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1.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233808, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673320

RESUMEN

Similarly to other populations across the Americas, Argentinean populations trace back their genetic ancestry into African, European and Native American ancestors, reflecting a complex demographic history with multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. However, little is known about the sub-continental origins of these three main ancestries. We present new high-throughput genotyping data for 87 admixed individuals across Argentina. This data was combined to previously published data for admixed individuals in the region and then compared to different reference panels specifically built to perform population structure analyses at a sub-continental level. Concerning the Native American ancestry, we could identify four Native American components segregating in modern Argentinean populations. Three of them are also found in modern South American populations and are specifically represented in Central Andes, Central Chile/Patagonia, and Subtropical and Tropical Forests geographic areas. The fourth component might be specific to the Central Western region of Argentina, and it is not well represented in any genomic data from the literature. As for the European and African ancestries, we confirmed previous results about origins from Southern Europe, Western and Central Western Africa, and we provide evidences for the presence of Northern European and Eastern African ancestries.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Genoma Humano , Indios Sudamericanos/genética , Matrimonio , Linaje , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/etnología , Argentina , Colonialismo , ADN/genética , Esclavización , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Marcadores Genéticos , Variación Genética , Genética de Población , Genotipo , Migración Humana , Humanos , Indios Sudamericanos/etnología , Modelos Genéticos
2.
Stroke ; 51(8): 2428-2434, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673520

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke incidence and mortality are declining rapidly in developed countries. Little data on ethnic-specific stroke recurrence trends exist. Fourteen-year stroke recurrence trend estimates were evaluated in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites in a population-based study. METHODS: Recurrent stroke was ascertained prospectively in the population-based BASIC (Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi) project in Texas, between 2000 and 2013. Incident cases were followed forward to determine 1- and 2-year recurrence. Fine & Gray subdistribution hazard models were used to estimate adjusted trends in the absolute recurrence risk and ethnic differences in the secular trends. The ethnic difference in the secular trend was examined using an interaction term between index year and ethnicity in the models adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, atrial fibrillation, insurance, and cholesterol and relevant interaction terms. RESULTS: From January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2013 (N=3571), the cumulative incidence of 1-year recurrence in Mexican Americans decreased from 9.26% (95% CI, 6.9%-12.43%) in 2000 to 3.42% (95% CI, 2.25%-5.21%) in 2013. Among non-Hispanic whites, the cumulative incidence of 1-year recurrence in non-Hispanic whites decreased from 5.67% (95% CI, 3.74%-8.62%) in 2000 to 3.59% (95% CI, 2.27%-5.68%) in 2013. The significant ethnic disparity in stroke recurrence existed in 2000 (risk difference, 3.59% [95% CI, 0.94%-6.22%]) but was no longer seen by 2013 (risk difference, -0.17% [95% CI, -1.96% to 1.5%]). The competing 1-year mortality risk was stable over time among Mexican Americans, while for non-Hispanic whites it was decreasing over time (difference between 2000 and 2013: -4.67% [95% CI, -8.72% to -0.75%]). CONCLUSIONS: Mexican Americans had significant reductions in stroke recurrence despite a stable death rate, a promising indicator. The ethnic disparity in stroke recurrence present early in the study was gone by 2013.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica/etnología , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidad , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Americanos Mexicanos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etnología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/mortalidad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Estudios Prospectivos , Recurrencia , Accidente Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico , Texas/etnología
3.
Stroke ; 51(8): 2445-2453, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673521

