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1.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109917, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063305

RESUMEN

Use of wild tree species by smallholder farmers for various purposes is crucially important for their daily livelihoods. However, the growing demand for these natural resources could lead to their overexploitation and environmental change. The aims of this ethnobotanical research in the Wechiau Community-based Hippopotamus Sanctuary (WCHS) were to i) document wild tree species, uses and analyze their cultural importance, ii) investigate socio-demographic variables of smallholder farmers influencing their traditional knowledge on wild tree species and uses, and iii) examine smallholder farmers ' perceptions about the establishment of the WCHS. To attain the above-stated aims, 135 smallholder farmers were interviewed in nine villages belonging to the Waala and Birfor ethnic groups. The primary data were subjected to rigorous statistical analysis (using Cognitive Salience index reflecting cultural importance, univariate and use value analysis). Given the results of this study, the WCHS is enriched with 43 ethnoecologically important wild tree species belonging to 22 families and 41 genera. This study showed that eight topmost wild tree species in descending order of cultural importance included Vitellaria paradoxa, Burkea Africana, Diospyrous mespiliformis, Bombax costatum, Parkia biglobosa, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Terminalia avicennioides and Acacia gourmaensis. It is also established in this paper that the family cultural importance for Fabaceae and Sapotaceae is predominantly high as reflected in the frequency and ranking of citations of wild tree species under these families by local informants. The 43 wild tree species cited by local informants were categorized into nine different uses including food (9 species), forage (30), firewood (40), medicine (6), construction (9), soil improvement (3), social use (2), gardening (5) and fiber/ropes (2). Among these use categories, firewood, forage, food and construction topped the list as the most culturally important to the smallholder farmers. It is also revealed that the traditional knowledge on varied wild tree species and their uses was significantly affected by age of smallholder farmers (ps < 0.05), but not ethnicity and other factors. This study thus suggests the need for community-based conservation measures for sustainable management of natural resources for rural livelihood improvement in the tropics and sub-tropics.


Asunto(s)
Artiodáctilos , Árboles , Animales , Grupos Étnicos , Etnobotánica , Ghana , Humanos
2.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés, Español, Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46948

RESUMEN

La Región de las Américas se caracteriza por ser multiétnica y multicultural. En ella coexisten los pueblos indígenas, los afrodescendientes, los romaníes y los miembros de otros grupos étnicos, lo que implica reconocer diversas realidades y necesidades en el ámbito de la salud.


Asunto(s)
Grupos Étnicos , Grupos Minoritarios
3.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 92-96, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915342

RESUMEN

A cross sectional descriptive study was performed on 40 postmortem vermiform appendix (male 24 and female 16) to find out the diameter of lymphoid follicle of vermiform appendix of Bangladeshi people. The specimens were collected from autopsy laboratory of the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh by purposive sampling technique and were divided into four age groups. They were Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 40 years), Group C (41 to 60 years) and Group D (above 60 years). For this purpose, about 3mm long of whole thickness transverse section was taken from the middle of the vermiform appendix and thus the permanent slides were made for microscopic examination. To measure the diameter of the lymphoid follicle two measurements were taken. One was taken at the maximum diameter and another was perpendicular to it by ocular micrometer. Diameter of one largest and one smallest lymphoid follicles were measured and find out the mean diameter of lymphoid follicle between them. Diameter of lymphoid follicle = (Maximum transverse diameter + perpendicular diameter) /2. All data were recorded in the predesigned data sheet, analyzed by SPSS program (version 21, 2012) and compared with the findings of other national and international studies and standard text books. It was observed that diameter of lymphoid follicle of vermiform appendix gradually decreased as age advanced. The mean±SD diameter of lymphoid follicle was 580.31±37.07, 545.58±38.37, 485.68±40.20 and 428.12±68.41µm in Group A, B, C and D respectively. Statistical analysis shows that the mean differences of diameter of lymphoid follicle between A&B, C&D were statistically non significant at p= or >0.05 level, difference between Group B&C was statistically moderately significant at p<0.01 level and differences between Group A&C, B&D, A&D were statistically highly significant at p<0.001 level. Mean diameter of lymphoid follicle of vermiform appendix in male was higher (584.30±12.65µm in Group A, 549.42±38.36µm in Group B, 487.38±39.91µm in Group C, 430.68±70.30µm in Group D) than in female (576.31±53.77µm in Group A, 536.61±45.14µm in Group B, 483.14±46.68µm in Group C, 424.28±75.95µm in Group D) but mean difference between sexes in the different groups was statistically non significant at p=or >0.05 level. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the diameter of lymphoid follicle of vermiform appendix of Bangladeshi people.


