck for the didactic session, a facilitator guide for the small-group session, a student handout with role-plays and self-evaluation questions, and the pre-/postsurvey. Results: This workshop was conducted with cohorts of first- and second-year medical students (n = 273) in October and November 2019. Pre-/postsurveys showed the greatest improvements in suicide prevention knowledge (self-rated) and the confidence in and likelihood of asking peers about suicide. Discussion: Student feedback indicated that the most valuable parts of the workshop were the peer-led nature of the didactic session, the perspective of a peer's lived experience, and the role-plays. Opportunities for improvement included the scheduling of the session, the potentially triggering nature of the role-play exercises, and the importance of enabling students to opt out discreetly. A version of this workshop is now a permanent part of the first-year curriculum at our institution.


Asunto(s)
Estudiantes de Medicina , Suicidio , Consejo , Curriculum , Humanos , Grupo Paritario , Suicidio/prevención & control
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7458, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523982

RESUMEN

Prosocial actions are a building block for developing mature and caring social relations. However, the global pandemic may hamper adolescents' prosocial actions. In this preregistered study, we examined the extent to which adolescents provided daily emotional support during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 10-25-year-old high school and university students participated at three timepoints (N = 888 at the first timepoint (May 2020); 494 at the second timepoint (Nov 2020) and 373 at the third timepoint (May 2021)). At the first and second timepoint, participants completed 2 weeks of daily diaries on providing emotional support. At all timepoints, participants performed Dictator Games to measure giving to peers, friends and COVID-19 targets (medical doctors, COVID-19 patients, individuals with a poor immune system). Across the three timepoints, adolescents gave more to COVID-19 targets than peers and friends, but giving to COVID-19 target was highest in the beginning of the pandemic (first timepoint relative to second and third timepoint). Results from the first timepoint showed that emotional support directed to friends peaked in mid-adolescence, whereas emotional support towards family members showed a gradual increase from childhood to young adulthood. Furthermore, daily emotional support increased between the first and second timepoint. Daily emotional support to friends predicted giving behavior to all targets, whereas emotional support to family was specifically associated with giving to COVID-19 targets. These findings elucidate the relation between daily actions and prosocial giving to societally-relevant targets in times of crisis, underlying the importance of prosocial experiences during adolescence.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , Niño , Amigos , Humanos , Pandemias , Grupo Paritario , Adulto Joven
7.
Dev Psychobiol ; 64(5): e22279, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603413

RESUMEN

Interpersonal stress in adolescence has been associated with alterations in neural responses to peer feedback, and increased vulnerability to psychopathology. However, it is unclear whether the associations of interpersonal problems with neural responses are global across event-related potentials (ERPs) or might result in alterations only in specific ERPs. We examined associations between multiple informants of peer stress (self-reported, parent-reported, and peer-reported) and multiple ERPs (N1, P2, RewP, and LPP) to social feedback in a sample of 46 early adolescents (aged 12-13 years). Reports of peer stress were only moderately correlated with one another, indicating different informants capture different aspects of peer stress. Regressions using informant reports to predict ERPs revealed greater parent-reported peer stress was associated with a smaller RewP, whereas self-reported stress was associated with a smaller P2, to acceptance. In contrast, greater peer-reported stress was associated with larger P2, RewP, and LPP to acceptance. Findings suggest that different sources of stress measurement are differentially associated with ERPs. Future research using social feedback-related ERPs should consider multiple sources of information as well as multiple ERP components across the time-course of feedback processing, to gain a clearer understanding of the effects of peer stress on neural responses to feedback.