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Social determinants of health (SDOH) have been previously associated with incident stroke. Although SDOH often cluster within individuals, few studies have examined associations between incident stroke and multiple SDOH within the same individual. The objective was to determine the individual and cumulative effects of SDOH on incident stroke. METHODS: This study included 27 813 participants from the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) Study, a national, representative, prospective cohort of black and white adults aged ≥45 years. SDOH was the primary exposure. The main outcome was expert adjudicated incident stroke. Cox proportional hazards models examined associations between incident stroke and SDOH, individually and as a count of SDOH, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: The mean age was 64.7 years (SD 9.4) at baseline; 55.4% were women and 40.4% were blacks. Over a median follow-up of 9.5 years (IQR, 6.0-11.5), we observed 1470 incident stroke events. Of 10 candidate SDOH, 7 were associated with stroke (P<0.10): race, education, income, zip code poverty, health insurance, social isolation, and residence in one of the 10 lowest ranked states for public health infrastructure. A significant age interaction resulted in stratification at 75 years. In fully adjusted models, among individuals <75 years, risk of stroke rose as the number of SDOH increased (hazard ratio for one SDOH, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.02-1.55]; 2 SDOH hazard ratio, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.12-1.71]; and ≥3 SDOH hazard ratio, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.21-1.89]) compared with those without any SDOH. Among those ≥75 years, none of the observed effects reached statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Incremental increases in the number of SDOH were independently associated with higher incident stroke risk in adults aged <75 years, with no statistically significant effects observed in individuals ≥75 years. Targeting individuals with multiple SDOH may help reduce risk of stroke among vulnerable populations.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/etnología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etnología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza/economía , Pobreza/etnología , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme/normas , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/economía , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/tendencias , Factores Socioeconómicos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/economía
4.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(2): 180-189, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359047

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Low parental involvement and monitoring are risk factors for adolescent cigarette use. Assessments of parental involvement and monitoring by youth and parents may capture an additional source of risk: differences in perceptions of these parenting behaviors. This study tested for unique contributions of youth-reported parental involvement and monitoring and youth-parent discrepancies in reporting to first cigarette use in girls. METHOD: Data were drawn from interviews at ages 8-17 with 1,869 girls (57.3% Black, 42.7% White) and their primary caregivers (94% mothers) in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted to predict first cigarette use as a function of girls' reports of parental involvement and monitoring, magnitude and direction of youth-parent reporting discrepancies, and the interaction between them, adjusting for neighborhood, socioeconomic, and individual level factors. RESULTS: High magnitude of discrepancy in parental involvement reports (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.03, 1.26]) and lower perceived parental involvement by girls (HR = 1.14, CI [1.03, 1.27]) were associated with an elevated risk for first cigarette use. Girls' reports of low parental monitoring also predicted first cigarette use (HR = 1.14, CI [1.06, 1.21]). CONCLUSIONS: Girls whose parents have limited awareness of their whereabouts and friends (i.e., low monitoring) are at an elevated risk for trying cigarettes, but parent-daughter differences in perceived awareness do not affect risk. By contrast, girls who perceive a lower degree of parental involvement than their parents do are at increased risk. Monitoring is one component of parenting that may reduce smoking risk; shared perspectives on the parent's level of involvement are similarly important.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/psicología , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/psicología , Población Urbana , Adolescente , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/etnología , Niño , Fumar Cigarrillos/etnología , Fumar Cigarrillos/tendencias , Estudios de Cohortes , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Relaciones Padres-Hijo/etnología , Responsabilidad Parental/etnología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Características de la Residencia , Factores de Riesgo , Población Urbana/tendencias
5.
Cancer Res ; 80(9): 1893-1901, 2020 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245796

RESUMEN

Women of Latin American origin in the United States are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer and have a higher risk of mortality than non-Hispanic White women. Studies in U.S. Latinas and Latin American women have reported a high incidence of HER2 positive (+) tumors; however, the factors contributing to this observation are unknown. Genome-wide genotype data for 1,312 patients from the Peruvian Genetics and Genomics of Breast Cancer Study (PEGEN-BC) were used to estimate genetic ancestry. We tested the association between HER2 status and genetic ancestry using logistic and multinomial logistic regression models. Findings were replicated in 616 samples from Mexico and Colombia. Average Indigenous American (IA) ancestry differed by subtype. In multivariate models, the odds of having an HER2+ tumor increased by a factor of 1.20 with every 10% increase in IA ancestry proportion (95% CI, 1.07-1.35; P = 0.001). The association between HER2 status and IA ancestry was independently replicated in samples from Mexico and Colombia. Results suggest that the high prevalence of HER2+ tumors in Latinas could be due in part to the presence of population-specific genetic variant(s) affecting HER2 expression in breast cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: The positive association between Indigenous American genetic ancestry and HER2+ breast cancer suggests that the high incidence of HER2+ subtypes in Latinas might be due to population and subtype-specific genetic risk variants.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/química , Neoplasias de la Mama/etnología , Hispanoamericanos/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/análisis , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Colombia/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Indios Norteamericanos , Indios Sudamericanos , América Latina/etnología , Modelos Lineales , Modelos Logísticos , México/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/etnología , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores Estrogénicos/sangre , Receptores de Progesterona/sangre , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
6.
Stroke ; 51(4): 1135-1141, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126942

