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2.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 319-325, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957410

RESUMEN

Investigating the composition of food sources with stable isotope method can provide direct evidence for the top-down control in the coastal wetland. In this study, we examined food source and feeding habit of Helice tientsinensis of common reed (Phragmites australis) vegetation in high marsh of Yellow River Delta. The results showed that the density of crab was (5.5±1.5) ind·m-2, with the behavior of climbing P. australis to feed on the leaves at night. Under the same indoor experimental condition, H. tientsinensis showed feeding preference on fresh leaves of P. aus-tralis. The stable isotope food source analysis showed that the leaves of P. australis were one of the important food sources of H. tientsinensis in the field. There were temporal variations in the proportion of fresh leaves [May: (6.4±4.9)%, July: (5.8±4.9)%, September: (12.5±8.8)%] and dead leaves [May: (12.4±7.8)%, July: (15.5±9.9)%, September: (15.1±9.4)%]. Therefore, H. tientsinensis could inhibit P. australis's growth and affect litter decomposition through feeding disturbance behavior.


Asunto(s)
Braquiuros , Humedales , Animales , China , Hábitos , Poaceae , Ríos
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 12, 2020 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906895

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite the current obesogenic environment creating challenges weight management, some people succeed in maintaining a normal weight. This study explored lifelong weight management from the life course perspective. We aimed to gain an insight into the issues related to the pathways of individuals of normal weight from childhood to adulthood, and how their experiences and social connections influence their weight management. METHODS: We approached the research topic using qualitative methods. Two age groups (30-45; 55-70 years, men and women), forming a total of 39 individuals, participated in theme interviews. Thematic analysis resulted in two main categories, namely (1) adoption of lifestyle and (2) maintenance of lifestyle. RESULTS: Childhood family played a central role in the formation of lifestyle: food-upbringing created the basis for the interviewees' current diet, and their lives had always been characterized by an active lifestyle. High perceived self-efficacy was vital in weight management. The interviewees were confident about their routines and trusted their abilities to recognize and handle situations that threatened their lifestyles. They possessed skills for adjusting their lifestyle to altered environments, and showed a high level of coping self-efficacy. The interviewees also highlighted the importance of habits for weight management. They had improved their adopted lifestyle through constant learning. New routines had become more internalized through active repetition, finally turning into habitual practices, which simplified weight management. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our interviews, we conclude that childhood was important in the development of the health-promoting lifestyle of our interviewees. However, weight management was described as a journey over the life course, and success also encouraged skills of identifying risks and adjusting actions to cope with challenging situations.


Asunto(s)
Mantenimiento del Peso Corporal , Logro , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Finlandia , Hábitos , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Autoeficacia
4.
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 44(1): 66-69, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995421

RESUMEN

Objective: To establish the prevalence of Probable Sleep Bruxism (PSB) and its association with gender, breast or bottle-feeding, posterior and anterior crossbite, oral habits and oral breathing. Study Design: Consists of a cross-sectional study in which 151 children were submitted to a clinical oral examination for the evaluation of tooth wear, muscle discomfort and the presence of anterior and/or posterior crossbite. Parents/caregivers were asked about the frequency of teeth grinding during the child's sleep and the occurrence of harmful oral habits, as well as the type of childbirth and breastfeeding. Data were statistically analyzed through Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests at a 5% level of significance to determine an association among variables. Results: The prevalence of PSB was of 27.8% among the examined children. Among the analyzed variables, only oral breathing was statistically associated to PSB (p < 0.001), and it was verified that children with oral breathing are 2.71 times more likely to present sleep bruxism. Conclusions: The prevalence of PSB in schoolchildren was high and the disorder was associated with oral breathing. Thus, pediatric dentists have an important role in the diagnosis of sleep bruxism and in monitoring breathing-related disorders.


