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1.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 23, 2020 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019516

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known about the genetics of PD in these populations. Due to their unique ancestry and diversity, sub-Saharan African populations have the potential to reveal novel insights into the pathobiology of PD. In this study, we aimed to characterise the genetic variation in known and novel PD genes in a group of Black South African and Nigerian patients. METHODS: We recruited 33 Black South African and 14 Nigerian PD patients, and screened them for sequence variants in 751 genes using an Ion AmpliSeq™ Neurological Research panel. We used bcftools to filter variants and annovar software for the annotation. Rare variants were prioritised using MetaLR and MetaSVM prediction scores. The effect of a variant on ATP13A2's protein structure was investigated by molecular modelling. RESULTS: We identified 14,655 rare variants with a minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01, which included 2448 missense variants. Notably, no common pathogenic mutations were identified in these patients. Also, none of the known PD-associated mutations were found highlighting the need for more studies in African populations. Altogether, 54 rare variants in 42 genes were considered deleterious and were prioritized, based on MetaLR and MetaSVM scores, for follow-up studies. Protein modelling showed that the S1004R variant in ATP13A2 possibly alters the conformation of the protein. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several rare variants predicted to be deleterious in sub-Saharan Africa PD patients; however, further studies are required to determine the biological effects of these variants and their possible role in PD. Studies such as these are important to elucidate the genetic aetiology of this disorder in patients of African ancestry.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Enfermedad de Parkinson/genética , ATPasas de Translocación de Protón/genética , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anotación de Secuencia Molecular , Mutación Missense , Nigeria/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Parkinson/epidemiología , Enfermedad de Parkinson/patología , Mutación Puntual , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(1): e1920010, 2020 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995215

RESUMEN

Importance: Racial and ethnic disparities in access to health care may result from discrimination. Objectives: To identify differences in the rates at which patients belonging to racial/ethnic minority groups are offered primary care appointments and the number of days they wait for their primary care appointment and to understand the mechanisms by which discrimination occurs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used 7 simulated black, Hispanic, and white patient callers to request appointments from 804 randomized primary care offices in 2 urban centers in Texas from November 2017 to February 2018. Data analysis was conducted between February and December 2018. Exposures: Research assistants called randomly assigned offices to schedule an appointment, supplying the same basic information. Race and ethnicity were signaled through callers' names and voices. Main Outcomes and Measures: Appointment offer rates, days to appointment, and questions asked during the call. Results: Of the 7 callers (age range, 18-29 years), 2 (28.6%) self-identified as non-Hispanic black, 3 (42.9%) self-identified as non-Hispanic white, and 2 (28.6%) self-identified as Hispanic. Of the 804 calls they made, 299 (37.2%) were from simulated white callers, 215 (26.7%) were from simulated black callers, and 290 (36.1%) were from simulated Hispanic callers. Overall, 582 callers (72.4%) were offered appointments. In unadjusted models, black and Hispanic callers were more likely to be offered an appointment than white callers (black callers, 32.2 [95% CI, 25.1-39.3] percentage points more likely; P < .001; Hispanic callers, 21.1 [95% CI, 13.7-28.5] percentage points more likely; P < .001). However, after adjusting for whether insurance status was revealed, this statistical significance was lost. In adjusted models, black callers were 44.0 (95% CI, 36.2-51.8) percentage points more likely to be asked about their insurance status than white callers (P < .001), and Hispanic callers were 25.3 (95% CI, 17.1-33.5) percentage points more likely to be asked about their insurance status (P < .001) than white callers. Black and Hispanic callers received appointments further in the future than white callers (black callers: marginal effect estimate, 3.650; 95% CI, 0.579 to 6.721; P = .08; Hispanic callers: marginal effect estimate, 2.644; 95% CI, -0.496 to 5.784; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, black and Hispanic patients were more likely to be offered an appointment, but they were asked more frequently about their insurance status than white callers. Black and Hispanic callers experienced longer wait times than white patients, indicating a barrier to timely access to primary care.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/estadística & datos numéricos , Citas y Horarios , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Visita a Consultorio Médico/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
4.
Hum Genet ; 139(1): 45-59, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630246