Asunto(s)
Apéndice , Autopsia/métodos , Tejido Linfoide , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Apéndice/anatomía & histología , Apéndice/patología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Bangladesh , Cadáver , Estudios Transversales , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Humanos , Tejido Linfoide/anatomía & histología , Tejido Linfoide/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
4.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 169-176, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915354

RESUMEN

This cross sectional analytical type of study was conducted at department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2015 to June 2016 on 50 adult Bangladeshi male sprinters (Group A) and 50 adult Bangladeshi male cricket batsman (Group B). Sample collection was done by convenient purposive sampling technique. History of any injury of hand during playing was excluded to construct standard measurement. Hand breadth was measured with the help of slide calipers. Hand grip strength Dynamometer was used to measure the hand grip strength. Paired Student's 't' test, unpaired student's 't' test and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were done for statistical analysis of the result. The aim of the present study was to determine hand breadth and average hand grip strength of Bangladeshi male cricket batsman to find out correlation between them that may be used as a baseline for other professions as well for future research in our country. The mean right and left hand grip strength was significantly higher in the cricket batsman than in the sprinters. The mean right and left hand breadth was found to be significantly higher in the cricket batsman than in the sprinters. Right and left hand grip strength showed significant positive correlation with hand breadth in both hand. The study findings suggest that regular physical exercise and training increase hand grip strength.


Asunto(s)
Fuerza de la Mano , Mano/anatomía & histología , Adulto , Animales , Antropometría , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Atletas , Bangladesh , Estudios Transversales , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Masculino , Dinamómetro de Fuerza Muscular , Carrera
8.
Hum Genet ; 139(1): 45-59, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630246

RESUMEN

Due to its long genetic evolutionary history, Africans exhibit more genetic variation than any other population in the world. Their genetic diversity further lends itself to subdivisions of Africans into groups of individuals with a genetic similarity of varying degrees of granularity. It remains challenging to detect fine-scale structure in a computationally efficient and meaningful way. In this paper, we present a proof-of-concept of a novel fine-scale population structure detection tool with Western African samples. These samples consist of 1396 individuals from 25 ethnic groups (two groups are African American descendants). The strategy is based on a recently developed tool called IPCAPS. IPCAPS, or Iterative Pruning to CApture Population Structure, is a genetic divisive clustering strategy that enhances iterative pruning PCA, is robust to outliers and does not require a priori computation of haplotypes. Our strategy identified in total 12 groups and 6 groups were revealed as fine-scale structure detected in the samples from Cameroon, Gambia, Mali, Southwest USA, and Barbados. Our finding helped to explain evolutionary processes in the analyzed West African samples and raise awareness for fine-scale structure resolution when conducting genome-wide association and interaction studies.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Variación Genética , Genética de Población , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Haplotipos , Programas Informáticos , África Occidental/etnología , Humanos
9.
World Neurosurg ; 133: e31-e61, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415895