Asunto(s)
Maloclusión , Bruxismo del Sueño , Alimentación Artificial , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hábitos , Humanos
5.
Eur Arch Paediatr Dent ; 21(1): 155-159, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338770

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To study the relationship between the tooth-brushing habits during the preschool ages and caries prevalence at the age of 5 years and to investigate a possible association with the mode of delivery. METHODS: The study population consisted of 336 children that were orally examined at 2, 3 and 5 years. All stages of caries were scored on tooth and surface level. Data on tooth brushing behaviour were collected through semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: At 5 years, the attrition rate was 13.1%. The total caries prevalence (cavitated and non-cavitated lesions) was 18.9%. The vast majority of the parents assisted their child with the brushing and 98% used fluoride toothpaste. The relative risk (RR) for caries was significantly (p < 0.05) increased for "tooth brushing less than twice daily" at two (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.3, p < 0.01) and 3 years (RR 3.6, 95% CI 2.0-6.7; p < 0.001). Likewise, reporting "major/minor difficulties to perform tooth brushing" at 2 and 3 years was significantly related to caries development at the age of five (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.4, p < 0.05 and RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.3; p < 0.01). We found no significant association between the tooth brushing habits and the mode of delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Less than twice daily tooth-brushing and difficulties to perform the procedure during the first preschool years were significant determinants of caries prevalence at the age of 5 years. Health professionals should, therefore, give special attention and assist parents to improve and optimize their tooth brushing behaviour during the preschool years.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Cepillado Dental , Niño , Preescolar , Hábitos , Humanos , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos
7.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 51(10): 617-625, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-185944

RESUMEN

Objetivos: Conocer la prevalencia de insomnio y los hábitos, comorbilidades, calidad del sueño y tratamiento de los pacientes insomnes. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Emplazamiento: Centro de Atención Primaria de Calviá (Mallorca). Participantes: Sujetos entre 18-80 años con > 2 años de adscripción al Centro de Salud. Métodos: Se realizó una primera entrevista telefónica para cribado de insomnes mediante el Insomnia Severity Index. Los sujetos insomnes fueron entrevistados personalmente en el centro de salud para registrar el resto de variables. Resultados: De la muestra de 1.563 personas, contactamos con 591 y participaron 467. La prevalencia de insomnio fue del 21,1% (IC 95% 17,38-25,01) y de insomnio clínico del 6,9% (IC 95% 4,45-9,25). Fue más común en mujeres, viudos y divorciados, jubilados y desempleados. Dos tercios tenían sobrepeso-obesidad; un 37% dolor crónico, un 21,1% depresión y un 37,9% ansiedad. La mitad refería dificultades para realizar las actividades de la vida diaria y mantener un buen estado de ánimo. Asimismo, el 41,1% refería que habitualmente tomaba fármacos para dormir. Las medidas terapéuticas más utilizadas fueron la higiene del sueño y las benzodiacepinas; mientras que las terapias cognitivo-conductuales eran poco habituales. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de insomnes en nuestra zona es semejante a la esperada en estudios realizados en población general. La presencia de algunos hábitos perjudiciales para el sueño y las comorbilidades pueden favorecer la cronificación del insomnio, por lo que se debe considerar el manejo de esta patología en un contexto más amplio. Predomina el tratamiento farmacológico mientras que las terapias no farmacológicas de demostrada efectividad son muy ocasionales


