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1.
N C Med J ; 81(2): 126-129, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132258

RESUMEN

Racial and ethnic disparities in health care occur within broader contexts impacting the youth who present for behavioral health treatment. Clinician bias and clinical uncertainty can influence diagnostic and treatment outcomes. Behavioral health professionals should strive toward effectiveness in the delivery of culturally sensitive interventions to assist in health promotion with youth of color.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/etnología , Adolescente , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos
2.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e82, 2019 Dec 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839013

RESUMEN

AIMS: This review aims to understand the scope of the literature regarding mental health-related microaggressions towards people affected by mental health problems. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted to explore this question. Four electronic health-oriented databases were searched alongside Google Scholar. As per scoping review principles, the inclusion criteria were developed iteratively. The results of included studies were synthesised using a basic narrative synthesis approach, utilising principles of thematic analysis and thematic synthesis where appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 1196 records were identified, of which 17 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 12 were peer-reviewed journal articles, three were research degree theses and two were book chapters. Six included empirical studies were qualitative, four were quantitative and two employed a mixed-methods design. Within these, five qualitative studies aimed to describe the nature of mental health microaggressions experienced by people with mental health problems. Themes identified in a thematic synthesis of these five studies included stereotypes about mental illness, invalidating peoples' experience and blaming people with mental illness for their condition. The included publications informed on the perpetration of mental health microaggressions by family, friends, health professionals and social workers. In addition, two studies created scales, which were then used in cross-sectional surveys of the general public and community members to assess characteristics, such as right-wing political views, associated with endorsement of mental health microaggressions. A consensus definition of microaggressions emerged from the included studies: microaggressions are brief, everyday slights, snubs or insults, that may be subtle or ambiguous, but communicate a negative message to a target person based on their membership of a marginalised group, in this case, people affected by mental illness. CONCLUSIONS: The study of mental health microaggressions is an emerging, heterogeneous field, embedded in the wider stigma and discrimination literature. It has been influenced by earlier work on racial microaggressions. Both can be ambiguous and contradictory, which creates difficulty defining the boundaries of the concept, but also underpins the key theoretical basis for the negative impact of microaggressions. Mental illness is a more concealable potential type of identity, so it follows that the reported perpetrators of microaggressions are largely friends, family and professionals. This has implications for intervening to reduce the impact of microaggressions. There are several challenges facing research in this area, and further work is needed to understand the impact of mental health microaggressions on people affected by mental health problems.


Asunto(s)
Agresión/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Enfermos Mentales/psicología , Prejuicio/psicología , Discriminación Social , Estigma Social , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Humanos , Salud Mental , Estereotipo
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1306, 2019 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711444

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment has been linked to lower health, education, and income later in life, and is associated with increased engagement in delinquent or criminal behaviors. This paper explores trajectories of these behaviors from adolescence into early adulthood and tests maltreatment as a predictor, and whether observed patterns are consistent across different demographic groups. METHODS: Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents (in grades 7-12 in the 1994-95 school year), we ran linear mixed effects models to estimate growth curves of two dependent variables: violent and nonviolent offending behavior. We tested if maltreatment altered the intercept or slope of the curves and how the curves of these behaviors and the associations between them and maltreatment varied by sex, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. RESULTS: The sample (n = 10,613) had equal proportions males and females, approximately one third identified as a race/ethnicity other than white, and over 10% were non-heterosexual. Experiences of maltreatment were highest for Native Americans and lowest for whites. Models indicated that males were more likely than females to engage in both violent and nonviolent offending and respondents who identified as non-heterosexual were more likely than their heterosexual peers to engage in nonviolent offending behavior. When maltreatment was included in models as a predictor, adolescents who experienced maltreatment had a more rapid increase in their non-violent offending behavior. For violent offending behavior, adolescents who experienced maltreatment had higher levels of offending and the levels progressively increased as maltreatment frequency did. Sex was a moderator; the relationship between maltreatment and predicted nonviolent offending was stronger for males than it was for females. Race/ethnicity and sexual orientation did not moderate the associations between maltreatment and offending behavior. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights from a nationally representative sample into the pattern of both delinquent and criminal behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood, describing not only how the pattern varies over time, but also by sociodemographics and offending type. Additionally, it highlights how the association between maltreatment and these behaviors varies by both offending type and sex.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Factores Sexuales , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Agresión , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/etnología , Conducta Criminal/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Grupos Minoritarios , Grupo Paritario , Instituciones Académicas , Conducta Sexual/etnología , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
4.
Med Care ; 57(12): 960-967, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730568