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The association between matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) gene -1562C/T (rs3918242) polymorphism and the susceptibility of ischemic stroke (IS) has been investigated. However, results were ambiguous and inconsistent. Therefore, we performed this study to better assess the potential relationship between rs3918242 polymorphism and susceptibility risk of IS. METHODS: We included case-control studies concerning the relationship between the rs3918242 polymorphism and IS, and odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the associations. Furthermore, meta-regression analyses, heterogeneity, cumulative analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias were examined. RESULTS: A total of 19 studies were included for analysis. Significant associations with the risk of IS were detected for the rs3918242 polymorphism in overall population, Asians, and whites. When available data were stratified by gender, we found a significant correlation with the risk of IS in both males and females. Further subgroup analysis by the subtypes of IS showed that the rs3918242 polymorphism was significantly correlated with the risk of patients with large artery atherosclerosis. When stratified by age, we found that the rs3918242 polymorphism was significantly correlated with the risk of IS in patients both aged ≥65 years and >65 years. Both the diabetes and the nondiabetes subgroups reached significant results, and in an analysis stratified by smoking status, an increased risk of IS was associated with smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The rs3918242 polymorphism may be a susceptible predictor of susceptibility of IS. Further large-scale studies are needed to verify the results of our findings.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Metaloproteinasa 9 de la Matriz/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Aterosclerosis/epidemiología , Isquemia Encefálica/enzimología , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Intervalos de Confianza , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Genotipo , Humanos , Embolia Intracraneal/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Distribución por Sexo
10.
J Homosex ; 67(3): 294-304, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335600

RESUMEN

Drawing on my experience as a queer, genderqueer, Puerto Rican counselor educator, this article considers how LGBTQAI+ studies and academia can expand to better include people with multiple marginalized identities. This article highlights some of the contradictions that educators face when engaging in the liberatory praxis that connects and creates a sense of belonging during these tumultuous times. This reflection suggests a decolonizing approach to intersectionality and highlights the importance of transcending binary discourse to engage in deconstructing the multiple layers of colonization in our internal and external spaces that is necessary for liberatory praxis. Finally, a few recommendations for how LGBTQAI+ studies and academia can support scholars with multiple marginalized identities are identified.


Asunto(s)
Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Distancia Social , Éxito Académico , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Homosexualidad/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/educación , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Apoyo Social , Enseñanza , Escritura
12.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1105): 20190328, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661305

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to sex hormones is important in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and inability to tolerate such exposure may be reflected in increased asymmetrical growth of the breasts. This study aims to characterize, for the first time, asymmetry in breast volume (BV) and radiodense volume (DV) in a large ethnically diverse population. METHODS: Automated measurements from digital raw mammographic images of 54,591 cancer-free participants (aged 47-73) in a UK breast screening programme were used to calculate absolute (cm3) and relative asymmetry in BV and DV. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess asymmetry associations with age and ethnicity. RESULTS: BV and DV absolute asymmetry were positively correlated with the corresponding volumetric dimension (BV or DV). BV absolute asymmetry increased, whilst DV absolute asymmetry decreased, with increasing age (P-for-linear-trend <0.001 for both). Relative to Whites, Blacks had statistically significantly higher, and Chinese lower, BV and DV absolute asymmetries. However, after adjustment for the corresponding underlying volumetric dimension the age and ethnic differences were greatly attenuated. Median relative (fluctuating) BV and DV asymmetry were 2.34 and 3.28% respectively. CONCLUSION: After adjusting for the relevant volumetric dimension (BV or DV), age and ethnic differences in absolute breast asymmetry were largely resolved. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Previous small studies have reported breast asymmetry-breast cancer associations. Automated measurements of asymmetry allow the conduct of large-scale studies to further investigate these associations.