Objectives: To estimate insomnia prevalence as well as habits comorbidity, sleep quality of insomnia patients. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Calvia health center (Majorca, Spain). Participants: We included subjects registered in a Health Center (> 2 years) of 18-80 years old. Methods: Firstly, they were interviewed by telephone in order to identify persons with insomnia using the Insomnia Severity Index. Afterward, subjects with insomnia were interviewed in the health center in order to collect the data. Results: From a simple of 1,563 persons, we contacted 591 and 467 participated. Insomnia prevalence was 21.1% (IC 95% 17.38-25.01) and 6.9% (IC 95% 4.45-9.25) clinical insomnia. It was significantly more frequent in women, widow, divorced, retired and unemployed. Two in three presented obesity or overweight, 37% chronic pain, 21.1% depression and 37.9% anxiety. Half of the patients with insomnia referred a negative impact on daily activities and difficulties to maintain enthusiasm. Moreover, 41.1% declared to take pharmacological treatment for sleep usually. The more common therapeutic measures for insomnia were sleep hygiene and benzodiazepines; while cognitive-behavioral therapies were rarely used. Conclusions: The prevalence of insomnia in our health area is similar to those described in population based studies. The presence of some prejudicial habits for sleep quality as well as comorbidities could facilitate insomnia to become a chronic illness. Then, management of insomnia should be considered in a patient more general context. Pharmacological treatment is still in the first line and effective non pharmacological treatment is still a rare option


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud , España/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Entrevistas como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Hábitos , Higiene del Sueño , Estilo de Vida Saludable
8.
J Opioid Manag ; 15(6): 507-520, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850513

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify key characteristics and habits of recreational opioid users. DESIGN: The data were compiled from volunteers who participated in clinical studies at a contract research organization in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. INTERVENTIONS: Data were collected from 5,018 male and female recreational opioid users via telephone and face-to-face screening interviews. Five recreational opioid users participated in a live interview broadcast on the internet. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic data, recreational drug use history, routes of recreational drug administration, alcohol use, and smoking status. A subset of the demographic information and recreational drug use history was summarized separately using data collected between 2013 and 2016 from 114 recreational opioid users who were not dependent on opioids. Interview excerpts were included from five recreational opioid users who described their real-world experiences with drug abuse, including the impact of abuse-deterrent opioid formulations on their drug abuse behavior. RESULTS: The preferred route of administration of opioids was oral (52 percent), followed by intranasal (36 percent), intravenous (10 percent), and buccal (chewing on a patch; 2 percent). Other substances used included nicotine, alcohol, and non-opioid psychoactive drugs (primarily cannabis). Oxycodone was the most frequently reported opioid of abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Recreational opioid users have distinct drug-related behaviors and preferences. Monitoring current trends and examining these behaviors is an important component to understand the potential safety risks associated with recreational opioid use.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides , Consumidores de Drogas/psicología , Hábitos , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides , Estudios Cruzados , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ontario , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/psicología , Oxicodona
9.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(3): 49-54, dic.2019. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1047804

RESUMEN

El objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia de hábitos de succión no nutritiva y su relación con maloclusiones y anomalías dentomaxilares en preescolares de Coronel Oviedo - Paraguay, durante el año 2015. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo de corte transversal con componente analítico, con muestreo probabilístico estratificado bietápico. La población de estudio estuvo constituida por niños del sexo masculino y femenino de la Educación Inicial (maternal, jardín y pre-escolar). Las variables del estudio fueron la succión no nutritiva (succión digital y succión del chupete, edad, sexo, onicofagia y el uso del biberón. Los datos fueron recabados mediante una encuesta dirigida a los padres; acompañada de la inspección bucodental. Fueron incluidos 344 escolares, el 48,84% (168) tenía una edad de 5 años y el 52,91% (182) era del sexo masculino. El 13,08% (45) realizaba succión digital, el 9,59% (33) succión de chupete y el 38,95% (134) otros hábitos. Al diferenciar la presencia de hábitos con las características demográficas se pudo apreciar como la presencia de succión digital estaba relacionada con la mordida abierta (p=0.000), la mordida cruzada (p=0.049), con la orientación de los incisivos (p=0.000), la forma de la arcada (p=0.000), y la oclusión de vista transversal (p=0.046) y sagitalmente (p=0.000). La prevalencia de hábitos de succión no nutritiva en estos escolares fue alta y estaba relacionada con la maloclusión y la aparición de anomalías dentomaxilares, por lo que la educación de padres para la prevención de dichas condiciones es fundamental(AU)


