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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217943, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835172

RESUMEN

Importance: As COVID-19 vaccine distribution continues, policy makers are struggling to decide which groups should be prioritized for vaccination. Objective: To assess US adults' preferences regarding COVID-19 vaccine prioritization. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study involved 2 independent, online surveys of US adults aged 18 years and older, 1 conducted by Gallup from September 14 to 27, 2020, and the other conducted by the COVID Collaborative from September 19 to 25, 2020. Samples were weighted to reflect sociodemographic characteristics of the US population. Exposures: Respondents were asked to prioritize groups for COVID-19 vaccine and to rank their prioritization considerations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The study assessed prioritization preferences and agreement with the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine's Preliminary Framework for Equitable Allocation of COVID-19 Vaccine. Results: A total of 4735 individuals participated, 2730 (1474 men [54.1%]; mean [SD] age, 59.2 [14.5] years) in the Gallup survey and 2005 (944 men [47.1%]; 203 participants [21.5%] aged 55-59 years) in the COVID Collaborative survey. In both the Gallup COVID-19 Panel and COVID Collaborative surveys, respondents listed health care workers (Gallup, 93.6% [95% CI, 91.2%-95.3%]; COVID Collaborative, 80.0% [95% CI, 78.0%-81.9%]) and adults of any age with serious comorbid conditions (Gallup, 78.6% [95% CI, 75.2%-81.7%]; COVID Collaborative, 72.9% [95% CI, 70.7%-74.9%]) among their 4 highest priority groups. Respondents of all political affiliations agreed with prioritizing Black, Hispanic, Native American, and other communities that have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19 (Gallup, 74.2% [95% CI, 70.6%-77.5%]; COVID Collaborative, 84.9% [95% CI, 83.1%-86.5%]), and COVID Collaborative respondents were willing to be preceded in line by teachers and childcare workers (92.5%; 95% CI, 91.2%-93.7%) and grocery workers (85.9%; 95% CI, 84.2%-87.5%). Older respondents in both surveys were significantly less likely than younger respondents to prioritize healthy adults aged 65 years and older among their 4 highest priority groups (Gallup, 23.7% vs 39.1% [χ2 = 2160.8; P < .001]; COVID Collaborative, 23.3% vs 28.8% [χ2 = 5.0198; P = .03]). COVID Collaborative respondents believed the 4 most important considerations for prioritization were preventing COVID-19 spread (78.4% [95% CI, 76.3%-80.3%]), preventing the most deaths (72.1% [95% CI, 69.9%-74.2%]), preventing long-term complications (68.9% [66.6%-71.9%]), and protecting frontline workers (63.8% [95% CI, 61.5%-66.1%]). Conclusions and Relevance: US adults broadly agreed with the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine's prioritization framework. Respondents endorsed prioritizing racial/ethnic communities that are disproportionately affected by COVID-19, and older respondents were significantly less likely than younger respondents to endorse prioritizing healthy people older than 65 years. This provides reason for caution about COVID-19 vaccine distribution plans that prioritize healthy adults older than a cutoff age without including those younger than that age with preexisting conditions, that aim solely to prevent the most deaths, or that give no priority to frontline workers or disproportionately affected communities.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , /prevención & control , Vacunación Masiva/psicología , Opinión Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Femenino , Prioridades en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25427, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847642

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: This study aims to establish an effective prognostic nomogram for small cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCCE).A total of 552 patients with SCCE from 1975 to 2016 were extracted from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to analyze the prognostic factors of patients, and a nomogram was constructed. The nomogram was then validated internally by using a consistency index (C-index) and a correction curve to evaluate its predictive value.The Cox proportional hazard regression model showed that age, stage, surgery, primary site, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were the prognostic factors of SCCE (P < .1), and they were used to construct the nomogram. The C-index of the nomogram for predicting survival was 0.749 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.722-0.776). The data were randomly divided into a modeling group and a validation group based on 7:3 for internal validation. The C-indices of the modeling and validation groups were 0.753 and 0.725, respectively, and they were close to 0.749. The calibration curves exhibited good consistency between the predicted and actual survival rates.The nomogram of the survival and prognosis of patients with SCCE in this study had a good predictive value and could provide clinicians with accurate and practical predictive tools. It could also be used to facilitate a rapid and accurate assessment of patients' survival and prognosis on an individual basis.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Pequeñas/epidemiología , Carcinoma de Células Pequeñas/terapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiología , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Nomogramas , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Carcinoma de Células Pequeñas/mortalidad , Carcinoma de Células Pequeñas/patología , Grupos de Población Continentales , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Metástasis Linfática , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Pronóstico , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Factores de Riesgo , Programa de VERF , Factores Sexuales , Tasa de Supervivencia
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217373, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825836