Asunto(s)
Electroencefalografía , Recompensa , Adolescente , Potenciales Evocados/fisiología , Retroalimentación , Humanos , Grupo Paritario
8.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 641, 2022 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366834

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The use of e-cigarettes (vaping) among Indigenous youth is much higher than that of their non-Indigenous counterparts, which has raised the concerns of various Indigenous scholars and communities. To better understand the most salient constructs that influence Indigenous youth decision-making around vaping, we co-created a qualitative research study with a Syilx First Nation community that was guided by the Unified Theory of Behavior (UTB). METHODS: Through semi-structured interviews and a sharing circle, we gathered the perspectives and experiences of 16 Syilx youth in British Columbia, Canada. After an initial collaborative coding and training session, the interviews were transcribed and coded by Indigenous peer researchers using Nvivo. Through both directed and conventional qualitative content analysis methods, the final conceptual framework was collaboratively developed. RESULTS: Syilx youth reported that vaping decision-making is underpinned by colonialism, and the historical disproportionate impact of the tobacco industry. The youth spoke to several individual determinants that influence intentions to vape (e.g., vaping helps you cope) and to not vape (e.g., family and community connectedness), and determinants that translate intentions to vape to decision to vape (e.g., access to vaping), and to not vape (e.g., access to trusted adults and support from the band). The youth suggested that prevention efforts must be informed by an understanding of why Indigenous youth vape and what strengthens their resolve to not vape. CONCLUSIONS: Vaping decision-making among Indigenous youth is underpinned by their cultures, contexts, and histories. To effectively address vaping among Indigenous youth, continued engagement of Indigenous youth in planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating both prevention and policies efforts is a necessity.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Vapeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Colombia Británica , Humanos , Grupo Paritario , Investigación Cualitativa
9.
J Interpers Violence ; 37(7-8): NP4527-NP4557, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35369778

RESUMEN

There is limited knowledge on the possible pathways of victimization among rural dwellers during adolescence in developing contexts, such as rural China, where victimization may compound developmental disadvantages of rural adolescents. Guided by the lifestyle/routine activity theory, the goal of this study thus was to examine how far delinquent lifestyles (delinquent involvement and delinquent peer association); nondeviant routine activities (unstructured socializing with peers, structured activities, and solitary activities); and social guardianship within family, school, and neighborhood contribute to juvenile victimization in a rural setting. The outcomes of interest covered direct victimization (violent, property, and sexual) and indirect victimization (witnessing community violence). The study included 2,839 adolescents (51.2% male; mean age = 13.88 ± 0.90 years) from 30 middle schools in rural China. The delinquent peer influence as a risk factor of direct and indirect victimization appeared to be more profound than delinquent involvement. Solitary activities consistently put rural adolescents at greater risk of direct and indirect victimization, and their role was stronger than that of rural adolescents' delinquent involvement. No victimization outcomes were predicted by unstructured socializing with peers and structured activities. Attachment to family caregivers and neighborhood cohesion were the strongest social guardianship predictors across all forms of victimization. These results suggest that alongside social guardianship and delinquent lifestyles, rural isolation should be addressed in managing juvenile victimization. The insignificant role of unstructured socializing with peers may raise the need to clarify its conceptual relevance to rural settings. The implications for improving the underdeveloped preventive measures against victimization of rural adolescent populations in developing societies are described.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Acoso Escolar , Víctimas de Crimen , Adolescente , Niño , China , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Paritario
10.
Subst Abus ; 43(1): 1085-1093, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442871

RESUMEN

Objective: While peer influence is a well-documented risk factor for adolescent substance use, it remains unclear whether peer or parental attitudes have greater impact, and if this relationship is moderated by having a confidant and the relationship between adolescents and their confidant. Method: Pooled (2015-2018) National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) data on adolescents (12-17 years) were used. Perceived peer and parental disapproval of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use were dichotomized. We assessed associations between disapproval and past-month tobacco (N = 51,352), alcohol (N = 51,407), and marijuana use (N = 51,355) using separate multivariable logistic regression models. We explored effect modification by the presence of a confidant, parental vs. non-parental disapproval, and peer vs. non-peer confidant relationship. Results: Peer and parental disapproval, presence of any confidant, and identifying a parental confidant were consistently protective against substance use; identifying a peer confidant increased odds of use across substances. For marijuana use, peer disapproval (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06, 0.08) was more protective than parental disapproval (aOR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.15). The joint presence of peer/parental disapproval and any confidant decreased the odds of substance use beyond the individual effects of peer/parental disapproval and having a confidant. However, having a peer confidant attenuated the protective association between peer/parental disapproval and tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Conclusions: Both peer and parental relationships are salient when considering the social context of adolescent substance use and should be considered when studying the effects of perceived disapproval.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Actitud , Humanos , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Padres , Grupo Paritario , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
11.
F1000Res ; 11: 235, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388338

