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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062806

RESUMEN

Studies documenting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) racial/ethnic disparities in the United States were limited to data from the initial few months of the pandemic, did not account for changes over time, and focused primarily on Black and Hispanic minority groups. To fill these gaps, we examined time trends in racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 infection and mortality. We used the Veteran Health Administration's (VHA) national database of veteran COVID-19 infections over three time periods: 3/1/2020-5/31/2020 (spring); 6/1/2020-8/31/2020 (summer); and 9/1/2020-11/25/2020 (fall). We calculated COVID-19 infection and mortality predicted probabilities from logistic regression models that included time period-by-race/ethnicity interaction terms, and controlled for age, gender, and prior diagnosis of CDC risk factors. Racial/ethnic groups at higher risk for COVID-19 infection and mortality changed over time. American Indian/Alaskan Natives (AI/AN), Blacks, Hispanics, and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders experienced higher COVID-19 infections compared to Whites during the summertime. There were mortality disparities for Blacks in springtime, and AI/ANs, Asians, and Hispanics in summertime. Policy makers should consider the dynamic nature of racial/ethnic disparities as the pandemic evolves, and potential effects of risk mitigation and other (e.g., economic) policies on these disparities. Researchers should consider how trends in disparities change over time in other samples.


Asunto(s)
Grupos Étnicos , Hawaii , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Grupos Minoritarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
2.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 141(9)2021 06 08.
Artículo en Noruego | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107651
3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(6): 879-885, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097514

RESUMEN

Millions of Americans have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, and more than 575,000 had died as of early May 2021. Understanding who are the most vulnerable populations for COVID-19 mortality and excess deaths is critical, especially as the US prioritizes vaccine distribution. Using Medicare administrative data, we found that beneficiaries residing in nursing homes, the oldest beneficiaries, members of racial/ethnic minority groups, beneficiaries with multiple comorbid conditions, and beneficiaries who are dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid were disproportionately likely to die after infection with SARS-CoV-2. As the pandemic developed, Medicare data were quickly adapted to provide analyses and inform the nation's response to COVID-19. Similar data for the rest of the population, however, are not readily available. Developing policies and methods around data collection and access will be important to address the consequences of future pandemics and other health emergencies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Anciano , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Medicare , Grupos Minoritarios , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 931, 2021 05 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001074

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of U.S. youth with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, with those from racial/ethnic minority and low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds at greater risk. Dietary fiber (e.g., whole grains and vegetables) is shown to be inversely associated with T2D risk, yet dietary recommendations are not being met. Caregivers play an important role in home food availability, but low SES neighborhoods are shown to have limited access to fiber-rich foods such as whole grains. The overall aim of this qualitative study was to assess caregiver perceptions about facilitators and barriers to preparing and offering whole grains that they received as part of the 16-week Food Overcoming Our Diabetes Risk (FoodRx) pilot study. METHODS: A convenience sample of 60 youth (8-17 years) with obesity and prediabetes were recruited from an urban pediatric weight management clinic to participate in the FoodRx pilot study. Caregivers accompanied youth to a baseline clinic visit and completed a survey that asked about individual and household characteristics. Exit interviews were conducted at the follow-up clinic visit with caregivers of all youth who completed the study (n = 48) in order to assess facilitators and barriers experienced when preparing and offering whole grains. Interview transcripts were coded using the constant comparative method and grounded theory approaches. RESULTS: Caregivers (n = 48) had a mean age of 43 years and were primarily female (n = 46) and Hispanic (71%). Main facilitators to preparing and offering whole grains in the home were caregivers' improved knowledge of whole grain health benefits and the development of strategies to encourage their children to consume whole grains (i.e., pairing whole grains with another liked food). A main barrier for caregivers was the lack of resources available to identify and prepare the novel whole grains that they received. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that caregivers are receptive to incorporating more whole grains into home-prepared meals, but they may need additional nutrition and cooking education to improve their self-efficacy.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estado Prediabético , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidadores , Niño , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Humanos , Grupos Minoritarios , Proyectos Piloto , Granos Enteros
5.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251123, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951100