RESUMEN

Background and Purpose- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have a well-established association with bleeding complications and conflicting reports on outcome after stroke. We sought to evaluate whether pre-intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) SSRI use increased ICH risk and post-ICH SSRI use improved ICH outcome. Methods- Through post hoc analysis of the ERICH study (Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage), SSRI use was categorized into no use, pre-ICH only, pre- and post-ICH use (termed "continuous"), and post-ICH only (termed "new"). Using multivariable modeling, associations were sought between pre-ICH SSRI use and ICH risk in the case-control set, and associations between post-ICH SSRI use and 3-month outcome were analyzed in the ICH case set. Exploratory analyses sought to assess influence of race/ethnicity in models. Results- The final study cohort consisted of 2287 ICH cases and 2895 controls. Pre-ICH SSRI use was not associated with ICH risk (odds ratio, 0.824 [95% CI, 0.632-1.074]) nor potentiation of ICH risk with anticoagulant or antiplatelet use. New post-ICH SSRI use was associated with unfavorable modified Rankin Scale score at 3 months after ICH (odds ratio, 1.673 [95% CI, 1.162-2.408]; P=0.006) in multivariable analyses. Additional propensity score analysis indicated a similar trend but did not reach statistical significance (P=0.107). When stratified by race/ethnicity, multivariable modeling demonstrated reduced ICH risk with pre-ICH SSRI use in Hispanics (odds ratio, 0.513 [95% CI, 0.301-0.875]; P=0.014), but not non-Hispanic whites or blacks, and no associations between post-ICH SSRI use and 3-month outcome in any racial/ethnic group. Conclusions- In a large multiethnic cohort, pre-ICH SSRI use was not associated with increased ICH risk, but post-ICH SSRI use was associated with unfavorable 3-month neurological outcome after ICH. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01202864.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/etnología , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Cerebral/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Hispanoamericanos , Inhibidores de la Captación de Serotonina/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Hemorragia Cerebral/inducido químicamente , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Inhibidores de la Captación de Serotonina/efectos adversos , Resultado del Tratamiento
7.
Stroke ; 51(4): 1064-1069, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078475