The objective was to determine the prevalence of non-nutritive suction habits and their relationship with malocclusions and dentomaxillary anomalies in preschool children of Coronel Oviedo - Paraguay, during 2015. An observational, descriptive cross-sectional study with analytical component was carried out, with two-stage stratified probabilistic sampling. The study population consisted of boys and girls of the Pre-Primary Education (nursery, kindergarten and pre-school). The variables of the study were the non-nutritive suction (digital suction and suction of the pacifier, age, sex, onychophagia and the use of the feeding bottle). The data were collected through a survey addressed to the parents, accompanied by an oral inspection. Three hundred forty-four schoolchildren were included, 48.84% (168) was 5 years old and 52.91% (182) was male. Of the total, 13.08% (45) performed digital suction, 9.59% (33) pacifier suction and 38.95% (134) other habits. By differentiating the presence of habits with demographic characteristics, it was seen how the presence of digital suction was related to the open bite (p=0.000), the crossbite (p = 0.049), and the orientation of the incisors (p=0.000). ), the shape of the arch (p = 0.000), the cross sectional occlusion (p=0.046) and the sagittal occlusion (p = 0.000). The prevalence of non-nutritive suction habits in these school children was high and related to malocclusion and the appearance of dentomaxillary anomalies, so the education of parents for the prevention of these conditions is fundamental(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Succión , Maloclusión , Biberones , Hábitos
10.
Zootaxa ; 4656(2): zootaxa.4656.2.14, 2019 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716835

RESUMEN

Thoropa Cope is an anuran genus of the family Cycloramphidae that comprises six species of small rock frogs peculiar for the semiterrestrial habits of their larvae, which develop on wet rock environments distributed throughout eastern and southeastern Brazil (Bokermann 1965; Frost 2019). Current knowledge on their tadpoles relies mostly on their descriptions, namely the works of Bokermann (1965) for T. lutzi Cochran and T. petropolitana (Wandolleck), Caramaschi Sazima (1984) for T. megatympanum Caramaschi Sazima, Cocroft Heyer (1988) for T. saxatilis Cocroft Heyer, and Barth (1956) and Fatorelli et al. (2018) for T. miliaris (Spix). Thoropa taophora (Miranda-Ribeiro) tadpoles were originally described by Bokermann (1965) as T. miliaris, but several features were overlooked. In addition, T. taophora was recently removed from the synonymy with T. miliaris (Feio et al. 2006). Herein, we present a complete redescription of the tadpoles of T. taophora and provide comparisons with previously published drawings and descriptions of all other species of the genus.


Asunto(s)
Anuros , Ranidae , Animales , Brasil , Hábitos , Larva
11.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(11): 716-718, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713357

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of vertigo. It is assumed that sleep is involved in the pathogenesis of BPPV, and that habitual head-lying side during sleep correlates with the affected side in the posterior semicircular canal BPPV. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between the preferred sleeping position and the affected semicircular canal in patients with BPPV. METHODS: We performed a retrospective data review of patients seeking help for vertigo/dizziness who had undergone clinical evaluation including a Dix-Hallpike test. Patients diagnosed with posterior canal BPPV (p-BPPV) were asked to define their preferred lying side (right, left, supine, or variable) during the night sleep. Affected semicircular canal (right posterior or left posterior) was registered along with demographic data. RESULTS: In all, 237 patients were diagnosed with p-BPPV. Patients with horizontal semicircular canal BPPV (n=11) were excluded. Patient mean age was 57 years (range 14-87). There were 150 patients with right p-BPPV and 87 patients with left p-BPPV. Among the patients, 122 (52%) habitually slept on the right side. Of those, 102 (84%) were diagnosed with right p-BPPV (P = 0.0006), while 82 patients (34%) habitually slept on the left side. Fifty-three (65%) were diagnosed with left p-BPPV (P < 0.0001). There were no differences in right vs. left p-BPPV in the 33 patients (14%) who expressed no preference concerning their sleeping positions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the etiology of BPPV and showed that changing sleep position habits might be helpful in preventing recurrent BPPV.