RESUMEN

Importance: An accurate understanding of the distributional implications of public health policies is critical for ensuring equitable responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and future public health threats. Objective: To identify and quantify the association of race/ethnicity-based, sex-based, and income-based inequities of state-specific lockdowns with 6 well-being dimensions in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled, repeated cross-sectional study used data from 14 187 762 households who participated in phase 1 of the population-representative US 2020 Household Pulse Survey (HPS). Households were invited to participate by email, text message, and/or telephone as many as 3 times. Data were collected via an online questionnaire from April 23 to July 21, 2020, and participants lived in all 50 US states and the District of Columbia. Exposures: Indicators of race/ethnicity, sex, and income and their intersections. Main Outcomes and Measures: Unemployment; food insufficiency; mental health problems; no medical care received for health problems; default on last month's rent or mortgage; and class cancellations with no distance learning. Race/ethnicity, sex, income, and their intersections were used to measure distributional implications across historically marginalized populations; state-specific, time-varying population mobility was used to measure lockdown intensity. Logistic regression models with pooled repeated cross-sections were used to estimate risk of dichotomous outcomes by social group, adjusted for confounding variables. Results: The 1 088 314 respondents (561 570 [51.6%; 95% CI, 51.4%-51.9%] women) were aged 18 to 88 years (mean [SD], 51.55 [15.74] years), and 826 039 (62.8%; 95% CI, 62.5%-63.1%) were non-Hispanic White individuals; 86 958 (12.5%; 95% CI, 12.4%-12.7%), African American individuals; 86 062 (15.2%; 95% CI, 15.0%-15.4%), Hispanic individuals; and 50 227 (5.6%; 95% CI, 5.5%-5.7%), Asian individuals. On average, every 10% reduction in mobility was associated with higher odds of unemployment (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4), food insufficiency (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2), mental health problems (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1), and class cancellations (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2). Across most dimensions compared with White men with high income, African American individuals with low income experienced the highest risks (eg, food insufficiency, men: OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.8-3.7; mental health problems, women: OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.8-2.1; medical care inaccessibility, women: OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.9; unemployment, men: OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 2.5-3.2; rent/mortgage defaults, men: OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 4.7-7.1). Other high-risk groups were Hispanic individuals (eg, unemployment, Hispanic men with low income: OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.5-3.4) and women with low income across all races/ethnicities (eg, medical care inaccessibility, non-Hispanic White women: OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.7-2.0). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, African American and Hispanic individuals, women, and households with low income had higher odds of experiencing adverse outcomes associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and stay-at-home orders. Blanket public health policies ignoring existing distributions of risk to well-being may be associated with increased race/ethnicity-based, sex-based, and income-based inequities.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Sexuales , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Desempleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(15): 566-569, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857062

RESUMEN

Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic), non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black), and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons have experienced disproportionately higher rates of hospitalization and death attributable to COVID-19 than have non-Hispanic White (White) persons (1-4). Emergency care data offer insight into COVID-19 incidence; however, differences in use of emergency department (ED) services for COVID-19 by racial and ethnic groups are not well understood. These data, most of which are recorded within 24 hours of the visit, might be an early indicator of changing patterns in disparities. Using ED visit data from 13 states obtained from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP), CDC assessed the number of ED visits with a COVID-19 discharge diagnosis code per 100,000 population during October-December 2020 by age and race/ethnicity. Among 5,794,050 total ED visits during this period, 282,220 (4.9%) were for COVID-19. Racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 ED visit rates were observed across age groups. Compared with White persons, Hispanic, AI/AN, and Black persons had significantly more COVID-19-related ED visits overall (rate ratio [RR] range = 1.39-1.77) and in all age groups through age 74 years; compared with White persons aged ≥75 years, Hispanic and AI/AN persons also had more COVID-19-related ED visits (RR = 1.91 and 1.22, respectively). These differences in ED visit rates suggest ongoing racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 incidence and can be used to prioritize prevention resources, including COVID-19 vaccination, to reach disproportionately affected communities and reduce the need for emergency care for COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/etnología , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(15): 560-565, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857068