RESUMEN

Background and Purpose- An excess incidence of strokes among blacks versus whites has been shown, but data on disparities related to Hispanic ethnicity remain limited. This study examines race/ethnic differences in stroke incidence in the multiethnic, largely Caribbean Hispanic, NOMAS (Northern Manhattan Study), and whether disparities vary by age. Methods- The study population included participants in the prospective population-based NOMAS, followed for a mean of 14±7 years. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to estimate the association between race/ethnicity and incident stroke of any subtype and ischemic stroke, stratified by age. Results- Among 3298 participants (mean baseline age 69±10 years, 37% men, 24% black, 21% white, 52% Hispanic), 460 incident strokes accrued (400 ischemic, 43 intracerebral hemorrhage, 9 subarachnoid hemorrhage). The most common ischemic subtype was cardioembolic, followed by lacunar infarcts, then cryptogenic. The greatest incidence rate was observed in blacks (13/1000 person-years), followed by Hispanics (10/1000 person-years), and lowest in whites (9/1000 person-years), and this order was observed for crude incidence rates until age 75. By age 85, the greatest incidence rate was in Hispanics. Blacks had an increased risk of stroke versus whites overall in multivariable models that included sociodemographics (hazard ratio, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.13-2.02]), and stratified analyses showed that this disparity was driven by women of age ≥70. The increased rate of stroke among Hispanics (age/sex-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.13-1.93]) was largely explained by education and insurance status (a proxy for socieoeconomic status; hazard ratio after further adjusting for these variables, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.85-1.62]) but remained significant for women age ≥70. Conclusions- This study provides novel data regarding the increased stroke risk among Caribbean Hispanics in this elderly population. Results highlight the need to create culturally tailored campaigns to reach black and Hispanic populations to reduce race/ethnic stroke disparities and support the important role of low socioeconomic status in driving an elevated risk among Caribbean Hispanics.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/etnología , Isquemia Encefálica/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Hispanoamericanos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etnología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/economía , Estudios de Cohortes , Grupos de Población Continentales/etnología , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/economía , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ciudad de Nueva York/etnología , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Clase Social , Accidente Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico , Accidente Cerebrovascular/economía
9.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 72(2): 225-232, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507071

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Lupus low disease activity state (LLDAS) is a potential treat-to-target goal in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study determined predictors of time to reach LLDAS in a longitudinal cohort. METHODS: Patients were grouped according to LLDAS status at cohort entry. Those who did not satisfy LLDAS at cohort entry were analyzed prospectively. The Kaplan-Meier approach was used to estimate the time to LLDAS. Cox regression was used to identify patient characteristics that were associated with time to LLDAS. RESULTS: The probability of LLDAS attainment within 1 year was 52% for Caucasians, 36% for African Americans, and 33% for SLE patients with renal involvement. The median time to LLDAS was 1.1 years. In multivariable models, African American ethnicity, baseline prednisone >10 mg daily, hypocomplementemia, baseline damage, and baseline renal activity remained significant predictors of longer time to attain LLDAS, while disease duration <1 year and cutaneous activity were associated with earlier attainment. CONCLUSION: LLDAS is potentially attainable in the majority of SLE patients. The time to LLDAS was found to be longer in African American patients with SLE. Characteristics of African American patients with SLE, such as renal activity and hypocomplementemia, were also independent predictors of slower attainment of LLDAS. These findings point to the need to include African American patients with SLE in both clinical and pharmaceutical research.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/etnología , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/diagnóstico , Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico/etnología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Tiempo
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 515-525, 2020 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879755

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Race differences in body composition and fat distribution may in part explain the differences in insulin sensitivity and the disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes in African Americans. OBJECTIVE: To determine if differences in body composition and fat distribution explain race differences in insulin sensitivity and identify obesity measures that were independently associated with insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Participants were 113 lean, overweight, and obese African-American and Caucasian-American adults without diabetes. Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was determined using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (SIClamp, insulin rate:120 mU/m2/min). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), and liver fat were measured by MRI; leg fat, total fat, and lean mass were measured by DXA. RESULTS: Race-by-adiposity interactions were significant in cross-sectional analyses utilizing multiple linear regression models for SIClamp (P < 0.05); higher BMI, fat mass, SAAT, leg fat, and liver fat were associated with lower SIClamp in Caucasian Americans but not African Americans. Race-by-IAAT interaction was not significant (P = 0.65). A central fat distribution (SAAT adjusted for leg fat) was associated with lower SIClamp in African Americans (ß = -0.45, SE = 0.11, P < 0.001) but not Caucasian Americans (ß = -0.42, SE = 0.30, P = 0.17). A peripheral fat distribution (leg fat adjusted for IAAT/SAAT) was associated with a higher SIClamp in African Americans (ß = 0.11, SE = 0.05, P = 0.02) but lower SIClamp in Caucasian Americans (ß = -0.28, SE = 0.14, P = 0.049). Lean mass was inversely associated with SIClamp in African Americans (ß = -0.05, SE = 0.03, P = 0.04) but not Caucasian Americans (ß = 0.08, SE = 0.05, P = 0.10) in the model for leg fat. CONCLUSIONS: Measures of overall adiposity were more strongly associated with SIClamp in Caucasian Americans, whereas body fat distribution and lean mass showed stronger correlations with SIClamp in African Americans. Insulin sensitivity may have a genetic basis in African Americans that is reflected in the pattern of body fat distribution. These findings suggest a race-specific pathophysiology of insulin resistance, which has implications for the prevention of diabetes and related cardiometabolic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Resistencia a la Insulina , Obesidad/etnología , Adiposidad , Adulto , Afroamericanos/etnología , Composición Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Grasa Intraabdominal/metabolismo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/genética , Obesidad/metabolismo , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
11.
Dev Psychol ; 55(11): 2440-2450, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535895