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to assess rates of perceived stigma in health care (clinical) settings reported by racially diverse New York City residents and to examine if this perceived stigma is associated with poorer physical and mental health outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2016 New York City Community Health Survey. We applied bivariable and multivariable methods to assess rates of perceived stigma, and perceived stigma's statistical relationship with health care access, physical health status, and mental health status controlling for sociodemographics and health insurance status. RESULTS: Perceived stigma was associated with poorer health care access [odds ratio (OR)=7.07, confidence interval (CI)=5.32-9.41), depression (OR=3.80, CI=2.66-5.43), diabetes (OR=1.86, CI=1.36-2.54), and poor overall general health (OR=0.43, CI=0.33-0.57). Hispanic respondents reported the highest rate of perceived stigma among racial and ethnic minority groups (mean=0.07, CI=0.05-0.08). CONCLUSIONS: We found that perceived stigma in health care settings was a potential barrier to good health. Prior studies have illustrated that negative health outcomes are common for patients who avoid or delay care; thus, the unfortunate conclusion is that even in a diverse, heterogeneous community, stigma persists and may negatively affect well-being. Therefore, eliminating stigma in clinical settings should be a top priority for health care providers and public health professionals seeking to improve health equity.


Asunto(s)
Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Estado de Salud , Salud Mental/etnología , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Depresión/etnología , Diabetes Mellitus/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ciudad de Nueva York , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/etnología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
5.
J Vis ; 19(11): 7, 2019 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532469

RESUMEN

We introduce a novel face space model-parametric face drawings (or PFDs)-to generate schematic, though realistic, parameterized line drawings of faces based on the statistical distribution of human facial features. A review of existing face space models (including FaceGen Modeller, Synthetic Faces, MPI, and active appearance model) indicates that current models are constrained by their reliance on ethnically homogeneous face databases. This constraint has led to negative consequences for underrepresented populations, such as impairments in automatized identity recognition of certain demographic groups. Our model is based on a demographically diverse sample of 400 faces (200 female, 200 male; 100 East Asian/Pacific Islander, 100 Latinx/Hispanic, 100 black/African-American, and 100 white/Caucasian) compiled from several face databases (including FERET face recognition technology and the Chicago Face Database). Each front-view face image is manually coded with 85 landmark points that are then normalized and rendered with MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA) tools to produce a smooth, parameterized face line drawing. We present data from two behavioral experiments to validate our model and demonstrate its applicability. In Experiment 1 we show that PFDs produce a reliable "inversion effect" in short-term recognition, a hallmark of holistic processing. In Experiment 2, we conduct a celebrity recognition task, comparing performance on PFDs to performance on untextured renderings from FaceGen Modeller. Participants successfully recognized approximately 50% of celebrity faces based on the PFD models, comparable to performance based on FaceGen Modeler (also 50% correct). We highlight a range of potential applications of our model, list some limitations, and provide MATLAB resources for researchers to utilize our face space, including the ability to customize the demographic makeup of the face space, add new faces, and produce morphs and caricatures.


Asunto(s)
Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Cara/fisiología , Reconocimiento Facial/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Arte , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
6.
Med Care ; 57(8): 625-632, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299025