RESUMEN

Background: Social annotation (SA) is a genre of learning technology that enables the addition of digital notes to shared texts and affords contextualized peer-to-peer online discussion. A small body of literature examines how SA, as asynchronous online discussion, can contribute to students' knowledge construction (KC)-or a process whereby learners collaborate through shared socio-cognitive practices. This case study analyzed how SA enabled student participation in seven KC activities, such as interpretation and elaboration. Methods: We analyzed 2,121 annotations written by 59 students in three undergraduate courses at a Canadian University in the Winter 2019 semester. Using a method of open coding and constant comparison, we coded each annotation for evidence of KC activities. Results: Results showed a range of KC activities in students' SA. Across courses, interpretation was the most common KC activity (40%), followed by elaboration (20%). Annotations that were part of peer-to-peer discussion included all seven types of KC activities, but some activities, such as consensus building, support, and conflict, were almost exclusively found in replies to others. Conclusions: This study suggests that SA is a productive form of online learning through which undergraduate students in multiple disciplinary contexts can interact with peers, make sense of academic content, and construct knowledge by reading and writing together.


Asunto(s)
Educación a Distancia , Canadá , Educación a Distancia/métodos , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Grupo Paritario , Estudiantes
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6477, 2022 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443771

RESUMEN

Peer presence can elicit maladaptive adolescent decision-making, potentially by increasing sensitivity to the rewards one receives. It remains unknown whether peer presence also increases adolescents' sensitivity to others' outcomes, which could have an adaptive effect in contexts allowing pro-social behaviors. Here, we combine social utility modeling and real-time decision process modeling to characterize how peer presence alters adolescents' processing of self and other outcomes. We found that adolescents behaved selfishly when privately allocating monetary rewards for themselves and a peer in an incentive-compatible task. In peer presence, however, adolescents became more altruistic. Real-time decision process estimates collected using computer mouse tracking showed that altruistic behavior was associated with relatively earlier influence of peer-outcomes relative to self-outcomes, and that peer presence sped the influence of peer-outcomes without altering the time at which self-outcomes began to influence the decision process. Our results indicate a mechanism through which peer presence prompts greater prosocial behavior by altering how adolescents process prosocial outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Adolescente , Altruismo , Humanos , Grupo Paritario , Recompensa , Conducta Social
13.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266847, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476845

RESUMEN

Adolescents are the decision-makers of the future, and as educational research shows, behaviors, habits, and attitudes established at young age strongly shape behavior in adulthood. Therefore, it is important to understand what factors shape young people's climate-relevant behavior. In this study, we examine how information about peer behavior affects adolescents' perception of prevailing social norms and own decision-making. Experimentally, we manipulated whether adolescents received information about other young people's (lack of) support for climate protection, operationalized as a donation to a CO2 offsetting scheme. We find that empirical expectations shifted for all age groups when the information revealed that peers donated nothing or only small amounts. Donation behavior and the normative assessment, however, changed only in the younger age groups. Our study illustrates the caution that must be exercised when others' behavior becomes visible or is deliberatively made salient in order to induce behavioral change, especially among young individuals.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Normas Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Actitud , Clima , Humanos , Grupo Paritario
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(5): e37674, 2022 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468083