RESUMEN

This study investigated children's and adolescents' predictions of inclusion and evaluations of exclusion in interracial and same-race peer contexts. The sample (N = 246) consisted of African American (n = 115) and European American (n = 131) children and adolescents who judged the likelihood of including a new peer, evaluated the group's decision to exclude the new peer, and provided reasons for their judgments. European American participants, particularly adolescents, viewed same-race inclusion as more likely than interracial inclusion. In contrast, African American participants viewed interracial and same-race inclusion to be just as likely, and evaluated all forms of exclusion to be more wrong than did their European American counterparts. The findings are discussed with respect to peer messages about interracial peer encounters and the conditions that are necessary for prejudice reduction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Procesos de Grupo , Relaciones Interpersonales , Principios Morales , Grupo Paritario , Racismo , Distancia Social , Percepción Social , Adolescente , Afroamericanos/etnología , Niño , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/etnología
12.
Pediatrics ; 144(3)2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405887

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in care practices over time by race and ethnicity and whether the decrease in hospital mortality and severe morbidities has benefited infants of minority over infants of white mothers. METHODS: Infants 22 to 29 weeks' gestation born between January 2006 and December 2017 at a Vermont Oxford Network center in the United States were studied. We examined mortality and morbidity rate differences and 95% confidence intervals for African American and Hispanic versus white infants by birth year. We tested temporal differences in mortality and morbidity rates between white and African American or Hispanic infants using a likelihood ratio test on nested binomial regression models. RESULTS: Disparities for certain care practices such as antenatal corticosteroids and for some in-hospital outcomes have narrowed over time for minority infants. Compared with white infants, African American infants had a faster decline for mortality, hypothermia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis, whereas Hispanic infants had a faster decline for mortality, respiratory distress syndrome, and pneumothorax. Other morbidities showed a constant rate difference between African American and Hispanic versus white infants over time. Despite the improvements, outcomes including hypothermia, mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, and severe intraventricular hemorrhage remained elevated by the end of the study period, especially among African American infants. CONCLUSIONS: Racial and ethnic disparities in vital care practices and certain outcomes have decreased. That the quality deficit among minority infants occurred for several care practice measures and potentially modifiable outcomes suggests a critical role for quality improvement initiatives tailored for minority-serving hospitals.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad Infantil/etnología , Recien Nacido Extremadamente Prematuro , Morbilidad , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Femenino , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Lactante , Mortalidad Infantil/tendencias , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal/tendencias , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología , Puerto Rico/epidemiología , Factores Raciales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
Hum Immunol ; 80(10): 807-822, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345698