RESUMEN

Due to its long genetic evolutionary history, Africans exhibit more genetic variation than any other population in the world. Their genetic diversity further lends itself to subdivisions of Africans into groups of individuals with a genetic similarity of varying degrees of granularity. It remains challenging to detect fine-scale structure in a computationally efficient and meaningful way. In this paper, we present a proof-of-concept of a novel fine-scale population structure detection tool with Western African samples. These samples consist of 1396 individuals from 25 ethnic groups (two groups are African American descendants). The strategy is based on a recently developed tool called IPCAPS. IPCAPS, or Iterative Pruning to CApture Population Structure, is a genetic divisive clustering strategy that enhances iterative pruning PCA, is robust to outliers and does not require a priori computation of haplotypes. Our strategy identified in total 12 groups and 6 groups were revealed as fine-scale structure detected in the samples from Cameroon, Gambia, Mali, Southwest USA, and Barbados. Our finding helped to explain evolutionary processes in the analyzed West African samples and raise awareness for fine-scale structure resolution when conducting genome-wide association and interaction studies.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Variación Genética , Genética de Población , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Haplotipos , Programas Informáticos , África Occidental/etnología , Humanos
5.
Int J Cancer ; 146(5): 1219-1229, 2020 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087647

RESUMEN

We previously identified a novel breast cancer susceptibility variant on chromosome 4q31.22 locus (rs1429142) conferring risk among women of European ancestry. Here, we report replication of findings, validation of the variant in diverse populations and fine-mapping of the associated locus in Caucasian population. The SNP rs1429142 (C/T, minor allele frequency 18%) showed association for the overall breast cancer risk in Stages 1-4 (n = 4,331 cases/4271 controls; p = 4.35 × 10-8 ; odds ratio, ORC-allele ,1.25), and an elevated risk among premenopausal women (n = 1,503 cases/4271 controls; p = 5.81 × 10-10 ; ORC-allele 1.40) in European populations. SNP rs1429142 was associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk in women of African (T/C; p-value 1.45 × 10-02 ; ORC-allele 1.2) but not from Chinese ancestry. Fine-mapping of the locus revealed several potential causal variants which are present within a single association signal, revealed from the conditional regression analysis. Functional annotation of the potential causal variants revealed three putative SNPs rs1366691, rs1429139 and rs7667633 with active enhancer functions inferred based on histone marks, DNase hypersensitive sites in breast cell line data. These putative variants were bound by transcription factors (C-FOS, STAT1/3 and POL2/3) with known roles in inflammatory pathways. Furthermore, Hi-C data revealed several short-range interactions in the fine-mapped locus harboring the putative variants. The fine mapped locus was predicted to be within a single topologically associated domain, potentially facilitating enhancer-promoter interactions possibly leading to the regulation of nearby genes.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Cromosomas Humanos Par 4/genética , Sitios Genéticos/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Premenopausia , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Alberta/epidemiología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/genética , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Mapeo Cromosómico , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Elementos de Facilitación Genéticos/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Posmenopausia , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Adulto Joven
6.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1047752

RESUMEN

Objetivo: realizar um mapeamento na literatura sobre os estudos que abordam a saúde das mulheres quilombolas. Método: revisão integrativa de literatura de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em três bases de dados, com a utilização da combinação dos descritores: Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano, Mulheres, Saúde, num intervalo temporal de 10 anos. Resultados: emergiram 66 artigos, sendo incluídos 58 para análise e discussão. Formou-se eixos temáticos, onde 25 estavam relacionadas às doenças das mulheres quilombolas e com limitada discussão da promoção da saúde e dos determinantes sociais. Os outros 33 artigos relacionavam-se à contextualização histórica e social dos quilombos, Atenção Primária à Saúde, iniquidade social e violência, racismo e discriminação e acesso das mulheres quilombolas aos serviços de saúde. Conclusão: identificou-se limitações frente a determinação social com foco em pesquisas de cunho biológico e com ênfase na doença, destacando a necessidade imperiosa de estudos voltados a promoção da saúde desta população