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of population level data on risk factors, incidence and impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women and their babies. The primary aim of this study was to describe the incidence, characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized pregnant women with symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 in the UK compared to pregnant women without SARS-CoV-2. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a national, prospective cohort study of all hospitalized pregnant women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 from 01/03/2020 to 31/08/2020 using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System. Incidence rates were estimated using national maternity data. Overall, 1148 hospitalized women had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy, 63% of which were symptomatic. The estimated incidence of hospitalization with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 was 2.0 per 1000 maternities (95% CI 1.9-2.2) and for asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 was 1.2 per 1000 maternities (95% CI 1.1-1.4). Compared to pregnant women without SARS-CoV-2, women hospitalized with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 were more likely to be overweight or obese (adjusted OR 1.86, (95% CI 1.39-2.48) and aOR 2.07 (1.53-2.29)), to be of Black, Asian or Other minority ethnic group (aOR 6.24, (3.93-9.90), aOR 4.36, (3.19-5.95) and aOR 12.95, (4.93-34.01)), and to have a relevant medical comorbidity (aOR 1.83 (1.32-2.54)). Hospitalized pregnant women with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 were more likely to be admitted to intensive care (aOR 57.67, (7.80-426.70)) but the absolute risk of poor outcomes was low. Cesarean births and neonatal unit admission were increased regardless of symptom status (symptomatic aOR 2.60, (1.97-3.42) and aOR 3.08, (1.99-4.77); asymptomatic aOR 2.02, (1.52-2.70) and aOR 1.84, (1.12-3.03)). The risks of stillbirth or neonatal death were not significantly increased, regardless of symptom status. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified factors that increase the risk of symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy. Clinicians can be reassured that the majority of women do not experience severe complications of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Portador Sano/epidemiología , Resultado del Embarazo , Adulto , /diagnóstico , Portador Sano/diagnóstico , Portador Sano/virología , Cesárea , Estudios de Cohortes , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Obesidad/complicaciones , Oportunidad Relativa , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Estudios Prospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250735, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956849

RESUMEN

As the Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, multiple therapies are rapidly being evaluated for efficacy in clinical trials. Clinical trials should be racially and ethnically representative of the population that will eventually benefit from these medications. There are multiple potential barriers to racial and ethnic minority enrollment in clinical trials, one of which could be that inclusion and exclusion criteria select for certain racial or ethnic groups disproportionately. In this observational cohort study at a single health care system, we examined if there were differences in eligibility for treatment with remdesivir based on clinical trial criteria for racial and ethnic minorities compared to non-Hispanic Whites. 201 electronic medical record charts were reviewed manually. Self-identified Whites were older than other racial or ethnic groups. At the time of presentation, Black, Latinx, and White participants met inclusion criteria for remdesivir at similar rates (72%, 80%, and 73% respectively), and exclusion criteria at similar rates (43%, 38% and 49% for Black, Latinx and White participants respectively). In this study, there was no difference in eligibility for remdesivir based on race or ethnicity alone.


Asunto(s)
Adenosina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , /tratamiento farmacológico , Adenosina Monofosfato/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Alanina/uso terapéutico , Atención a la Salud , Determinación de la Elegibilidad , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Minoritarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
9.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 20(2): ar23, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938764