RESUMEN

Persons from racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by COVID-19, including experiencing increased risk for infection (1), hospitalization (2,3), and death (4,5). Using administrative discharge data, CDC assessed monthly trends in the proportion of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 among racial and ethnic groups in the United States during March-December 2020 by U.S. Census region. Cumulative and monthly age-adjusted COVID-19 proportionate hospitalization ratios (aPHRs) were calculated for racial and ethnic minority patients relative to non-Hispanic White patients. Within each of the four U.S. Census regions, the cumulative aPHR was highest for Hispanic or Latino patients (range = 2.7-3.9). Racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 hospitalization were largest during May-July 2020; the peak monthly aPHR among Hispanic or Latino patients was >9.0 in the West and Midwest, >6.0 in the South, and >3.0 in the Northeast. The aPHRs declined for most racial and ethnic groups during July-November 2020 but increased for some racial and ethnic groups in some regions during December. Disparities in COVID-19 hospitalization by race/ethnicity varied by region and became less pronounced over the course of the pandemic, as COVID-19 hospitalizations increased among non-Hispanic White persons. Identification of specific social determinants of health that contribute to geographic and temporal differences in racial and ethnic disparities at the local level can help guide tailored public health prevention strategies and equitable allocation of resources, including COVID-19 vaccination, to address COVID-19-related health disparities and can inform approaches to achieve greater health equity during future public health threats.


Asunto(s)
/etnología , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Hospitalización/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Geografía , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 483-489, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793463

RESUMEN

Long-standing systemic social, economic, and environmental inequities in the United States have put many communities of color (racial and ethnic minority groups) at increased risk for exposure to and infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, as well as more severe COVID-19-related outcomes (1-3). Because race and ethnicity are missing for a proportion of reported COVID-19 cases, counties with substantial missing information often are excluded from analyses of disparities (4). Thus, as a complement to these case-based analyses, population-based studies can help direct public health interventions. Using data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC), CDC identified counties where five racial and ethnic minority groups (Hispanic or Latino [Hispanic], non-Hispanic Black or African American [Black], non-Hispanic Asian [Asian], non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native [AI/AN], and non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander [NH/PI]) might have experienced high COVID-19 impact during April 1-December 22, 2020. These counties had high 2-week COVID-19 incidences (>100 new cases per 100,000 persons in the total population) and percentages of persons in five racial and ethnic groups that were larger than the national percentages (denoted as "large"). During April 1-14, a total of 359 (11.4%) of 3,142 U.S. counties reported high COVID-19 incidence, including 28.7% of counties with large percentages of Asian persons and 27.9% of counties with large percentages of Black persons. During August 5-18, high COVID-19 incidence was reported by 2,034 (64.7%) counties, including 92.4% of counties with large percentages of Black persons and 74.5% of counties with large percentages of Hispanic persons. During December 9-22, high COVID-19 incidence was reported by 3,114 (99.1%) counties, including >95% of those with large percentages of persons in each of the five racial and ethnic minority groups. The findings of this population-based analysis complement those of case-based analyses. In jurisdictions with substantial missing race and ethnicity information, this method could be applied to smaller geographic areas, to identify communities of color that might be experiencing high potential COVID-19 impact. As areas with high rates of new infection change over time, public health efforts can be tailored to the needs of communities of color as the pandemic evolves and integrated with longer-term plans to improve health equity.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , /etnología , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Medición de Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(14): 519-522, 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830988

RESUMEN

CDC's National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) collects and reports annual mortality statistics using data from U.S. death certificates. Because of the time needed to investigate certain causes of death and to process and review data, final annual mortality data for a given year are typically released 11 months after the end of the calendar year. Daily totals reported by CDC COVID-19 case surveillance are timely but can underestimate numbers of deaths because of incomplete or delayed reporting. As a result of improvements in timeliness and the pressing need for updated, quality data during the global COVID-19 pandemic, NVSS expanded provisional data releases to produce near real-time U.S. mortality data.* This report presents an overview of provisional U.S. mortality data for 2020, including the first ranking of leading causes of death. In 2020, approximately 3,358,814 deaths† occurred in the United States. From 2019 to 2020, the estimated age-adjusted death rate increased by 15.9%, from 715.2 to 828.7 deaths per 100,000 population. COVID-19 was reported as the underlying cause of death or a contributing cause of death for an estimated 377,883 (11.3%) of those deaths (91.5 deaths per 100,000). The highest age-adjusted death rates by age, race/ethnicity, and sex occurred among adults aged ≥85 years, non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons, and males. COVID-19 death rates were highest among adults aged ≥85 years, AI/AN and Hispanic persons, and males. COVID-19 was the third leading cause of death in 2020, after heart disease and cancer. Provisional death estimates provide an early indication of shifts in mortality trends and can guide public health policies and interventions aimed at reducing numbers of deaths that are directly or indirectly associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/mortalidad , Mortalidad/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Causas de Muerte/tendencias , Niño , Preescolar , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad/etnología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Estadísticas Vitales , Adulto Joven
18.
Natl Vital Stat Rep ; 70(2): 1-51, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814033