RESUMEN

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are extremely polymorphic and are useful molecular markers to make inferences about human population history. However, the accuracy of the estimation of genetic diversity at HLA loci very much depends on the technology used to characterize HLA alleles; high-resolution genotyping of long-range HLA gene products improves the assessment of HLA population diversity as well as other population parameters compared to lower resolution typing methods. In this study we examined allelic and haplotype HLA diversity in a large healthy European American population sourced from the UCSF-DNA bank. A high-resolution next-generation sequencing method was applied to define non-ambiguous 3- and 4-field alleles at the HLA-A, HLA-C, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DRB3/4/5, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DPA1, and HLA-DPB1 loci in samples provided by 2248 unrelated individuals. A number of population parameters were examined including balancing selection and various measurements of linkage disequilibrium were calculated. There were no detectable deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions at HLA-A, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1. For the remaining loci moderate and significant deviations were detected at HLA-C, HLA-B, HLA-DRB3/4/5, HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 loci mostly from population substructures. Unique 4-field associations were observed among alleles at 2 loci and haplotypes extending large intervals that were not apparent in results obtained using testing methodologies with limited sequence coverage and phasing. The high diversity at HLA-DPA1 results from detection of intron variants of otherwise well conserved protein sequences. It may be speculated that divergence in exon sequences may be negatively selected. Our data provides a valuable reference source for future population studies that may allow for precise fine mapping of coding and non-coding sequences determining disease susceptibility and allo-immunogenicity.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Frecuencia de los Genes/genética , Genética de Población/métodos , Antígenos HLA/genética , Haplotipos/genética , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Alelos , Estudios de Cohortes , Europa (Continente)/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Femenino , Sitios Genéticos/genética , Prueba de Histocompatibilidad , Humanos , Desequilibrio de Ligamiento/genética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
14.
Adv Child Dev Behav ; 57: 27-63, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296318

RESUMEN

Researchers in developmental science often examine parenting and child development by ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups, frequently highlighting group differences in parent and infant behaviors. A sole focus on differences, however, obscures notable variability that exists within each community. Moreover, categories such as ethnicity and race are often assumed to encompass shared cultural backgrounds, which risks conflating race, ethnicity, and culture in psychological research. In this chapter, we examine cultural specificity and within-group heterogeneity that characterizes parenting and child development across socio-economic, ethnic, and racial groups. Drawing upon our work on ethnically and socioeconomically diverse parents and infants, we document the between-group differences, within-group variation, and universal processes in the form and content of parent-infant interactions. Most centrally, we highlight the role of family economic, human, and social capital in explaining the variability in parent-infant interactions across racial, ethnic, and cultural groups.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/etnología , Desarrollo Infantil , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Hispanoamericanos , Conducta Materna/etnología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo/etnología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Estados Unidos/etnología
15.
Adv Child Dev Behav ; 57: 281-313, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296319

RESUMEN

Racial and socioeconomic achievement gaps appear in early childhood, persist into adolescence, and undermine long-term well-being. Scholarship typically examines whether family socioeconomic inequality explains racial skills gaps; however, increasing research indicates that the academic returns to socioeconomic status (SES) differ for Black and White children and that the size of Black-White achievement gaps vary by SES, with the largest disparities evident among the highest-SES students. The processes underlying the development of within-SES racial gaps remain unclear, though growing evidence suggests that racial disparities in proximity to (dis)advantage shape family life in critical ways. In particular, Black-White differences in proximity to spatial (dis)advantage may have serious implications for young children's health and well-being. Yet, little research has directly explored how race and family economic status shape children's family and neighborhood contexts. This chapter presents a mixed-methods study that integrated semi-structured interview, neighborhood observation, and neighborhood crime data from a socioeconomically-diverse sample of Black and White families to explore how the interplay between race and family economic status shapes parents' perceptions of neighborhood safety. Findings revealed that race intersects with SES to produce complex patterns of inequality in community life and neighborhood conditions. Although economic disadvantage places limits on all parents, irrespective of race, dangerous conditions and stressors at the neighborhood level tended to be more pronounced and take a more pernicious form among low-income Black parents. Higher income granted parents escape from the most serious threats to their children's well-being, but the returns to increases in SES were not equivalent for middle-income Black and White families, and only among the most affluent families did race differences diminish considerably or disappear altogether.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Afroamericanos/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Padres , Características de la Residencia , Clase Social , Percepción Social , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 170(2): 232-245, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270812