RESUMEN

Underrepresented racial minority (URM) students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics majors encounter educational, social, and structural challenges on the path toward their degrees and careers. An undergraduate research program grounded in critical race theory was developed and implemented to address this disparity. NIH BUILD PODER focuses on developing science identities in URM students through a culturally relevant and responsive research training environment, ultimately increasing their pursuit of biomedical-related research careers. The current study examines differences in science identities and the intention to pursue a science career among a sample of undergraduate Latinx seniors (N = 102) in biomedical science majors. Three groups were examined: 1) BUILD PODER students, 2) non-BUILD PODER students who reported having a faculty mentor, and 3) non-BUILD PODER students who reported no faculty mentorship. Results revealed that BUILD PODER students reported the highest levels of science personal-identity and science social-identity upon graduation. Additionally, BUILD PODER students and non-BUILD PODER students with a mentor reported greater levels of science social-identity than those without a mentor. BUILD PODER students also reported the strongest intentions to pursue a science career after college. These results highlight the importance of identity processes in the success of Latinx college students in biomedical science majors.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Estudiantes , Humanos , Mentores , Grupos Minoritarios , Universidades
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25192, 2021 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950917

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hypertension (HTN) has been considered as a health concern in developing countries. And Hui is a minority group with a large population in China. Its genetic background, inadequate access to health services, eating habits, religious belief, ethnic customs, and other factors differ from that of other ethnic groups, which may influence the prevalence of HTN. However, there is no current meta-analysis on the prevalence and risk factors of HTN among Hui population. Thus we conducted a systematic review aiming to estimate the pooled prevalence and risk factors of HTN among Hui population. METHODS: PubMed, The Cochrane library, Web of science, CINAHL Complete, Weipu Database (VIP), China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (CNKI), Wanfang Database, and SinoMed were systematically searched from inception to February 28, 2020 with publication language restricted to English and Chinese. We included cross-sectional, case-control, or cohort studies that focused on prevalence and risk factors of HTN among Hui population. Two investigators independently assessed the risk of bias of the studies included in the review using tools developed by JBI. Meta-analysis was conducted using Stata 12.0 software package. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies were identified with a total of 30,565 study participants. The overall pooled prevalence of HTN was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24%-32%, I2 = 98.8%, P < .001). Stratified by gender, the pooled prevalence of HTN in Hui was 26% (95%CI: 20%-33%, I2 = 97.6%, P < .001) for males and 30% (95%CI: 23%-37%, I2 = 98.3%, P < .001) for females. Pooled prevalence of HTN in Hui was 2% (95%CI: 2%-6%, I2 = 70.6%, P = .065), 10% (95%CI: 3%-17%, I2 = 83.7%, P < .001), 22% (95%CI: 12%-32%, I2 = 87.9%, P < .001), 37% (95%CI: 20%-53%, I2 = 94.0%, P < .001), 39% (95%CI: 24%-54%, I2 = 97.7%, P < .001) and 42% (95%CI: 29%-56%, I2 = 95.6%, P < .001) for those aged 18 to 29, 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and ≥70 years, respectively. Pooled prevalence of HTN in Hui was 22% (95%CI: 14%-29%, I2 = 97.9%, P < .001) in urban areas and 23% (95%CI: 16%-30%, I2 = 95.8%, P < .001) in rural areas. Daily salt intake (odd ratio [OR] = 3.94, 95%CI: 3.03-5.13, I2 = 90.2%, P < 001), family history (OR = 3.50, 95%CI: 2.60-4.71, I2 = 95.3%, P < .001), smoking (OR = 1.84, 95%CI: 1.61-2.09, I2 = 59.6%, P < .001), drinking (OR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.26-2.39, I2 = 95.3%, P = .001), weekly meat intake (OR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.04-3.54, I2 = 96.5%, P = .036), body mass index (OR = 2.20, 95%CI: 1.81-2.66, I2 = 91.3%, P < .001), and areas (OR = 1.29, 95%CI: 1.10-1.51, I2 = 81.5%, P = .001) were risk factors of HTN in Hui, while physical exercise (OR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.66-0.88, I2 = 62.7%, P < .001) was protective factor. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled prevalence of HTN among Hui people was 28%, daily salt intake, family history, drinking, smoking, weekly meat intake, body mass index, areas, and physical exercise were all risk factors for HTN among Hui population. Early screening and treatment of HTN among Hui population should be given due attention.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión/epidemiología , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , Índice de Masa Corporal , China/epidemiología , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Hipertensión/prevención & control , Carne/efectos adversos , Anamnesis , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/epidemiología , Cloruro de Sodio Dietético/efectos adversos
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e050380, 2021 05 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972345