Asunto(s)
Vértigo Posicional Paroxístico Benigno/fisiopatología , Movimientos de la Cabeza , Postura , Canales Semicirculares/fisiopatología , Sueño , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
12.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 37(3): 245-250, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584023

RESUMEN

Background: Bruxism is a repetitive masticatory muscle activity with a multifactorial etiology , that can be associated to emotional factors. Aim: The aim of the study is to identify the presence of oral habits (OHs) and their association with the trait of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children [STAI-C]) in pediatric patients with possible sleep bruxism (PSB). Methods: Children between 3 and 12 years of age with PSB reported by their parents with complete deciduous or mixed dentition were included in the present study. Sociodemographic data (SD) as well as those on OHs such as only natural (ON), artificial breastfeeding (OA) or both (NA), finger sucking (FS), pacifier use (PC), and biting nails (BN) or objects (OB) were obtained through an interview with the parents/guardians answered the Brazilian version of the STAI-C questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: SD and OH as well as STAI-C findings were descriptively evaluated, while the associations between OH and STAI-C with PSB were evaluated using the Chi-square test (P < 0.05). Results: The final sample was 52 children (6.62 ± 1.8 years). Of these, 51.9% were males, 82.7% reported not living in social risk areas, and 21.2% were only children. Considering the OH, patients participated in ON (26.9%), OA (9.6%), and both (63.5%); 13.5% had an FS habit and 46.2% had related PC use; and 80.8% were reported to have OB biting behaviors, while 53.8% participated in BN. The STAI-C was present in 25 (48.1%) patients with PSB and was not associated with the presence of OH. Conclusion: There is no association between STAI-C and OH in pediatric patients with PSB.


Asunto(s)
Bruxismo del Sueño , Ansiedad , Brasil , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Succión del Dedo , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(12): 1252-1262, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570762

RESUMEN

Habits are commonly conceptualized as learned associations whereby a stimulus triggers an associated response1-3. We propose that habits may be better understood as a process whereby a stimulus triggers only the preparation of a response, without necessarily triggering its initiation. Critically, this would allow a habit to exist without ever being overtly expressed, if the prepared habitual response is replaced by a goal-directed alternative before it can be initiated. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that limiting the time available for response preparation4,5 can unmask latent habits. Participants practiced a visuomotor association for 4 days, after which the association was remapped. Participants easily learned the new association but habitually expressed the original association when forced to respond rapidly (~300-600 ms). More extensive practice reduced the latency at which habitual responses were prepared, in turn increasing the likelihood of their being expressed. The time-course of habit expression was captured by a computational model in which habitual responses are automatically prepared at short latency but subsequently replaced by goal-directed responses. Our results illustrate robust habit formation in humans and show that practice affects habitual behaviour in two distinct ways: by promoting habit formation and by modulating the likelihood of habit expression.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje por Asociación , Metas , Hábitos , Desempeño Psicomotor , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1324, 2019 Oct 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640641

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported an association between improvements in hand hygiene and the reductions in rates of intestinal parasitic diseases. However, only a some have addressed its link to the frequency of influenza-like illness. The current study aimed to find the correlation between personal hygiene habits and the frequency of influenza-like illness. METHODS: A cross-sectional study targeting 3000 participants conducted in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. A systematic random sampling methodology was applied for participant from different part of Riyadh city using a computer generating system. The researcher first started by calling each participant. A full explanation was given to each participant in details (from the purpose of the research, consent to answer the questionnaire, to the explanation of the outcome definition). Each point of the questionnaire was explained to them to make sure they had excellent comprehension, and therefore, respond accurately. Descriptive statistics and Odds Ratio and its 95% confidence intervals were used to determine the association between frequency of influenza-like illness and the studied variables. RESULTS: Two thousand eighty-two (69.4%) completed the questionnaire. The participants who spent 5-10 s in handwashing with soap and rubbing were at increased risk of more frequent influenza-like illness (odds ratio = 1.37, 1.08-1.75). Handwashing with soap and rubbing after handshaking is an independent protective habit against frequent influenza-like illness (adjusted OR = 0.59, 0.37-0.94). CONCLUSION: The decrease of the frequency of influenza-like illness could be done through the following: getting the influenza vaccine annually, washing hands with soap and hand rubbing not less than 15 s after getting out of the bathroom, before and after handshaking and before eating. Soap companies should invent soaps that take less rubbing time to kill bacteria, and subsequently may maximize compliance in the community.