Objective: to carry out a mapping in the literature on studies addressing the health of quilombolas women. Method: integrative review of literature of qualitative approach, held in three databases, using the combination of the descriptors: african continental ancestry group, women, health, in a time interval of 10 years. Results: 66 articles emerged, being included 58 for analysis and discussion. It formed themes, and from these 25 were related diseases of the quilombo women and limited discussion of health promotion and social determinants. The other 33 articles were related to the historical and social context of the quilombos, Primary Health Care, social inequity and violence, racism and discrimination and access of quilombos women to health services. Conclusion: we identified limitations front the social determination with focus on research of biological nature and an emphasis on disease, highlighting the necessity of studies regarding at promoting the health of this population


Objetivo: realizar un levantamiento en la literatura sobre los estudios que abordan la salud de las mujeres quilombolas. Método: revisión integrativa de literatura de abordaje cualitativo, realizada en tres bases de datos, con la utilización de combinación de las siguientes palabras clave: Grupo con Ancestrales del Continente Africano, Mujeres, Salud, en un intervalo temporal de 10 años. Resultados: han surgido 66 artículos, de los cuales 58 se ha analizado y discutido. A partir de esto, se ha formado ejes temáticos, de los cuales 25 artículos presentan relación con enfermedades de las mujeres quilombolas y con limitada discusión de la Promoción de la Salud y de los Determinantes Sociales. Los otros 33 artículos presentan relación con la contextualización histórica y social de los quilombos, Atención Primaria a la Salud, iniquidad social y violencia, racismo y discriminación y acceso de las mujeres quilombolas a los servicios de salud. Conclusión: se identificó limitaciones frente a la determinación social con foco en investigaciones de carácter biológico y con énfasis en la enfermedad, destacando la necesidad imperiosa de estudios volcados a la Promoción de la Salud de esta población


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Salud de la Mujer , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Brasil , Servicios de Salud para Mujeres
7.
Maturitas ; 131: 78-86, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787151

RESUMEN

Ovarian deficiency, including diminished ovarian reserve and premature ovarian insufficiency, represents one of the main causes of female infertility. Little is known of the genetic basis of diminished ovarian reserve, while premature ovarian insufficiency often has a genetic basis, with genes affecting various processes. NR5A1 is a key gene required for gonadal function, and variants are associated with a wide phenotypic spectrum of disorders of sexual development, and are found in 0.26-8% of patients with premature ovarian insufficiency. As there is some debate about the extent of involvement of NR5A1 in the pathogenesis of ovarian deficiency, we performed an in-depth analysis of NR5A1 variants detected in a cohort of 142 patients with premature ovarian insufficiency, diminished ovarian reserve, or unexplained infertility associated with normal ovarian function. We identified rare non-synonymous protein-altering variants in 2.8 % of women with ovarian deficiency and no such variants in our small cohort of women with infertility but normal ovarian function. We observed previously reported variants associated with premature ovarian insufficiency in patients with diminished ovarian reserve, highlighting a genetic relationship between these conditions. We confirmed functional impairment resulting from a p.Val15Met variant, detected for the first time in a patient with premature ovarian insufficiency. The remaining variants were associated with preserved transcriptional activity and localization of NR5A1, indicating that rare NR5A1 variants may be incorrectly curated if functional studies are not undertaken, and/or that NR5A1 variants may have only a subtle impact on protein function and/or confer risk of ovarian deficiency via oligogenic inheritance.


Asunto(s)
Infertilidad Femenina/genética , Menopausia Prematura/genética , Reserva Ovárica , Insuficiencia Ovárica Primaria/genética , Factor Esteroidogénico 1/genética , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Alelos , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Infertilidad Femenina/etnología , Menopausia Prematura/etnología , Mutación , Insuficiencia Ovárica Primaria/etnología
8.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110095, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841934