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Respondents in longitudinal health interview surveys may inconsistently report their chronic diseases across interview waves. Racial/ethnic minority adults have an increased burden of chronic diseases and may dispute chronic disease reports more frequently. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the longitudinal association between race/ethnicity, nativity, and language of interview with disputing previously reported chronic diseases. METHODS: We performed secondary data analysis of nationally representative longitudinal data (Health and Retirement Study, 1998-2010) of adults 51 years or older (n=23,593). We estimated multilevel mixed-effects logistic models of disputes of previously reported chronic disease (hypertension, heart disease, lung disease, diabetes, cancer, stroke, arthritis). RESULTS: Approximately 22% of Health and Retirement Study respondents disputed prior chronic disease self-reports across the entire study period; 21% of non-Latino white, 20.5% of non-Latino black, and 28% of Latino respondents disputed. In subgroup comparisons of model-predicted odds using postestimation commands, Latinos interviewed in Spanish have 34% greater odds of disputing compared with non-Latino whites interviewed in English and 35% greater odds of dispute relative to non-Latino blacks interviewed in English. CONCLUSIONS: The odds of disputing a prior chronic disease report were substantially higher for Latinos who were interviewed in Spanish compared with non-Latino white or black counterparts interviewed in English, even after accounting for other sociodemographic factors, cognitive declines, and time-in-sample considerations. Our findings point toward leveraging of multiple sources of data to triangulate information on chronic disease status as well as investigating potential mechanisms underlying the higher probability of dispute among Spanish-speaking Latino respondents.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Lenguaje , Autoinforme/estadística & datos numéricos , Afroamericanos/psicología , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedad Crónica/etnología , Enfermedad Crónica/psicología , Grupos de Población Continentales/etnología , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
7.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(6): 651-664, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282691

RESUMEN

In this qualitative study, the authors examined responses to racial microaggressions among community members in Montreal, Canada. To this end, using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA; Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009) we conducted individual interviews with Black Canadian (n = 5) and Indigenous (n = 5) community members who pursued employment directly after secondary education. Seven themes emerged from the data (e.g., calling out perpetrators, empowering self and others, choosing to not engage, and using humor). Response strategies convey 4 primary features: (a) importance of social support in accessing resources and confronting racial microaggressions, (b) use of culturally grounded strategies as a form of resistance, (c) multifaceted use of humor to confront and to minimize racial microaggressions, and (d) intentional use of avoidance among women participants. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Agresión/psicología , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Prejuicio/psicología , Apoyo Social , Adulto , Anciano , Canadá/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa
8.
Complement Ther Med ; 45: 222-227, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331565

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Racial disparities in mental and physical health status are a persistent problem for people of African ancestry in the United States (U.S.). The current study seeks to determine whether indigenous help-seeking is related to ethnic and racial differences in health problems in persons of African ancestry. METHODS/DESIGN: Complex sampling produced a nationally representative sample of 3570 African Americans, 1623 Caribbean Blacks, and 1006 non-Hispanic Whites. All 3750 African Americans, 1438 (88.6%) African Caribbeans, and 891(88.6%) European Americans had relevant data for the current study. Respondents to the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) were studied with structural equation modeling (SEM) to evaluate a model of help seeking from "faith healers," "herbalists or rootworkers," or "astrologists or psychics." Mental and physical health were predicted by this indigenous help-seeking. RESULTS: Consistent with the hypothesis, SEM analyses indicated better model fit for African Americans with greater similarly to African Caribbean respondents (r = .901, p =  .001) than European Americans counterparts (r = -.332, p =  .382) in measurement models. These analyses also showed African Americans' indigenous help-seeking was negatively correlated with lifetime diagnoses of any DSM psychiatric disorders but positively correlated with burden of chronic diseases. The association between indigenous help-seeking and professional diagnoses of chronic diseases was negative for Caribbean Blacks. CONCLUSION: Culturally competent psychological or medical services by Western practitioners to people in the U.S Black population require attention to indigenous healing systems.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/psicología , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Adulto , Enfermedad Crónica/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
9.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 25(4): 514, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343193