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of physician burnout during the pandemic and differences by gender, ethnicity or sexual orientation. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey (August-October in 2020) of internal medicine physicians at two academic hospitals in Vancouver, Canada. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Physician burnout and its components, emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment were measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. RESULTS: The response rate was 38% (n=302/803 respondents, 49% women,). The prevalence of burnout was 68% (emotional exhaustion 63%, depersonalisation 39%) and feeling low personal accomplishment 22%. In addition, 21% reported that they were considering quitting the profession or had quit a position. Women were more likely to report emotional exhaustion (OR 2.00, 95% CI: 1.07 to 3.73, p=0.03) and feeling low personal accomplishment (OR 2.26, 95% CI: 1.09 to 4.70, p=0.03) than men. Visible ethnic minority physicians were more likely to report feeling lower personal accomplishment than white physicians (OR 1.81, 95% CI: 1.28 to 2.55, p=0.001). There was no difference in emotional exhaustion or depersonalisation by ethnicity or sexual orientation. Physicians who reported that COVID-19 affected their burnout were more likely to report any burnout (OR: 3.74, 95% CI: 1.99 to 7.01, p<0.001) and consideration of quitting or quit (OR: 3.20, 95% CI: 1.34 to 7.66, p=0.009). CONCLUSION: Burnout affects 2 out of 3 internal medicine physicians during the pandemic. Women, ethnic minority physicians and those who feel that COVID-19 affects burnout were more likely to report components of burnout. Further understanding of factors driving feelings of low personal accomplishment in women and ethnic minority physicians is needed.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Médicos , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Agotamiento Psicológico , Canadá/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Humanos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Masculino , Grupos Minoritarios , Pandemias , Conducta Sexual , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 415, 2021 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941176

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Diabetes care remains suboptimal in First Nations populations. Innovative and culturally relevant approaches are needed to promote systematic and proactive organization of diabetes care for people living with diabetes on-reserve in Canada. The RADAR model is one strategy to improve care: an integrated disease registry paired with an electronic health record for local community healthcare providers with remote care coordination. We qualitatively assessed adoption and implementation of RADAR in First Nations communities in Alberta to inform its potential spread in the province. METHODS: We used the RE-AIM framework to evaluate adoption and implementation of RADAR in 6 First Nations communities. Using purposeful sampling, we recruited local healthcare providers and remote care coordinators involved in delivering RADAR to participate in telephone or in-person interviews at 6- and 24-months post-implementation. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and verified for accuracy. Data was analyzed using content analysis and managed using ATLAS.ti 8. RESULTS: In total, we conducted 21 semi-structured interviews (6 at 6-months; 15 at 24-months) with 11 participants. Participants included 3 care coordinators and 8 local healthcare providers, including registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and registered dietitians. We found that adoption of RADAR was influenced by leadership as well as appropriateness, acceptability, and perceived value of the model. In addition, we found that implementation of RADAR was variable across communities regardless of implementation supports and appropriate community-specific adaptations. CONCLUSIONS: The variable adoption and implementation of RADAR has implications for how likely it will achieve its anticipated outcomes. RADAR is well positioned for spread through continued appropriate community-based adaptations and by expanding the existing implementation supports, including dedicated human resources to support the delivery of RADAR and the provision of levels of RADAR based on existing or developed capacity among local HCPs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable to this qualitative assessment.  ISRCTN14359671 .