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Ancient DNA (aDNA) and standard osteological analyses applied to 11 skeletons at a late 17th to early 18th century farmstead site in Delaware to investigate the biological and social factors of settlement and slavery in colonial America. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteological analysis and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing were conducted for all individuals and the resulting data contextualized with archaeological and documentary evidence. RESULTS: Individuals of European and African descent were spatially separated in this colonial cemetery. The skeletal remains exhibited differences in osteological features and maternal genetic ancestry. A specific mtDNA haplotype appeared in a subset of the European-descended individuals suggesting they were maternally related. Individuals of African descent were not maternally related, and instead showed a diversity of haplotypes affiliated with present-day Western, Central, and Eastern regions of Africa. DISCUSSION: Along with the bioarchaeological and documentary evidence, the aDNA findings contribute to our understanding of life on the colonial Delaware frontier. Evidence of maternal relatedness among European-descended individuals at the site demonstrates kin-based settlements in 17th century Delaware and provides preliminary identifications of individuals. The maternal genetic diversity of the individuals with African descent aligns with the routes of the trans-Atlantic slave trade but broadens our understanding of the ancestries of persons involved in it. Burial positioning, osteological pathology, and lack of maternal kinship among individuals of African descent provide tangible evidence for the emergence of racialized labor and society in Delaware during the late 17th century.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Colonialismo/historia , Esclavización/historia , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/historia , Arqueología , Cementerios/historia , Preescolar , ADN Antiguo/análisis , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Delaware , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/historia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
17.
Neuropsychology ; 33(8): 1089-1100, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343234

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Although researchers have documented the influence of cultural factors on neuropsychological test performance, few studies have examined the distribution of test scores among neurologically healthy older adults from different ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are group differences in neuropsychological test score distributions with ethnicity-specific norms for non-Hispanic White and Black/African American older adults. METHOD: Participants from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center were selected if they were not diagnosed with dementia within 5 years (Mage = 75.26, SDage = 6.98; Meducation = 15.70, SDeducation = 2.91). Groups were formed based on self-identified ethnicity of White (n = 5,311) or Black/African American (n = 1,098). All participants completed neuropsychological testing, including the Mini Mental State Exam, Logical Memory Immediate and Delayed, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Trail Making Test A & B, Animal Naming, Vegetable Naming, Digit Symbol, and Boston Naming Test. RESULTS: Based on combined ethnicity norms, the scores of Black participants were overrepresented in the below-average and low-average clinical ranges, and the scores of White participants were overrepresented in the high-average and superior clinical ranges for all 11 neuropsychological measures. When group specific norms were used, the unbalanced pattern of score categorization was no longer present for any of the neuropsychological measures. CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the importance of developing and using ethnically and culturally appropriate neuropsychological test norms as well as the risk of interpreting some Black individual's scores as below average when they likely are not. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Afroamericanos/etnología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referencia
18.
Arch Osteoporos ; 14(1): 80, 2019 07 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324992

RESUMEN

Chinese Singaporean middle-aged women have significantly lower femoral neck bone mineral density and higher lumbar spine bone mineral density than Malays and Indians, after adjustment for age, body mass index, and height. PURPOSE: Information regarding mediators of differences in bone mineral density (BMD) among Asian ethnicities are limited. Since the majority of hip fractures are predicted to be from Asia, differences in BMD in Asian ethnicities require further exploration. We compared BMD among the Chinese, Malay, or Indian ethnicities in Singapore, aiming to identify potential mediators for the observed differences. METHODS: BMD of 1201 women aged 45-69 years was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We examined the associations between ethnicity and BMD at both sites, before and after adjusting for potential mediators measured using standardized questionnaires and validated performance tests. RESULTS: Chinese women had significantly lower femoral neck BMD than Malay and Indian women. Of the more than 20 variables examined, age, body mass index, and height accounted for almost all the observed ethnic differences in femoral neck BMD between Chinese and Malays. However, Indian women still retained 0.047 g/cm2 (95% CI, 0.024, 0.071) higher femoral neck BMD after adjustment, suggesting that additional factors may contribute to the increased BMD in Indians. Although no crude ethnic differences in lumbar spine BMD were observed, adjusted regression model unmasked ethnic differences, wherein Chinese women had 0.061(95% CI, - 0.095, 0.026) and 0.065 (95% CI, - 0.091, 0.038) g/cm2 higher lumbar spine BMD compared to Malay and Indian women, respectively. CONCLUSION: BMD in middle-aged Asian women differ by ethnicity and site. Particular attention should be paid to underweight women of Chinese ethnic origin, who may be at highest risk of osteoporosis at the femoral neck and hence hip fractures.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , Densidad Ósea , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Osteoporosis/etnología , Absorciometría de Fotón , Anciano , Asia Sudoriental , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/etnología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios de Cohortes , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Femenino , Cuello Femoral/diagnóstico por imagen , Cuello Femoral/fisiopatología , Fracturas de Cadera/etnología , Humanos , India/etnología , Vértebras Lumbares/diagnóstico por imagen , Vértebras Lumbares/fisiopatología , Malasia/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Singapur/etnología
19.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 72(8): 1272-1277, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175030