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Long COVID is an emerging public health concern. A growing number of individuals are experiencing prolonged, multifaceted health challenges and accompanying social impacts after COVID-19 infections. Support services in the United Kingdom remain insufficient and fraught with complexity. Responding to persistent gaps in care, patients joined forces in online peer support groups. However, little is known about how these groups impact patients with long COVID and their lived experiences of the condition. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore the roles that online peer support groups take on and the impact they have on patients experiencing and recovering from long COVID in the United Kingdom. In doing so, this study aims to identify ways to inform future long COVID care, including online peer support and broader long COVID care structures. METHODS: I conducted 11 semistructured interviews virtually on Zoom in July 2021. Participants had long COVID, were UK-based, and used long COVID online peer support groups. Topics discussed in interviews included what led participants to these groups, experiences within them, and feelings about the roles that the groups took on. I analyzed the results by manually conducting thematic analysis. RESULTS: Long COVID online peer support groups had numerous roles, significantly impacting users. I identified 5 themes and 13 subthemes through thematic analysis. The identified themes were as follows: (1) filling professional care gaps, (2) societal awareness, (3) engagement behavior, (4) diversity, and (5) social connections. Given the void of professional support, those experiencing long COVID gained some benefit from these groups. However, participants emphasized notable concerns about the all-encompassing roles these groups embody and speculated over potential improvements. CONCLUSIONS: If used appropriately, online peer support groups could be immensely beneficial for patient well-being, beyond simply filling gaps in long COVID care. However, it appears many groups take on more than they can manage and become potentially harmful. Through prioritizing patient voices, long COVID care could be restructured to maximize peer support's benefits within broader care structures.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adulto , COVID-19/complicaciones , Humanos , Grupo Paritario , Investigación Cualitativa , Grupos de Autoayuda , Reino Unido
15.
Psicothema ; 34(2): 192-199, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485531

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Peer victimization is a problem that affects adolescents worldwide. Since so few studies have been made on the relationship between maturity and indirect peer victimization, the main objective of this study was to determine if maturity provides incremental validity beyond the personality traits when predicting indirect victimization. Another objective was to test a model of how all these variables are related to depressive symptomatology and life satisfaction. METHOD: 548 high school students completed five questionnaires. We performed correlations, multiple regression analysis and structural equation analysis. RESULTS: The hierarchical regression analyses show that maturity has incremental validity in predicting indirect peer victimization. Two personality traits (emotional stability and agreeableness) and two maturity factors (identity and self-reliance) were major predictors of indirect peer victimization. The hierarchical regression analyses also show that major predictors were the same for girls and boys. The Structural Equation Model tested had a good fit, which suggests that indirect victimization increases depressive symptomatology and decreases life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that both personality traits and psychological maturity have to be taken into account when predicting indirect peer victimization. The study also shows the emotional suffering related to this victimization.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Víctimas de Crimen , Adolescente , Agresión/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Personalidad
16.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 31, 2022 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459252

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The RUBY randomised controlled trial was found to be effective in promoting breastfeeding continuation, in the setting of a high income country, through a program of proactive telephone-based peer support in the first 6 months postpartum. This paper explores women's experiences of receiving the peer support intervention in the RUBY trial. METHODS: Ten in-depth, face-to-face interviews were conducted between December 2015 and November 2016 in Metropolitan Melbourne, and regional Victoria, Australia. Participants were women who received the peer support intervention in the RUBY trial and were between 11 and 15 months postpartum at the time of interview. Interviews were underpinned by social support theories and were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: A global theme of 'non-judgemental support and guidance' was identified, which included five organising themes. Four of the organising themes centred on the support from the peer, in which women felt the support was a 'positive experience with empathy and understanding', 'non-judgemental', 'practical advice', and a 'social connection that was more than just breastfeeding'. In contrast to the support from peers was the theme 'not all support from family and friends is supportive'. CONCLUSION: Participants, including those who considered that they had adequate and available family and friend support for breastfeeding, valued and appreciated the non-judgemental, empathetic and understanding support from peers. This support, facilitated by the anonymity of the telephone-based program, allowed open and honest conversations, normalising women's experiences and helping them feel less alone in their challenges with breastfeeding and transition to motherhood. These findings can inform the design, and upscaling, of innovative and sustainable peer support models, ensuring delivery of effective and engaging support with a broad population reach.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Madres , Australia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Teléfono
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6604, 2022 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459880