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Servicios de Salud del Indígena , Alberta/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Humanos , Grupos Minoritarios
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 489092, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017812

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to characterize different ethnic groups in Kyrgyzstan regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mental distress, and to investigate the association between CVD and mental distress. The mental distress was measured in terms of sleep disturbance, burnout, and stress. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among six ethnic groups in Kyrgyzstan, aged 18 years and above. The sample was stratified for age, education, family status, and income. We used the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire to assess sleep disturbance, the physical and emotional subscale of the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire to assess burnout, and the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale to assess perceived stress. Results: The distribution of CVD differed significantly between the six ethnic groups, with higher prevalence among East Europeans, and Western Asians and lower among Other minorities and Central Asians. In all ethnic groups in Kyrgyzstan, individuals with CVD had increased odds of sleep disturbance and burnout. There was a significant difference in burnout and stress between persons with and without CVD in Kyrgyz and East European ethnic groups. Conclusion: There was a significant difference in burnout and stress between persons with and without CVD in Kyrgyz and East European ethnic groups. In addition to CVD prevention, mitigating sleep disturbance and preventing burnout in the general population should be aimed at in public health measures.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Grupos Étnicos , Adolescente , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Kirguistán/epidemiología , Grupos Minoritarios
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2110090, 2021 05 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988706

RESUMEN

Importance: Reimagining university life during COVID-19 requires substantial innovation and meaningful community input. One method for obtaining community input is crowdsourcing, which involves having a group of individuals work to solve a problem and then publicly share solutions. Objective: To evaluate a crowdsourcing open call as an approach to COVID-19 university community engagement and strategic planning. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study assessed a crowdsourcing open call offered from June 16 to July 16, 2020, that sought ideas to inform safety in the fall 2020 semester at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC). Digital methods (email and social media) were used for promotion, and submissions were collected online for 4 weeks. Participation was open to UNC students, staff, faculty, and others. Main Outcomes and Measures: Submissions were evaluated for innovation, feasibility, inclusivity, and potential to improve safety and well-being. Demographic data were collected from submitting individuals, and submissions were qualitatively analyzed for emergent themes on challenges with and solutions for addressing safety and well-being in the fall semester. Data were shared with UNC leadership to inform decision-making. Results: The open call received 82 submissions from 110 participants, including current UNC students (56 submissions [68%]), people younger than 30 years (67 [82%]), women (55 [67%]), and individuals identifying as a racial/ethnic minority or as multiracial/ethnic (49 [60%]). Seven submissions were identified as finalists and received cash prizes with the encouragement to use these funds toward idea development and implementation. Seventeen runner-up teams were linked to university resources for further development. Thematic analysis of submissions regarding challenges with the fall semester revealed not only physical health concerns and the limitations of remote learning but also challenges that have been exacerbated by the pandemic, such as a lack of mental health support, structural racism and inequality, and insufficient public transportation. Solutions included novel ideas to support mental health among specific populations (eg, graduate students and racial/ethnic minorities), improve health equity, and increase transit access. All 24 finalists and runners-up indicated interest in implementation after being notified of the open call results. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that open calls are a feasible strategy for university community engagement on COVID-19, providing a stakeholder-driven approach to identifying promising ideas for enhancing safety and well-being. Open calls could be formally incorporated into university planning processes to develop COVID-19 safety strategies that are responsive to diverse community members' concerns.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Colaboración de las Masas , Innovación Organizacional , Planificación Estratégica , Universidades/organización & administración , Adulto , Educación a Distancia , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , North Carolina , Pandemias/prevención & control , Apoyo Social , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto Joven
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2110918, 2021 05 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009347