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Variable flap loss rates for the platysma myocutaneous flap have been reported for the Caucasian and the Asian population, which are 10.1% and 1.6%, respectively. This study was designed to investigate ethnic differences in the number and location of platysmal perforators that influence flap survival rates. METHODS: The number and location of platysmal perforators were investigated in a total of 60 platysma muscles: bilaterally in 20 Caucasian (13 males and 7 females) and 10 Asian (5 males and 5 females) specimens using cadaveric dissections. Adjustment for inter-individual variability in platysma length and width was performed by standardizing each x-value to mandibular length and each y-value to mandibulo-clavicular distance. RESULTS: A total of 64% of all detected platysmal perforators were found in the medial half of the muscle following the pathway of the external carotid artery. Individuals of Caucasian ethnicity had a mean number of 7.60 ± 2.0 perforators per side, whereas individuals of Asian ethnicity had a mean number of 13.05 ± 1.76 perforators per side (p < 0.001). Individuals of Asian ethnicity had a statistically significant increased number of platysmal perforators in the medial middle (2.95 ± 1.05 vs. 1.60 ± 1.08; p < 0.001) and lower (1.60 ± 1.35 vs. 0.73 ± 0.85; p = 0.003) regions of the platysma compared to those of Caucasian individuals. CONCLUSION: A significantly higher number of platysmal perforators were identified in the investigated Asian population. This provides a potential explanatory model for the reported lower platysma myocutaneous flap loss rates in the Asian population than in the Caucasian population.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Colgajo Miocutáneo/trasplante , Colgajo Perforante/trasplante , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos/métodos , Sistema Músculo-Aponeurótico Superficial/trasplante , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Variación Anatómica , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirugía , Mentón/cirugía , Neoplasias Faciales/cirugía , Femenino , Supervivencia de Injerto , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Sistema Músculo-Aponeurótico Superficial/irrigación sanguínea
20.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 44(3): 445-449, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177245

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While there is evidence of differences in the disease characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) across ethnic and racial groups, there has been limited research on cognitive functioning. OBJECTIVE: To explore potential differences among Caucasian (CA), African-American (AA), and Hispanic (HA) adults from a clinical sample on the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS). METHODS: A total of 245 age- and disease duration-matched individuals (194 CA, 23 AA, and 28 HA) were included in the analyses. Their rates of impairment, using the criterion of two standard deviations (SD) below the normative mean, on the MACFIMS were compared using chi-square analyses with post-hoc pairwise comparisons (Bonferroni adjusted). RESULTS: Compared to CA, AA had higher rates of impairment on measures of complex attention (p < 0.001) and executive functions (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings raise questions of whether the observed differences reflect the more aggressive disease course noted among AA or are due to discrepancies in performance on neuropsychological assessment that is associated with race/ethnicity in the general population. Future directions and implications are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Esclerosis Múltiple/etnología , Esclerosis Múltiple/psicología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Adulto , Afroamericanos/etnología , Afroamericanos/psicología , Atención/fisiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Trastornos del Conocimiento/complicaciones , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esclerosis Múltiple/diagnóstico
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