RESUMEN

Manual landmarking is used in several manual and semi-automated prediction guidelines for approximation of the nose. The manual placement of landmarks may, however, render the analysis less repeatable due to observer subjectivity and, consequently, have an impact on the accuracy of the human facial approximation. In order to address this subjectivity and thereby improve facial approximations, we are developing an automated three-dimensional (3D) method based on an automatic dense landmarking procedure using non-rigid surface registration. The aim of this study was to validate the automatic landmarking method by comparing the intra-observer errors (INTRA-OE) and inter-observer errors (INTER-OE) between automatic and manual landmarking. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of adult South Africans were selected from the Oral and Dental Hospital, University of Pretoria, South Africa. In this study, the validation of the automatic landmarking was performed on 20 3D surfaces. INTRA-OE and INTER-OE were analyzed by registering 41 craniometric landmarks from 10 hard-tissue surfaces and 21 capulometric landmarks from 10 soft-tissue surfaces of the same individuals. Absolute precision of the landmark positioning (both on the samples as well as the template) was assessed by calculating the measurement error (ME) for each landmark over different observers. Systematic error (bias) and relative random error (precision) was further quantified through repeated measures ANOVA (ANOVA-RM). The analysis showed that the random component of the ME in landmark positioning between the automatic observations were on average on par with the manual observations, except for the soft-tissue landmarks where automatic landmarking showed lower ME compared to manual landmarking. No bias was observed within the craniometric landmarking methods, but some bias was observed for capulometric landmarking. In conclusion, this research provides a first validation of the precision and accuracy of the automatic placement of landmarks on 3D hard- and soft-tissue surfaces and demonstrates its utilization as a convenient prerequisite for geometric morphometrics based shape analysis of the nasal complex.


Asunto(s)
Puntos Anatómicos de Referencia , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Nariz/diagnóstico por imagen , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Antropología Forense , Humanos , Imagen Tridimensional , Nariz/anatomía & histología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sudáfrica
9.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(12): 1728-1736, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793481

RESUMEN

Background: Adult hip reconstruction following trauma and hip pathologies depends on a sound knowledge of the proximal femoral geometry (PFG), which varies from one ethnic population to another. Aim: The aim of the study, therefore, was to evaluate parameters of the proximal femoral geometry in Igbos of South Eastern Nigeria. Methodology: A 5-year review of normal X-rays of the pelvis showing both hips of patients' age 18-64 between 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2016 at Radiology Department of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu was done. Results: There were 554 patients, 273 (49.3%) males and 281 (50.7%) females. The values of the head width established in this study showed there was a mean difference between the right and left proximal femurs, which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There was statistical significant difference (P < 0.05) between the means of the parameters of the proximal femoral geometry when compared between gender, the only exception being the left medial cortical thicknes, which did not show any difference (P > 0.05). A comparison of means of PFG parameters of the Igbos and that of the Turkish population showed that there was statistically significant difference on both sides. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that there was no difference in the means of both sides of femoral neck width and the intertrochanteric width of the left side. The correlations between PFG parameters showed that there was strong positive correlation that was significant apart from the right acetabular angle that did not correlate with other parameters.


Asunto(s)
Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Cadera , Tibia/anatomía & histología , Acetábulo/cirugía , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Femenino , Fémur/cirugía , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria , Tibia/cirugía
10.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3226, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826167

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the factors associated to the inconsistent condom use among sex workers. METHOD: a transversal study, carried out in prostitution area, using the Respondent Drive Sampling. The sample was calculated based on the information by the Sex Workers Association: 600 female sex workers. The study selected seven women with different characteristics regarding color, age, and place of work, who were called seeds. After the participation, they received three coupons to recruit other participants in order to obtain a representative sample. The definition of inconsistent condom use was determined as occasional use or never using it. Univariate analyses and a multivariate logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: 416 female sex workers participated in the study. The associated factors were having studied for less than eight years (Odds Ratio = 27.28), not having a permanent partner (Odds Ratio = 2.79), high alcohol use (Odds Ratio = 5.07), and being black (Odds Ratio = 2.21). CONCLUSION: the factors associated to inconsistent condom use were: lower education levels, not having a permanent partner, high alcohol use, and being black.