RESUMEN

Importance: Curbing COVID-19 transmission is currently the greatest global public health challenge. Consumer digital tools used to collect data, such as the Apple-Google digital contact tracing program, offer opportunities to reduce COVID-19 transmission but introduce privacy concerns. Objective: To assess uses of consumer digital information for COVID-19 control that US adults find acceptable and the factors associated with higher or lower approval of use of this information. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional survey study obtained data from a nationally representative sample of 6284 US adults recruited by email from the web-based Ipsos KnowledgePanel in July 2020. Respondents evaluated scenarios reflecting uses of digital data for COVID-19 control (case identification, digital contact tracing, policy setting, and enforcement of quarantines). Main Outcomes and Measures: Levels of support for use of personal digital data in 9 scenarios to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 infection, rated on a Likert scale, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Multivariable linear regression models were fitted for each scenario and included factors hypothesized to be associated with views about digital data use for COVID-19 mitigation measures. Black and Hispanic survey respondents were oversampled; thus, poststratification weights were used so that results are representative of the general US population. Results: Of 6284 individuals invited to participate in the study, 3547 responded, for a completion rate of 56%. A total of 1762 participants (52%) were female, 715 (21%) identified as Black, 790 (23%) identified as Hispanic, and 1224 (36%) were 60 years or older; mean (SD) age was 51.7 (16.6) years. Approval of scenarios was low, ranging from 28% to 43% (52%-67% when neutral responses were included). Differences were found based on digital data source (smartphone vs social media: coefficient, 0.29 [95% CI, 0.23-0.35]; P < .001; smart thermometer vs social media: coefficient, 0.09 [95% CI, 0.03-0.16]; P = .004). County COVID-19 rates (coefficient, -0.02; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0.13 for quartile 4 compared with quartile 1) and prior family diagnosis of COVID-19 (coefficient, 0.00; 95% CI, -0.25 to 0.25) were not associated with support. Compared with self-described liberal individuals, conservative (coefficient, -0.81; 95% CI, -0.96 to -0.66; P < .001) and moderate (coefficient, -0.52; 95% CI, -0.67 to -0.38; P < .001) individuals were less likely to support the scenarios. Similarly, large political differences were observed in support of the Apple-Google digital contact tracing program, with less support from conservative (coefficient, -0.99; 95% CI, -1.11 to -0.87; P < .001) and moderate (coefficient, -0.59; 95% CI, -0.69 to -0.48; P < .001) individuals compared with liberal individuals. Respondents from racial/ethnic minority groups were more supportive of the scenarios than were White, non-Hispanic respondents. For example, compared with White respondents, Black respondents were more supportive of the Apple-Google contact tracing program (coefficient, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.07-0.32; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study of US adults, many were averse to their information being used on digital platforms to mitigate transmission of COVID-19. These findings suggest that in current and future pandemics, public health departments should use multiple strategies to gain public trust and accelerate adoption of tools such as digital contact tracing applications.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Trazado de Contacto , Pandemias , Privacidad , Opinión Pública , Adulto , Anciano , Actitud/etnología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Recolección de Datos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Minoritarios , Política , Teléfono Inteligente , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Telemedicina , Estados Unidos
18.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251685, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048459

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Black, Asian and minority ethnic communities suffer from disproportionately poorer health than the general population. This issue has been recently exemplified by the large numbers of infection rates and deaths caused by covid-19 in BAME populations. Future research has the potential to improve health outcomes for these groups. High quality research priority setting is crucial to effectively consider the needs of the most vulnerable groups of the population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to identify existing research priority studies conducted for BAME health and to determine the extent to which they followed good practice principles for research priority setting. METHOD: Included studies were identified by searching Medline, Cinnahl, PsychINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, as well as searches in grey literature. Search terms included "research priority setting", "research prioritisation", "research agenda", "Black and minority ethnic", "ethnic group". Studies were included if they identified or elicited research priorities for BAME health and if they outlined a process of conducting a research prioritisation exercise. A checklist of Nine Common Themes of Good Practice in research priority setting was used as a methodological framework to evaluate the research priority processes of each study. RESULTS: Out of 1514 citations initially obtained, 17 studies were included in the final synthesis. Topic areas for their research prioritisation exercise included suicide prevention, knee surgery, mental health, preterm birth, and child obesity. Public and patient involvement was included in eleven studies. Methods of research prioritisation included workshops, Delphi techniques, surveys, focus groups and interviews. The quality of empirical evidence was diverse. None of the exercises followed all good practice principles as outlined in the checklist. Areas that were lacking in particular were: the lack of a comprehensive approach to guide the process; limited use of criteria to guide discussion around priorities; unequal or no representation from ethnic minorities, and poor evaluation of their own processes. CONCLUSIONS: Research priority setting practices were found to mostly not follow good practice guidelines which aim to ensure rigour in priority setting activities and support the inclusion of BAME communities in establishing the research agenda. Research is unlikely to deliver useful findings that can support relevant research and positive change for BAME communities unless they fulfil areas of good practice such as inclusivity of key stakeholders' input, planning for implementation of identified priorities, criteria for deciding on priorities, and evaluation of their processes in research priority setting.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos , Americanos Asiáticos , COVID-19 , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Grupos Minoritarios , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos
19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(6): 870-878, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979192