RESUMEN

The public goods game is a multiplayer version of the prisoner's dilemma game. In the public goods game, punishment on defectors is necessary to encourage cooperation. There are two types of punishment: peer punishment and pool punishment. Comparing pool punishment with peer punishment, pool punishment is disadvantageous in comparison with peer punishment because pool punishment incurs fixed costs especially if second-order free riders (those who invest in public goods but do not punish defectors) are not punished. In order to eliminate such a flaw of pool punishment, this study proposes the probabilistic pool punishment proportional to the difference of payoff. In the proposed pool punishment, each punisher pays the cost to the punishment pool with the probability proportional to the difference of payoff between his/her payoff and the average payoff of his/her opponents. Comparing the proposed pool punishment with previous pool and peer punishment, in pool punishment of previous studies, cooperators who do not punish defectors become dominant instead of pool punishers with fixed costs. However, in the proposed pool punishment, more punishers and less cooperators coexist, and such state is more robust against the invasion of defectors due to mutation than those of previous pool and peer punishment. The average payoff is also comparable to peer punishment of previous studies.


Asunto(s)
Teoría del Juego , Castigo , Conducta Cooperativa , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Dilema del Prisionero
18.
J Nurs Educ ; 61(4): 213-216, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384760

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Peer assessment rubrics (PARs) facilitate equitable distribution of responsibility among group members and help educators assess learners' contributions. This study sought to (1) address health science students' attitudes toward group work and peer assessment, (2) apply evidence-based recommendations and student suggestions to the adaptation of a PAR, and (3) determine the rubric's effectiveness for educators and acceptability among students. METHOD: A PAR was identified, modified, and tested with graduate students (N = 502) in the health sciences. RESULTS: Compared with prior PARs, graduate students rated this rubric as easier to use and more helpful in assessing peers' contributions and explaining their ratings. Educators reported the PAR's utility with diverse health science students across both in-person and virtual platforms. CONCLUSION: Using a PAR that is acceptable to students and useful for faculty may contribute to more meaningful interprofessional experiences, ultimately preparing students for effective interprofessional collaboration. [J Nurs Educ. 2022;61(4):213-216.].


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje , Grupo Paritario , Humanos , Relaciones Interprofesionales
20.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 122(5): 894-919, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404642

RESUMEN

People form relationships with people from their own racial groups, a phenomenon called racial homophily, which reduces interracial contact and exacerbates inequality and prejudice. Although viewed as arising from environmental factors, we argue that racial homophily also involves individual choice and, thus, personality factors. We address three major issues. First, are interpersonal concerns (Agreeableness) and intergroup concerns (Openness) differentially relevant to cross-race friendships? Second, are current conceptions of Openness sufficient, or do we need lower-level facets more attuned to intergroup concerns? Third, can we specify the interplay between personality and contextual factors in different settings? Across four studies (total N = 1,820), Agreeableness failed to predict more cross-race friendships, in both self- and peer reports, suggesting that interpersonal kindness was not sufficient to overcome racial homophily. In contrast, Openness and Openness to Other (O2, a new social facet of Openness) consistently predicted cross-race friendship. However, the O2 facet had the stronger and only unique effect, suggesting it is the "active ingredient." High-O2 individuals had an almost equal 1:1 ratio of same-to-different-race network members, whereas low-O2 individuals had 4:1 same-race. These results held for both college students and middle-aged adults, both friends and new acquaintances in the network, and both networks established before and at a diverse university. Finally, when moving to a more diverse environment, high-O2 individuals seemed to take advantage of the new environmental affordances, adding more different-race members to their networks. Overall, these studies advance understanding of person-environment transactions, showing how personality traits matter to the structure of people's social networks. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Amigos , Grupo Paritario , Adulto , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Red Social , Estudiantes
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