Asunto(s)
Condones/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Trabajo Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Trabajadores Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Trabajo Sexual/etnología , Conducta Sexual , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
12.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4)out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047501

RESUMEN

Discutindo sob o viés interseccional, o artigo busca expor a problemática da invisibilidade midiática das mulheres negras youtubers dentro do contexto da cultura participativa. Identificamos e observamos canais de mulheres youtubers a partir do recorte das temáticas do feminismo e empoderamento feminino, e realizamos um estudo descritivo com abordagem quanti-qualitativa, analisando as aproximações e distanciamentos dos canais a partir das categorias de alcance, interação e temática. Conclui-se que as youtubers negras interagem de forma mais significativa do que as youtubers não negras, o que não interfere no alcance dos canais, visto que as youtubers negras possuem dados de alcance inferior às youtubers não negras. Observamos que mesmo podendo atingir todas as mulheres, as falas das youtubers negras podem ser entendidas com enfoque na questão racial, enquanto isso, identificamos um discurso universal do 'ser mulher' nas falas das youtubers não negras, fator que pode contribuir para o alcance expressivo.


Discussing under the intersectional bias, the article seeks to expose the problem of media invisibility of black women youtubers within the context of participatory culture. We identified and observed channels of female youtubers from the cut of the themes of feminism and female empowerment, and we conducted a descriptive study with quantitative and qualitative approach, analyzing the approximations and distances of the channels from the reach, interaction and thematic categories. It is concluded that black youtubers interact more significantly than non-black youtubers, which does not interfere with the range of the channels, as black youtubers have lower range data than non-black youtubers. We note that even though it can reach all women, the black youtubers' speeches can be understood with focus on the racial issue, meanwhile, we identified a universal discourse of 'being a woman' in the non-black youtubers speeches, a factor that can contribute to the expressive reach.


Discutiendo bajo el sesgo interseccional, el artículo busca exponer el problema de la invisibilidad mediática de las youtubers negras en el contexto de la cultura participativa. Identificamos y observamos canales de youtubers mujeres a partir del corte de los temas del feminismo y el empoderamiento femenino, y realizamos un estudio descriptivo con enfoque cuantitativo y cualitativo, analizando las aproximaciones y distancias de los canales desde el alcance, la interacción y las categorías temáticas. Se concluye que las youtubers negras interactúan de manera más significativa que las youtubers no negras, lo que no interfiere con el rango de los canales, ya que las youtubers negras tienen datos de rango más bajos que las youtubers no negras. Observamos que, aunque puede llegar a todas las mujeres, los discursos de las youtubers negras se pueden entender con un enfoque en el tema racial, mientras que identificamos un discurso universal de 'ser mujer' en los discursos de las youtubers no negras, un factor que puede contribuir al alcance expresivo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Poder (Psicología) , Feminismo , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Mujeres , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Difusión por la Web , Medios Audiovisuales , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Racismo
13.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 754-767, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047537

RESUMEN

Este artigo objetiva analisar o fomento do debate público promovido pela cobertura jornalística on-line sobre a questão do suicídio de adolescentes e jovens negros no Brasil. Para isso, foram selecionadas três reportagens de três veículos de comunicação: G1 ­ Ciência e Saúde (ligado às Organizações Globo), Nexo (jornal digital independente) e o Alma Preta (agência de jornalismo especializada na temática étnica do Brasil). Com o uso de teorias sobre prática jornalística, opinião pública e silêncio, além do emprego da hermenêutica de profundidade, este estudo concluiu que a mídia não promove integralmente o debate público sobre a questão. O G1 ­ Ciência e Saúde reproduziu o discurso da mídia hegemônica, não dando voz para os negros; o Nexo foi o jornal que tratou o tema de forma mais completa, com uso de dados e fontes, sendo negra uma delas; e o Alma Preta foi o que menos abriu espaço para identificação do público negro, com a ausência de fontes e falta de representação.


This article aims to analyze the public debate at online journalistic coverage on the issue of suicide among black teenagers and young people in Brazil. For this, three news from three media were selected: G1 Ciência e Saúde (linked to Globo Organizations), Nexo (independent digital newspaper) and Alma Preta (journalism agency specializing in ethnic issues in Brazil). Using theories of journalistic practice, public opinion and silence, as well as the use of deep hermeneutics, this study concluded that the media does not fully promote public debate on the issue. G1 ­ Ciência e Saúde reproduced the hegemonic media discourse, giving no voice to blacks; Nexo was the newspaper that dealt with the theme most completely, using data and sources, one of them being black; and Alma Preta was the least open to the identification of the black public, with the absence of sources and lack of representation.


Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar el debate público a través de la cobertura periodística online sobre el tema del suicidio entre adolescentes y jóvenes negros en Brasil. Para esto se seleccionaron tres medios: G1 ­ Ciência e Saúde (vinculado a Organizaciones Globo), Nexo (periódico digital independiente) y Alma Preta (agencia de periodismo especializada em temas étnicos en Brasil). Utilizando teorías de práctica periodística, opinión pública y silencio, así como el uso de una hermenéutica profunda, este estudio concluyó que los medios no promueven completamente el debate público sobre el tema. G1 ­ Ciência e Saúde reprodujo el discurso de los medios hegemónicos, sin dar voz a los negros; Nexo fue el periódico que trató el tema más completamente, utilizando datos y fuentes; y Alma Preta fue la menos abierta a la identificación del público negro, con la ausencia de fuentes y la falta de representación.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Suicidio/prevención & control , Adolescente , Periodismo , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Salud de las Minorías Étnicas , Política de Salud , Opinión Pública , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil , Medios de Comunicación , Muerte , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Prevención de Enfermedades , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Racismo , Hermenéutica
14.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 876-886, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047660

RESUMEN

"Eu sou um pessimista ativo, porque tenho fé". Assim Muniz Sodré se declara ao conceder à Reciis uma entrevista que trata sobre a questão de raça/etnicidades em articulação com os estudos da comunicação. O professor e pesquisador argumenta que a escravidão está enraizada na forma social brasileira, pois a abolição jurídico-política não foi suficiente para abolir os espíritos escravocratas. Mas que é preciso ter fé nas movimentações e contramovimentações sensíveis do corpo do outro, negro, o qual mobiliza as barreiras de imunidade racistas. Sodré entende que a expressão lugar de fala é uma reivindicação efêmera, pois acredita na virtude do corpo como um espaço de diálogo com outros lugares. Em relação aos estudos de comunicação e raça, argumenta que as pesquisas se restringem ainda às descrições das tecnologias da mídia, assim como as pesquisas de maneira geral, mas que esses estudos "têm um papel político forte: eles fazem emergir essa classe intelectual negra que estava submersa". Muniz Sodré é professor emérito da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Habla , Grupos Étnicos , Comunicación , Cultura , Racismo , Prejuicio , Ciencias Sociales , Violencia , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Homicidio , Relaciones Interpersonales
15.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 896-910, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047674

RESUMEN

A Política de Saúde Integral da População Negra reiterou a urgência de qualificação dos processos educativos no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) em prol da superação do racismo institucional. A revisão integrativa, apresentada neste artigo, analisou as concepções teóricas e as práticas educativas em estudos dirigidos à saúde da população negra. Foram utilizadas as bases de dados da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS); a Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO); a ferramenta de pesquisa na web Google Scholar e o acervo darevista da Associação Brasileira de Pesquisadores/as Negros/as, a Revista da ABPN. A produção na temática é heterogênea, dispersa entre periódicos das áreas da educação, educação em saúde e interdisciplinar. Há vanguardismo da enfermagem e forte presença de estudos com povos e comunidades tradicionais. Nota-se dificuldade de interpenetração de referenciais teóricos e pedagógicos do campo da educação na sustentação das práticas educativas de saúde. Sugerem-se a cooperação e a integração científica entre esses campos visando ao protagonismo do sujeito negro nos processos de cuidado.