Asunto(s)
Hábitos , Desinfección de las Manos , Higiene , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Mano/microbiología , Humanos , Masculino , Arabia Saudita , Jabones , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(7-8): 264-272, 2019 Jul 30.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517459

RESUMEN

Background and purpose: Objective - Our aim is to evaluate sleep habits, sleep quality and influencing factors among preschool- and schoolchildren. Methods: Two questionnaires were recorded. Questionnaire 1 dealt with sleeping habits, breastfeeding and health behavior of preschool children and infant, and it contained the abbreviated version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Questionnaire 2 dealt with health behavior and the application of sleep hygiene rules, as well as it contained the Athens Insomnia Scale. Subjects - We assessed a total of 1063 questionnaires: 516 kindergarten children participated in our online survey across the country; 547 primary and secondary school students participated in the 2nd questionnaire survey in Szolnok. Results: Parents' observation shows that the average nighttime sleeping time of kindergarten children is 10 hours 20 minutes on weekdays and 10 hours 36 minutes on weekends. The most popular sleeping habits in kindergarten age: teal reading (65.1%) and co-sleeping (42.8%). Parents of infants used breastfeeding (50.4%) and rocking (43.2%) most frequently before sleep. Co-sleeping has a positive influence on the length of lactation. Among the preschool sleeping habits we have proved a number of positive effects of teal reading, while watching television have negative effects. The sleep quality of school-age children according to the Athens Insomnia Scale is 6.11 points (SD: 4.11), 19% of the children are insomniac. Their sleep time is 7 hours 31 minutes on weekdays and 9 hours 30 minutes on weekends. The usage of good health behavior and sleep hygiene rules positively influence sleep quality and sleep duration. Conclusion: With our results, we would like to draw the attention of children and parents to the importance of sleeping and using sleep hygiene rules.


Asunto(s)
Hábitos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Higiene del Sueño , Sueño/fisiología , Televisión , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Iluminación , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(19)2019 Sep 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561599

RESUMEN

Brain health refers to the preservation of brain integrity and function optimized for an individual's biological age. Several studies have demonstrated that our lifestyles habits impact our brain health and our cognitive and mental wellbeing. Monitoring such lifestyles is thus critical and mobile technologies are essential to enable such a goal. Three databases were selected to carry out the search. Then, a PRISMA and PICOTS based criteria for a more detailed review on the basis of monitoring lifestyle aspects were used to filter the publications. We identified 133 publications after removing duplicates. Fifteen were finally selected from our criteria. Many studies still use questionnaires as the only tool for monitoring and do not apply advanced analytic or AI approaches to fine-tune results. We anticipate a transformative boom in the near future developing and implementing solutions that are able to integrate, in a flexible and adaptable way, data from technologies and devices that users might already use. This will enable continuous monitoring of objective data to guide the personalized definition of lifestyle goals and data-driven coaching to offer the necessary support to ensure adherence and satisfaction.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Estilo de Vida , Monitoreo Fisiológico/métodos , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Envejecimiento , Cognición , Ejercicio , Hábitos , Humanos , Monitoreo Fisiológico/instrumentación , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de la Nutrición , Sueño/fisiología , Teléfono Inteligente
17.
18.
BMC Ecol ; 19(1): 35, 2019 09 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510977