RESUMEN

Reports an error in "Do mentor support for ethnic-racial identity and mentee cultural mistrust matter for girls of color? A preliminary investigation" by Bernadette Sánchez, Julia Pryce, Naida Silverthorn, Kelsey L. Deane and David L. DuBois (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Oct 01, 2018, np). In this article, all the authors were listed as being affiliated with DePaul University, but only Bernadette Sánchez is affiliated with DePaul University. The other authors were at the following affiliations while the work for the article was completed: Julia Pryce, School of Social Work, Loyola University Chicago; Naida Silverthorn, Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago; Kelsey L. Deane, Department of Education and Social Work, University of Auckland; and David L. DuBois, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2018-48484-001.) Objectives: The aim of this repeated-measures study was to examine the roles of cultural mistrust and perceived mentor support for ethnic-racial identity in a sample of girls of color. It was hypothesized that mentors' support for ethnic-racial identity measured at baseline would influence relationship quality, as well as the girls' ethnic identity and cultural mistrust, at the end of the intervention, adjusting for baseline measures. It was also hypothesized that girls' cultural mistrust toward Whites at baseline would be negatively associated with mentoring relationship quality at the end of the intervention. METHOD: Participants were 40 adolescent girls of color who were matched with racially-ethnically diverse women mentors in a community-based mentoring program. RESULTS: Mentor support for ethnic-racial identity as reported by youth significantly predicted relative increases in youth reports of relational but not instrumental satisfaction. Higher mentor support for ethnic-racial identity also significantly predicted increases in ethnic identity exploration, but only among girls with White mentors. Further, youth's reported greater cultural mistrust toward Whites was a significant predictor of decreased instrumental relationship satisfaction among girls with White mentors. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the importance of further efforts to understand the roles of culturally relevant relationship processes and youth attitudes in mentoring interventions for girls of color. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Diversidad Cultural , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Tutoría/métodos , Mentores/psicología , Identificación Social , Adolescente , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Grupos Minoritarios , Universidades
10.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(9): 813-823, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356710

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite its popularity, little is known about the measurement invariance of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) across U.S. sociodemographic groups. Use of a screener shown not to possess measurement invariance could result in under/over-detection of depression, potentially exacerbating sociodemographic disparities in depression. Therefore, we assessed the factor structure and measurement invariance of the PHQ-9 across major U.S. sociodemographic groups. METHODS: U.S. population representative data came from the 2005-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cohorts. We conducted a measurement invariance analysis of 31,366 respondents across sociodemographic factors of sex, race/ethnicity, and education level. RESULTS: Considering results of single-group confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), depression theory, and research utility, we justify a two-factor structure for the PHQ-9 consisting of a cognitive/affective factor and a somatic factor (RMSEA = 0.034, TLI = 0.985, CFI = 0.989). On the basis of multiple-group CFAs testing configural, scalar, and strict factorial invariance, we determined that invariance held for sex, race/ethnicity, and education level groups, as all models demonstrated close model fit (RMSEA = 0.025-0.025, TLI = 0.985-0.992, CFI = 0.986-0.991). Finally, for all steps ΔCFI was <-0.004, and ΔRMSEA was <0.01. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that the PHQ-9 is acceptable to use in major U.S. sociodemographic groups and allows for meaningful comparisons in total, cognitive/affective, and somatic depressive symptoms across these groups, extending its use to the community. This knowledge is timely as medicine moves towards alternative payment models emphasizing high-quality and cost-efficient care, which will likely incentivize behavioral and population health efforts. We also provide a consistent, evidence-based approach for calculating PHQ-9 subscale scores.


Asunto(s)
Grupos de Población Continentales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Escolaridad , Grupos Étnicos , Encuestas Nutricionales , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/diagnóstico , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría
11.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 54(10): 1295-1298, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183503

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Ethnic minority groups with early psychosis may have longer treatment delays, potentially leading to poorer outcomes. We updated a previous systematic review of the literature on racial and ethnic differences in duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) among people with first-episode psychosis. RESULTS: Six of 17 studies described significant differences across aggregated racial groups; however, the pooled estimates did not show differences across groups. Additional data from this update allowed for disaggregated analyses, finding that Black-African groups have a shorter DUP, whereas Black-Caribbean groups have longer DUP, relative to White groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the importance of in-depth research on disaggregated ethnic groups to inform targeted early intervention strategies for minority populations.