The Política de Saúde Integral da População Negra (Integral Health Policy of the Black Population) reiterated the urgency of qualifying educational processes in the Unified Health System (SUS ­ Sistema Único de Saúde) in order to overcome institutional racism. The integrative review presented in this article analyzed the theoretical conceptions and the educational practices in studies directed to the health of the black population. The databases of the Virtual Health Library (VHL); the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO); the web search engine Google Scholar and the collection of the Revista da ABPN that is the magazine of the Associação Brasileira de Pesquisadores/as Negros/as (Brazilian Association of Black Researchers) were examined. The production in this thematic is heterogeneous, dispersed in periodicals of the areas of education, health education and interdisciplinary. When the matter is the health of black population, the nursing is an avantgarde profession carrying out a number of studies with traditional peoples and communities. It was noted the difficulty of interpenetration of theoretical and pedagogical references of the field of education in support of educational health practices. We suggest the cooperation and the scientific integration between these fields aiming at the protagonism of the black population in the process of care.


La Política de Saúde Integral da População Negra (Política de Salud Integral de la Población Negra) reiteró la urgencia de calificación de los procesos educativos en el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS ­ Sistema Único de Saúde) en pro de la superación del racismo institucional. La revisión integrativa, presentada en este artículo, analizó las concepciones teóricas y las prácticas educativas en estudios dirigidos a la salud de la población negra. Se utilizaron las bases de datos de la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud (BVS); la Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO); el motor de búsqueda web Google Scholar y el acervo de la Revista da ABPN, la cual es la revista de la Associação Brasileira de Pesquisadores/as Negros/as (Asociación Brasileña de Investigadores/ as Negros/as. La producción en la temática es heterogénea, dispersa entre periódicos del área de la educación, educación en salud y interdisciplinaria. La enfermería se destaca en la literatura acerca de la salud de la población negra en la cual hay fuerte presencia de estudios con pueblos y comunidades tradicionales. Se observa dificultad de interpenetración de referenciales teóricos y pedagógicos del campo de la educación en la sustentación de las prácticas educativas de salud. Proponemos la cooperación y la integración científica entre esos campos visando el protagonismo del sujeto negro en los procesos de cuidado.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Educación en Salud , Equidad en Salud , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Racismo , Salud de las Minorías Étnicas , Factores Socioeconómicos , Revisión , Equidad en el Acceso a los Servicios de Salud , Vulnerabilidad Social , Actividades Científicas y Tecnológicas , Estudios Interdisciplinarios , Comunicación en Salud
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1185: 257-261, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884621

RESUMEN

There is a glaring disparity in the populations included in genetic research; the majority of work involves European-derived cohorts, while other global populations - including Africans - are underrepresented. This is also true for the study of inherited retinal diseases. Being the most ancient of extant populations, African samples carry more variation than others, making them valuable for novel gene and variant discovery. The inclusion of diverse populations in research is essential to gain a more comprehensive understanding of genetic variation and molecular mechanisms of disease.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Enfermedades de la Retina/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Análisis Mutacional de ADN , Genética de Población , Humanos , Enfermedades de la Retina/etnología , Sudáfrica
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859843

RESUMEN

During the Brazilian slavery period, many African migrants were brought to the American continent. Historically, some of these migrants escaped from the Brazilian gold mines and farms to which they had been brought and settled in remote valleys and this was the main mode of resistance to the slavery system. These runaway-slave descendant communities are called quilombos, a group with distinct ethnic identity, specific behavioral habits, including geographic isolation and conservative practices. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of rodent-borne viruses in two Afro-descendent communities from Mato Grosso do Sul State, Midwestern Brazil. A total of 319 individuals from rural and urban quilombola communities were enrolled. Twelve (3.76%) had anti-rodent-borne virus IgG antibodies. Seven (2.19%) were anti-mammarenavirus reactive and nine (2.82%) had anti-orthohantavirus antibodies. The literature includes limited data on the health status of quilombola communities, but all the studies emphasize the disparity of attention of local healthcare personnel to these communities compared to the general population. The findings of this study highlight the vulnerability and the precarious health conditions of quilombola groups, especially those living in rural areas and thus, point to the need of preventive measures to improve access to healthcare for this ethnic group.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Infecciones por Arenaviridae/epidemiología , Arenaviridae/inmunología , Infecciones por Hantavirus/epidemiología , Hantavirus/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Infecciones por Arenaviridae/diagnóstico , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Infecciones por Hantavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Roedores/virología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
18.
S Afr Med J ; 109(12): 941-946, 2019 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865956