Asunto(s)
Densidad de la Mama/etnología , Mama/anomalías , Mama/diagnóstico por imagen , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Mamografía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1461-1469, 2019 Nov 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838822

RESUMEN

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the survival rate and its prognostic factors for patients with biliary tract cancer, and then a prognostic risk prediction model was constructed to predict the survival probability of patients. Methods: A total of 14 005 patients with biliary tract cancer (including gallbladder cancer, extrahepatic bile duct cancer, and ampulla of Vater cancer), who were diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 in the US National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) were included in the development cohort. The prognostic risk factors of biliary tract cancer were investigated using multivariate Cox regression models. The predictive nomograms were then constructed to predict the overall survival probability of 1, 3, and 5 years, and the predictive discrimination and calibration ability of the nomograms were further evaluated. Meanwhile, 11 953 patients who were diagnosed during 2004 to 2009 from SEER Program were then selected to validate the external predictive accuracy of the prediction models. Results: The 1, 3 and 5-year cumulative survival rates of patients with biliary tract cancer were 41.9%, 20.4% and 15.3%, respectively, in the development cohort. Age greater than 50 years, African Americans and Native Americans and Alaska Natives, higher T, N and M stage and poor histological differentiation grade were risk factors for death, while married status, Asia-Pacific Islanders, insured status and surgery on primary site were protective factors. Gender was not significantly associated with the overall survival. The C statistic of the prediction model was 0.73 (95%CI: 0.72-0.74), and the calibration curve showed that the interaction curves of predictive and actual survival rates of 1, 3 and 5 years were close to the 45 degree diagonal. Results in the validation cohort were similar with those in the construction cohort, with a C statistic of 0.70 (95%CI: 0.69-0.72), indicating high external applicability of the prediction model. Findings from gallbladder cancer, extrahepatic bile duct cancer, and ampulla of Vater cancer are in consistent with the overall biliary tract cancer. Conclusions: The survival rate of patients with biliary tract cancer is relatively poor, and the survival prediction model based on prognostic factors has high prediction accuracy. In the future, this prognostic prediction model could be applied to clinical practice to guide individualized treatment for patients with biliary tract cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Sistema Biliar/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico , Nomogramas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias del Sistema Biliar/mortalidad , Neoplasias del Sistema Biliar/terapia , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Neoplasias de la Vesícula Biliar/mortalidad , Neoplasias de la Vesícula Biliar/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clasificación del Tumor , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Pronóstico , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Programa de VERF , Tasa de Supervivencia , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(5): 560-566, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833289

RESUMEN

Abstract: Objective To evaluate the effect of 56 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphism (aiSNP) genetic markers in the ForenSeqTM DNA Signature Prep Kit on ancestry inference. Methods A total of 85 samples from five populations including Hebei Han population, Inner Mongolia autonomous region Mongolian population, Tibet autonomous region Tibetan population, Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region Uygur population and Nigerian population were collected. The library was constructed with the ForenSeqTM DNA Signature Prep Kit and sequencing was performed based on the MiSeq FGx Forensic Genomics System. Using universal analysis software (UAS) of ForenSeqTM, principal component analysis (PCA), Structure and likelihood ratio method was used on the genotyping data of 56 aiSNP markers, respectively, and the genetic relationships between populations and inference of the origin of ancestors were analyzed. Results Among the five populations tested, the four ethnic populations in China (Hebei Han population, Inner Mongolia autonomous region Mongolian population, Tibet autonomous region Tibetan population and Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region Uygur population) could be significantly distinguished from Nigerian population. Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region Uygur individuals were shown as having mixed origins of ancestors and could be distinguished from the other three Chinese populations. However, the other three populations in China (Hebei Han population, Inner Mongolia autonomous region Mongolian population and Tibet autonomous region Tibetan population) could not be effectively distinguished by the system. Conclusion The 56 aiSNP markers in the ForenSeqTM DNA Signature Prep Kit can make accurate ancestry inference from the intercontinental level, but it is not yet able to distinguish between Chinese subpopulations.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/genética , Grupos Étnicos , Genética Forense/métodos , Genética de Población , China , ADN , Dermatoglifia del ADN , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18126, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852072