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Japan, invasive raccoons cause severe ecological and social problems by transmitting pathogens to humans, livestock, and native species, causing substantial crop damage, and competing with native species. Possible competition between invasive raccoons and native raccoon dogs is of concern in Japan because Japanese raccoon dogs have a limited distribution and are native only to Japan and the two species have similar characteristics. We assessed potential competition between raccoons and raccoon dogs by comparing feeding habits and habitat use. RESULTS: Both species were captured in Hokkaido, Japan from 2004 to 2017. More raccoons were captured close to agricultural land at the forest periphery (70.1%, 358/511); conversely, more raccoon dogs were captured in the forest core (74.9%, 253/338). Feeding habits were then examined by fecal analysis and stable isotope analyses. Fecal analysis revealed both species to be opportunistic omnivores that consumed easily found food items. However, raccoon feces contained more crops, whereas raccoon dog feces contained more insects, reflecting the different locations in which the species were trapped. Moreover, stable isotope ratios were significantly higher in raccoons than raccoon dogs (Corn has the highest carbon stable isotope (δ13C) value, and amphibians and reptiles are high in nitrogen stable isotope (δ15N); forest resources such as insects and wild fruits are low in δ13C and δ15N). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that both species ate similar food types, but their food preferences appeared to differ. Raccoon and raccoon dog habitat use also differed, possibly because the two species inhabited areas where they could easily obtain their preferred foods. Therefore, the current feeding habits and habitat use of raccoons do not appear to overlap sufficiently with those of raccoon dogs to impact the latter. The results of this study, particularly the stable isotope data, may provide a useful precedent for future studies of competition in medium-sized mammals, particularly canids.


Asunto(s)
Perros Mapache , Mapaches , Animales , Ecosistema , Hábitos , Humanos , Japón
19.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 150(11): 940-947, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526484

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that when children do not achieve the emotional satiety and adequate stimulus provided by breast-feeding, they exhibit sucking behaviors. This study aimed to estimate the association from 4 through 6 months of exclusive breast-feeding (EB) postpartum and pacifier-sucking behavior at 12 months of life. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted with 1,037 infants, born alive and monitored up to 12 months. At 4 and 6 months after birth, the children were classified according to the type of breast-feeding they had received: exclusive, predominant, complementary, or none. The prevalence of pacifier-sucking behavior was calculated, and the association between the 2 events was estimated. Mothers' socioeconomic-demographic characteristics, delivery features, and prenatal care, as well as the biological characteristics of the children, were determined. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. RESULTS: In comparison with EB infants, the RR of pacifier-sucking behavior at 12 months of life was higher in children receiving complementary breast-feeding or no breast-feeding for both 4 months (RRadjusted, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.39 to 2.02] and RRadjusted, 2.67 [95% CI, 2.24 to 3.17], respectively) and 6 months (RRadjusted, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.03 to 2.00] and RRadjusted, 3.30 [95% CI, 2.40 to 4.54], respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: EB for 6 months postpartum is associated with reduced pacifier-sucking behavior, adjusted for maternal color, number of prenatal consultations, and family income. Promotion of EB may reduce the use of pacifiers and their potential deleterious effects on oral health. Dental health care professionals should consider discussing the importance of breast-feeding with their patients with regard to the possible development of sucking habits in their children.


Asunto(s)
Succión del Dedo , Chupetes , Lactancia Materna , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Hábitos , Humanos , Lactante
20.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(8): 522-526, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478780

RESUMEN

Aims: This study describes changes in alcohol habits in age and gender strata among the Swedish general population during the 21-year period following the Swedish EU membership in 1995. Methods: The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was distributed as a postal questionnaire to randomly selected cross-sectional samples every fourth year, starting in 1997. Results: Six samples were included in this study. A comparison between 2014 and 2018 showed a tendency to decreasing average total AUDIT scores, particularly among men and in the youngest age group (Cohen's d = 0.28). Conclusion: The results should be understood in the context of declining response rates in this type of survey.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Hábitos , Grupos de Población/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/tendencias , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Suecia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
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