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hair relaxers are used by up to 70% of females of black African ancestry. Occupational safety regulations list a pH ≥10.5 as irritant and a pH ≥11.50 as corrosive to the skin. OBJECTIVES: To determine the pH of all relaxers sold on the South African market and whether it is lower in no-lye relaxers and those marketed for children. METHODS: Relaxers were purchased from retailers in Cape Town, but more than half (54%) of the 39 brands tested were international. The pH was determined using a benchtop pH meter with an electrode for emulsions. Three pH readings were done over 3 consecutive days for each sample, and the average was used for data analysis. Differences between relaxers were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) and two-sample t-tests (p<0.05). RESULTS: The median pH of all relaxers (calcium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide) was 12.36 (interquartile range 12.10 - 12.62). The active ingredient was sodium hydroxide (lye or caustic soda) in 63% of the total of 121 relaxers (6/76 (7.9%) of these marketed for children). Lithium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide (no-lye) relaxers comprised 17% and 20%, respectively. No difference in pH was found between relaxers marketed for adults and those for children (sodium hydroxide p=0.2703, lithium hydroxide p=0.6787 and calcium hydroxide p=0.1048) or between lye (sodium hydroxide) and no-lye (calcium hydroxide) relaxers (p=0.2740). Furthermore, 64/70 (91%) of sodium hydroxide relaxers for adults and 4/6 (67%) of those for children were sold packaged without a neutralising shampoo. CONCLUSIONS: The pH of all the relaxers tested was at levels deemed corrosive to the skin and may contribute to the high prevalence of alopecia in females with afro-textured hair. A review of permissible safe pH levels for cosmetic use is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Cáusticos/análisis , Preparaciones para el Cabello/química , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Lejía/análisis , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Niño , Preparaciones para el Cabello/efectos adversos , Humanos , Embalaje de Productos , Sudáfrica
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 288, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692845

RESUMEN

Hereditary spherocytosis is a rare cause of chronic haemolytic anaemia. It is rarer in the black population with extremely few cases reported. Initial assessment of a patient with suspected disease should include documenting clinical features of chronic haemolysis and a family history. Its management in pregnancy is challenging and needs a multidisciplinary team. We report on a black South African woman with hereditary spherocytosis and massive splenomegaly presenting with severe haemolytic anaemia at 23rd week of pregnancy. She had a successful splenectomy.


Asunto(s)
Anemia Hemolítica/etiología , Esferocitosis Hereditaria/diagnóstico , Esplenectomía/métodos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Complicaciones Hematológicas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Complicaciones Hematológicas del Embarazo/cirugía , Sudáfrica , Esferocitosis Hereditaria/complicaciones , Esferocitosis Hereditaria/cirugía , Esplenomegalia/etiología , Esplenomegalia/cirugía , Adulto Joven
20.
Dermatol Surg ; 45(12): 1635-1648, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702594

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic variations in skin structure and function may contribute to differential manifestations of facial aging in various races/ethnicities. OBJECTIVE: To examine self-assessed differences in facial aging in women by race/ethnicity and Fitzpatrick skin phototypes. METHODS: Women aged 18 to 75 years in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia compared their features against photonumeric rating scales depicting degrees of severity for 10 facial aging characteristics. Impact of race/ethnicity (black, Hispanic, Asian, and Caucasian) and skin phototypes on severity was assessed. RESULTS: In total, 3,267 women completed the study. Black women reported the least severe facial aging; Caucasian women reported the most severe facial aging, with Asian and Hispanic women falling between these groups. Similarly, women with a skin phototype V/VI reported lesser aging severity than women with phototypes I through IV. More than 30% of black women did not report the presence of moderate/severe aging of facial areas until 60 to 79 years; most Hispanics and Asians did not report moderate/severe facial aging until 50 to 69 years and Caucasians, 40 to 59 years. CONCLUSION: In this diverse sample, black women reported less severe aging of facial features compared with Hispanic, Asian, and Caucasian women. These results were supported by Fitzpatrick skin phototype analyses.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Autoevaluación , Envejecimiento de la Piel , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Envejecimiento/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , Australia , Canadá , Estudios Transversales , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Cara , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
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