RESUMEN

With a population of forty million and substantial geographic variation in sociodemographics and health services, California is an important setting in which to study disparities. Its population (37.5 percent White, 39.1 percent Latino, 5.3 percent Black, and 14.4 percent Asian) experienced 59,258 COVID-19 deaths through April 14, 2021-the most of any state. We analyzed California's racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 exposure risks, testing rates, test positivity, and case rates through October 2020, combining data from 15.4 million SARS-CoV-2 tests with subcounty exposure risk estimates from the American Community Survey. We defined "high-exposure-risk" households as those with one or more essential workers and fewer rooms than inhabitants. Latino people in California are 8.1 times more likely to live in high-exposure-risk households than White people (23.6 percent versus 2.9 percent), are overrepresented in cumulative cases (3,784 versus 1,112 per 100,000 people), and are underrepresented in cumulative testing (35,635 versus 48,930 per 100,000 people). These risks and outcomes were worse for Latino people than for members of other racial/ethnic minority groups. Subcounty disparity analyses can inform targeting of interventions and resources, including community-based testing and vaccine access measures. Tracking COVID-19 disparities and developing equity-focused public health programming that mitigates the effects of systemic racism can help improve health outcomes among California's populations of color.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Grupos Étnicos , California , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Grupos Minoritarios , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(20): e25998, 2021 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011094

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: To examine the impact of inadequate health insurance coverage on physician utilization among older adults using a novel quasi-experimental design in the time period following the elimination of cost sharing for most preventative services under the US Affordable Care Act of 2010.The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey full year consolidated data files for the period 2010 to 2017 were used to construct a pooled cross-sectional dataset of adults aged 60 to 70. Regression discontinuity design was used to estimate the impact of transitioning between non-Medicare and Medicare plans on use of routine office-based physician visits and emergency room visits.For the overall population, gaining access to Medicare at age 65 is associated with a higher propensity to make routine office-based visits (2.94 percentage points [pp]; P < .01) and lower out-of-pocket costs (-23.86 pp; P < .01) Similarly, disenrollment from non-Medicare insurance plans at age 66 was associated with more routine office-based visits (3.01 pp; P < .01) and less out-of-pocket costs (-8.09 pp; P < .10). However, some minority groups reported no changes in visits and out-of-pocket costs or reported an increased propensity to make emergency department visits.Enrollment into Medicare from non-Medicare insurance plans was associated with increased use of routine office-based services and lower out-of-pocket costs. However, some subgroups reported no changes in routine visits or costs or an increased propensity to make emergency department visits. These findings suggest other nonfinancial, structural barriers may exist that limit patient's ability to access routine services.


Asunto(s)
Cobertura del Seguro/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicare/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/legislación & jurisprudencia , Anciano , Seguro de Costos Compartidos/economía , Seguro de Costos Compartidos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Seguro de Costos Compartidos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Cobertura del Seguro/economía , Masculino , Medicare/economía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados no Aleatorios como Asunto , Visita a Consultorio Médico/economía , Visita a Consultorio Médico/estadística & datos numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/economía , Estados Unidos
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