RESUMEN

Objectives-This report presents 2019 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. Methods-Descriptive tabulations of data reported on the birth certificates of the 3.75 million births that occurred in 2019 are presented. Data are presented for maternal age, livebirth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, tobacco use, prenatal care, source of payment for the delivery, method of delivery, gestational age, birthweight, and plurality. Selected data by mother's state of residence and birth rates by age are also shown. Trend data for 2010 through 2019 are presented for selected items. Trend data by race and Hispanic origin are shown for 2016-2019. Results-A total of 3,747,540 births were registered in the United States in 2019, down 1% from 2018. The general fertility rate declined from 2018 to 58.3 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 in 2019. The birth rate for females aged 15-19 fell 4% between 2018 and 2019. Birth rates declined for women aged 20-34 and increased for women aged 35-44 for 2018-2019. The total fertility rate declined to 1,706.0 births per 1,000 women in 2019. Birth rates declined for both married and unmarried women from 2018 to 2019. The percentage of women who began prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy rose to 77.6% in 2019; the percentage of all women who smoked during pregnancy declined to 6.0%. The cesarean delivery rate decreased to 31.7% in 2019 (Figure 1). Medicaid was the source of payment for 42.1% of all births in 2019. The preterm birth rate rose for the fifth straight year to 10.23% in 2019; the rate of low birthweight was essentially unchanged from 2018 at 8.31%. Twin and triplet and higher-order multiple birth rates both declined in 2019 compared with 2018.


Asunto(s)
Tasa de Natalidad/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Certificado de Nacimiento , Orden de Nacimiento , Tasa de Natalidad/etnología , Peso al Nacer , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/economía , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Femenino , Edad Gestacional , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Estado Civil/etnología , Estado Civil/estadística & datos numéricos , Edad Materna , Persona de Mediana Edad , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Progenie de Nacimiento Múltiple/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/etnología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(12): 409-414, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764959

RESUMEN

Tuberculosis (TB) disease incidence has decreased steadily since 1993 (1), a result of decades of work by local TB programs to detect, treat, and prevent TB disease and transmission. During 2020, a total of 7,163 TB cases were provisionally reported to CDC's National Tuberculosis Surveillance System (NTSS) by the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC), a relative reduction of 20%, compared with the number of cases reported during 2019.* TB incidence per 100,000 persons was 2.2 during 2020, compared with 2.7 during 2019. Since 2010, TB incidence has decreased by an average of 2%-3% annually (1). Pandemic mitigation efforts and reduced travel might have contributed to the reported decrease. The magnitude and breadth of the decrease suggest potentially missed or delayed TB diagnoses. Health care providers should consider TB disease when evaluating patients with signs and symptoms consistent with TB (e.g., cough of >2 weeks in duration, unintentional weight loss, and hemoptysis), especially when diagnostic tests are negative for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. In addition, members of the public should be encouraged to follow up with their health care providers for any respiratory illness that persists or returns after initial treatment. The steep, unexpected decline in TB cases raises concerns of missed cases, and further work is in progress to better understand factors associated with the decline.


Asunto(s)
Vigilancia de la Población , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Niño , Preescolar , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tuberculosis/etnología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
N Z Med J ; 134(1531): 76-90, 2021 03 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767489

RESUMEN

AIMS: The incidence of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in children. Early identification of pre-diabetes is an important first step in preventing the progression to T2DM. The aim was to investigate the association of selected factors with pre-diabetes in children. METHODS: This data were from a subset of the 685 children recruited for the Children's Bone Study, a cross-sectional study of children aged 8-11 years in Auckland, New Zealand. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured from a finger-prick blood test. Children were classified as normoglycaemic (HbA1c≤39mmol/mol) and pre-diabetic (HbA1c>39mmol/mol). Anthropometry included weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and percentage body fat (%BF) measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Information about age, gender, ethnicity and physical activity was collected by questionnaires. RESULTS: HbA1c was measured in 451 children (10.4±0.6years, 45% male). Pre-diabetes was present in 71 (16%) children and was greatest in South Asian (n=13, 30%), Pacific Island (n=29, 27%) and Maori (n=10, 18%) children, compared with European children (n=10, 6.0%) (P< 0.001). South Asian and Pacific Island ethnicity, high WC, high %BF and low physical activity were associated with pre-diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Factors associated with pre-diabetes in children were ethnicity, anthropometric measures and physical-activity levels. The prevalence of pre-diabetes in children of South Asian and Pacific Island ethnicities suggests the need for appropriate and timely identification and intervention to halt the progression to T2DM.


Asunto(s)
Hemoglobina A Glucada/análisis , Estado Prediabético/epidemiología , Constitución Corporal , Niño , Grupos de Población Continentales , Estudios Transversales , Grupos Étnicos , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Prevalencia
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