RESUMEN

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of mortality in China. This study collected reference data for future programs of prevention of SCD among the ethnic Kazakh and Han populations in Xinjiang, China.From January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015, 2 monitoring locations in northern Xinjiang China were utilized. These locations were selected based on the geographic, economic, and administrative structures of the ethnic Kazakh settlements in Xinjiang. Investigators were trained to investigate SCDs in Kazakh and Han people, a study population totaling more than 400,000. The populations were compared for SCD incidence.The average age of the Han population was significantly higher than that of the Kazakh. During the year 2015, there were 135 SCDs, specifically 67 and 68 in the Han and Kazakh populations, respectively, incidences of 37.94 and 36.2 per 100,000. After standardizing for age, the incidence in these populations was 29.36 and 51.85 per 100,000. Among those who experienced SCD, the prevalence of hypertension was higher in the Kazakh group than in the Han. The multivariate analysis of populations with SCD showed that, among the patients with coronary heart disease, the Kazakh were more likely to have SCD than the Han (odds ratio: 3.58, confidence interval: 1.18-10.95).Among the elderly, the incidence of SCD was much higher in the Kazakh population than in the Han population. Basic medical services and health education should be strengthened in the Kazakh pastoral areas.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Muerte Súbita Cardíaca/etnología , Grupos Étnicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Muerte Súbita Cardíaca/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18215, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852079

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The influence of genetic polymorphisms on the development of gestational hypertension (GH) is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2 (NR3C2) genes, rs5522, rs2070951, rs5534, s2248038, and s9992256 are associated with GH in Han Chinese women. METHOD: Sanger sequencing was used to analyze the genotypes of rs5522, rs2070951, rs5534, rs2248038, and rs9992256 loci of the NR3C2 gene in 450 patients with GH and 450 healthy controls. RESULTS: The rs5522 dominant model (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-1.47, P < .001) and the recessive model (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.33-1.86, P < .001) had higher GH risk. The rs2070951 dominant model (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.03-1.35, P = .02) had higher risk of GH, and the recessive model (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.84-1.34, P = .55) was not significant for GH risk. The rs5534 dominant model (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.43, P = .001) had a higher GH risk. The rs2248038 and rs9992256 sites were not significantly related to GH risk. Gene-gene interactions at the rs5522, rs2070951, and rs5534 loci affected GH risk (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.12-1.64, P < .001). CONCLUSION: The SNPs of the NR3C2 gene rs5522, rs2070951, and rs5534 are associated with GH in Han Chinese women.


Asunto(s)
ADN/genética , Grupos Étnicos , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Hipertensión Inducida en el Embarazo/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Humanos , Hipertensión Inducida en el Embarazo/etnología , Hipertensión Inducida en el Embarazo/metabolismo , Incidencia , Embarazo , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/metabolismo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18253, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852093

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Molecular mechanism underlying the autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) is still plausible. Pathogenic mutations of the gap junction beta 2 protein (GJB2) are reported to be the primary causes of ARNSHL. PATIENT CONCERNS: A propositus was diagnosed as ARNSHL with bilateral congenital profound hearing loss. DIAGNOSIS: With microarray and target gene sequencing testing methods, a novel GJB2 mutant was found to be associated with ARNSHL in this Han Chinese family. INTERVENTIONS/OUTCOMES: Based on the finding in this research, prenatal screening of GJB2 mutation and genetic counseling are recommended to this family for their next pregnancy. Our interventions allow the family to plan informatively. LESSONS: In this family, we discovered 2 heterozygous carriers of c.113T>C variation in the GJB2 gene. The propositus, who had profound hearing loss, had inherited the c.113T>C variation from his normal mother and the c.235delC from his father.


Asunto(s)
Conexinas/genética , ADN/genética , Sordera/genética , Grupos Étnicos , Mutación , Adulto , China/epidemiología , Conexinas/metabolismo , Análisis Mutacional de ADN , Sordera/diagnóstico , Sordera/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Emisiones Otoacústicas Espontáneas/fisiología , Linaje , Prevalencia
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