Asunto(s)
Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Psicóticos/etnología , Tiempo de Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Trastornos Psicóticos/terapia , Factores de Tiempo
12.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(8): 1117-1129, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203522

RESUMEN

Objectives Few population-based studies on the relationship between childhood adversity and health in adulthood for women exist. Little is known about whether some social groups are more vulnerable to childhood adversity than other groups. Methods Using data from the Geographic Research on Wellbeing survey (GROW) conducted in California during 2012-2013, we examine associations between familial childhood adversities (FCAs) and a set of important chronic diseases and related conditions among women with young children, employing logistic regression models (N = 2409). Specifically, we test two measures of FCAs on the odds of reporting one or more chronic diseases or related-conditions (diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, heart disease). We also examine whether the associations between the two measures and the dependent variables vary by social factors (race/ethnicity, marital status, education, income). Results Both FCA measures were associated with reporting one or more chronic diseases after controlling for a set of important sociodemographic factors. Each unit increase in the number of FCAs corresponded to about a 10% increase in the odds of reporting one or more chronic disease(s). Moderating effects were also observed, with greater impacts among more socially vulnerable groups. Furthermore, ancillary analyses demonstrated that diabetes and high cholesterol were the drivers of the relationship between FCAs and chronic disease. Conclusions for Practice The social ecological model framework suggests that childhood adversity can be considered at multiple levels; that is, a sustainable reduction in the adverse health impacts of childhood adversity requires a concerted effort among policymakers and practitioners that includes both "upstream" and "downstream" approaches.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedad Crónica/psicología , Adulto , California/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Oportunidad Relativa , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 44(3): 445-449, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177245

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While there is evidence of differences in the disease characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) across ethnic and racial groups, there has been limited research on cognitive functioning. OBJECTIVE: To explore potential differences among Caucasian (CA), African-American (AA), and Hispanic (HA) adults from a clinical sample on the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS). METHODS: A total of 245 age- and disease duration-matched individuals (194 CA, 23 AA, and 28 HA) were included in the analyses. Their rates of impairment, using the criterion of two standard deviations (SD) below the normative mean, on the MACFIMS were compared using chi-square analyses with post-hoc pairwise comparisons (Bonferroni adjusted). RESULTS: Compared to CA, AA had higher rates of impairment on measures of complex attention (p < 0.001) and executive functions (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings raise questions of whether the observed differences reflect the more aggressive disease course noted among AA or are due to discrepancies in performance on neuropsychological assessment that is associated with race/ethnicity in the general population. Future directions and implications are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Esclerosis Múltiple/etnología , Esclerosis Múltiple/psicología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Adulto , Afroamericanos/etnología , Afroamericanos/psicología , Atención/fisiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Trastornos del Conocimiento/complicaciones , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/etnología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esclerosis Múltiple/diagnóstico
15.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(9): 3611-3624, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124024

RESUMEN

An increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children of immigrant backgrounds has been observed but clinical profiles are rarely compared. Diagnostic data from children with ASD notified to the Western Australian Register for Autism Spectrum Disorders were analysed according to maternal-race ethnicity and country of birth. A total of 4776 children aged between 0 and 18 years diagnosed with ASD from 1999 to 2017 were included. Those born to immigrant mothers from lower income countries were younger at the time of diagnosis, had an increased risk of intellectual disability and poorer presentations in the social and communication domains. Further work is required to understand environmental influences that may affect children born to immigrant mothers and to improve monitoring and assessments.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/etnología , Niño , Preescolar , Grupos de Población Continentales/etnología , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Pobreza/etnología , Pobreza/psicología , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Sistema de Registros , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
17.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(6): 763-770, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144844

RESUMEN

Scholars have underscored the importance of cultural processes within therapy groups, but there is a paucity of empirical research on this topic. Recently, the multicultural orientation framework was applied to group therapy to address this limitation and empirically test the role of cultural comfort, cultural humility, and cultural opportunities in a group context. Despite this advancement, a more nuanced understanding of the differential effects of cultural processes based on group members' race/ethnicity status is needed. Informed by theory and research on White fragility, this study sought to test the differential relationship between cultural comfort and cultural concealment, as well as cultural comfort and improvement, for 97 Racial-Ethnic Minority (REM) and 109 White members of 49 therapy groups. As hypothesized, REM status significantly moderated the association between cultural comfort and clients' cultural concealment and improvement, such that cultural comfort was negatively associated with cultural concealment and positively associated with improvement in group therapy for REM clients but not White clients. Results and implications are discussed within a fragility framework. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Competencia Cultural/psicología , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupos de Población Continentales/etnología , Diversidad Cultural , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Adulto Joven
18.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(4): 424-436, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144849

RESUMEN

There is a paucity of research on the potentially distinctive functions of cognitive and affective expectation of stigma. Moreover, expectation of stigma has received limited research attention with sexual minority people of color who may anticipate interlocking heterosexist and racist stigmatization. In this study, data from 209 sexual minority people of color were analyzed using path analysis and bootstrap procedures to test direct and indirect relations among perceived discrimination, expectation of stigma, coping self-efficacy, and psychological distress. Analyses disaggregated expectation of stigma into its cognitive (i.e., perceived likelihood of stigma) and affective (i.e., worry and anxiety about stigma) components. Results revealed that perceived discrimination had a unique direct link with psychological distress. In addition, perceived discrimination was linked indirectly with greater distress through affective expectation of stigma and problem-focused and emotion-focused coping self-efficacy. These findings suggest the importance of social justice interventions to reduce discrimination. Additionally, the findings suggest that interventions should attend to affective worry and anxiety about stigma and foster problem-focused and emotion-focused coping self-efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Cognición , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Autoeficacia , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Pigmentación de la Piel , Estigma Social , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216653, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095585

RESUMEN

Ethnic-racial classification criteria are widely recognized to vary according to historical, cultural and political contexts. In Brazil, the strong influence of individual socio-economic factors on race/colour self-classification is well known. With the expansion of genomic technologies, the use of genomic ancestry has been suggested as a substitute for classification procedures such as self-declaring race, as if they represented the same concept. We investigated the association between genomic ancestry, the racial composition of census tracts and individual socioeconomic factors and self-declared race/colour in a cohort of 15,105 Brazilians. Results show that the probability of self-declaring as black or brown increases according to the proportion of African ancestry and varies widely among cities. In Porto Alegre, where most of the population is white, with every 10% increase in the proportion of African ancestry, the odds of self-declaring as black increased 14 times (95%CI 6.08-32.81). In Salvador, where most of the population is black or brown, that increase was of 3.98 times (95%CI 2.96-5.35). The racial composition of the area of residence was also associated with the probability of self-declaring as black or brown. Every 10% increase in the proportion of black and brown inhabitants in the residential census tract increased the odds of self-declaring as black by 1.33 times (95%CI 1.24-1.42). Ancestry alone does not explain self-declared race/colour. An emphasis on multiple situational contexts (both individual and collective) provides a more comprehensive framework for the study of the predictors of self-declared race/colour, a highly relevant construct in many different scenarios, such as public policy, sociology and medicine.


Asunto(s)
Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta , Brasil , Ciudades/etnología , Ciudades/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Cohortes , Grupos de Población Continentales/genética , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia
20.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 44(3): 150-156, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034454

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to explore the associations among mastery, self-esteem, and HIV risk reduction behaviors in a culturally diverse group of adolescent girls. It is important to identify and assess psychological determinants of HIV risk reduction behaviors such as mastery and self-esteem so that healthcare interventions may be tailored to maximize an adolescent's preventive efforts. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Black, Latina, and White adolescent girls were recruited from an urban primary care setting in a tertiary care center. A descriptive, correlational design was used. Measures included the Pearlin Mastery Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Adolescent Problem Severity Index. Data were collected through written surveys completed anonymously. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: There were 224 participants. Mastery and self-esteem, variables that commonly explain health-enhancing behaviors, were not associated with HIV risk reduction behaviors either in the entire sample or cultural subgroups. There was an inverse relationship between age and HIV risk reduction behaviors in all cultural groups. There were no significant differences in HIV risk reduction behaviors among the three cultural groups. CLINICAL NURSING IMPLICATIONS: Findings suggest HIV prevention efforts by nurses should be universal regardless of an adolescent girl's presumed level of mastery and self-esteem, and that these efforts need to intensify as they age.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Embarazo en Adolescencia/psicología , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Grupos de Población Continentales/psicología , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Embarazo , Psicometría/instrumentación , Psicometría/métodos , Asunción de Riesgos , Autoeficacia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
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