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1.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(2): 414-419, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233629

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is common among the general population, and its prevention is urgently needed particularly for the health of students. The purpose of our study was to explore the relationship between serum iron level and blood lipids. METHODS: A sample of 290 university students was collected in this cross-section study. The blood lipids and serum iron levels were determined. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between serum iron level and blood lipids. RESULTS: The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 8.8% among male students and 5.4% among female students. The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia was7.2% among the total students. The results showed that serum iron level was negatively correlated with triglyceride (TG), but was positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL)-cholesterol, and total cholesterol (TC) in female students. Female students with serum iron less than 15 mmol/L had higher levels of serum TG than female students with serum iron 15 mmol/L or above (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that lower serum iron levels may be a risk factor of high serum TG in female students. Supplementation of iron may be a strategy for prevention of high serum TG in female students.


Asunto(s)
Dislipidemias/sangre , Hierro/sangre , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Triglicéridos/sangre , Anemia Ferropénica/sangre , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Universidades , Adulto Joven
2.
J Glob Health ; 10(1): 010407, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257155

RESUMEN

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA), highlighting the need for tools to enable CVD risk stratification in the region. Although non-HDL-cholesterol (nHDL-C) has been promoted as a method to measure lipids without a requirement for fasting in the USA, its diagnostic validity has not been assessed in sSA. We sought to estimate: 1) the association between LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and nHDL-C, 2) the impact of fasting on their measurement, and 3) their correlation with carotid atherosclerosis, within a rural Ugandan population with high HIV prevalence. Methods: We collected traditional CVD risk factors, blood for serum lipid levels, self-reported fasting status, and performed carotid ultrasonography in 301 participants in rural Uganda. We fit regression models, stratified by fasting status, to estimate associations between carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), LDL-C, and nHDL-C. Results: Median age was 50 years (interquartile range = 46-54), 49% were female, 51% were HIV-positive, and at the time of blood collection, 70% had fasted overnight. Mean LDL-C, nHDL-C, and triglycerides in the non-fasting and fasting groups were 85 vs 88 mg/dL (P = 0.39), 114 vs 114 mg/dL (P = 0.98), and 130 vs 114 mg/dL (P = 0.05) mg/dL, respectively. In unadjusted models, mean cIMT (mm) was associated with both increased LDL-C (ß = 0.0078 per 10mg/dL, P < 0.01) and nHDL-C (ß = 0.0075, P < 0.01), and these relationships were similar irrespective of fasting status. After adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors, we observed similar associations, albeit with muted effect sizes within the fasting group. Conclusions: We found a high correlation between LDL-C and nHDL-C, and both were correlated with cIMT, irrespective of fasting or HIV serostatus in rural Uganda. Our findings support use of either fasting or non-fasting serum lipids for CVD risk estimation in rural sSA.


Asunto(s)
Grosor Intima-Media Carotídeo , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/sangre , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/diagnóstico , Ayuno , Población Rural , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangre , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/sangre , Arterias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades de las Arterias Carótidas/sangre , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Triglicéridos/sangre , Uganda , Ultrasonografía
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19584, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311926

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Healthy dietary patterns and physical activity (PA) represent important lifestyle behaviors with considerable potential to influence on age-related metabolic health. Yet, data on the combined effects of these lifestyle behaviors on metabolic health including low-grade systemic inflammation in aging populations remain scarce. Therefore, this protocol describes a randomized controlled trial aiming to examine the impacts of healthy dietary patterns alone or combined with PA on metabolic health in middle-aged and older men and women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The ORUDIET study is a 3-arm randomized controlled 16-week trial: Healthy Diet (HD), Healthy diet plus PA (HD-PA), and control (CON). The trial is open label, randomized with allocation concealment, parallel groups with passive controls. Participants without overt disease aged between 55 and 70 years, with BMI below 35, a current intake of a maximum of 1 serving of fruit and vegetable per day, and noncompliance to PA guidelines are eligible for inclusion. Participants in HD are instructed to increase fruit and vegetable intake to 5 servings per day (equivalent to 500 g). Participants in HD-PA receive the same dietary intervention as the HD and are additionally instructed to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activities for at least 150 minutes per week. The primary study outcomes are changes in metabolic and inflammatory health biomarkers. Secondary outcomes are changes in body composition and perceived health. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol has been approved by the ethical review board in Uppsala, Sweden. The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and disseminated in national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04062682 Pre-results.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Interleucinas/sangre , Anciano , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Glucemia/metabolismo , Presión Sanguínea , Composición Corporal , Proteína C-Reactiva/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/metabolismo , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Inflamación/sangre , Insulina/sangre , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/sangre , Síndrome Metabólico/diagnóstico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Triglicéridos/sangre
4.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 121(2): 133-136, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115966

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether a simple and easily calculated parameter such as monocyte/ HDL ratio (MHR) may be used in predicting non-dipper (NDHT)-dipper HT (DHT) end organ damage. METHODS: 70 NDHT and 73 DHT patient groups were included in the study according to ambulatory blood pressure screening results. Basic laboratory parameters and spot urine samples were evaluated. Transthoracic echocardiography and ophthalmological examination were performed for end-organ damages. RESULTS: The MHR among the groups was higher in the NDHT group; which was statistically significant (p≤0.001). In the NDHT group, albumin, creatinine, protein values, protein/creatinine ratio in the spot urine were significantly higher than in the DHT group (p≤0.05). Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and retinopathy were also more frequently observed in the NDHT group (p≤0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). MHR in patients with LVH and retinopathy was significantly higher than in those without these complications (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Easy to use, non-invasive and simple calculation, MHR can be used to predict end organ damage in hypertensive cases, and can be also used to distinguish between DHT/NDHT groups. This data supports the role of inflammation (Tab. 7, Ref. 14).


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial , HDL-Colesterol , Hipertensión , Hipertrofia Ventricular Izquierda , Monocitos , Presión Sanguínea , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Ecocardiografía , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico
5.
Clin Chim Acta ; 505: 176-182, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156606

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recent studies revealed that several genetic polymorphisms of haptoglobin gene (HP) and the haptoglobin-related protein gene (HPR) associated not only with haptoglobin (HP) but total, non-HDL, and/or LDL cholesterol concentrations in various populations. METHODS: Association between serum HP concentrations and polymorphisms of HP and the HPR gene, or anthropometric and metabolic factors were examined in Mongolian participants (n = 927) using linear regression analyses. RESULTS: The association of HP and HPR polymorphisms with serum HP concentration but not serum lipids concentrations was observed. However, subgroup analysis revealed that the association of HP and HPR polymorphisms with serum HP concentration was weakened in subgroup of obese (BMI ≥ 30) subjects and positive correlations between serum HP and non-HDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations were observed in the obese subjects as compared with in subgroups of normal weight (BMI < 25) and overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) subjects. CONCLUSION: The degree of obesity strongly affects the relationships between serum HP concentrations and several genetic, anthropometric and metabolic factors. These results suggested that we need to take into account the degree of obesity when considering the HP polymorphisms as predictive markers for clinical states.


Asunto(s)
Colesterol/sangre , Haptoglobinas/análisis , Obesidad/sangre , Obesidad/epidemiología , Triglicéridos/sangre , Adulto , Antígenos de Neoplasias/sangre , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Femenino , Haptoglobinas/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mongolia/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/sangre , Sobrepeso/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética
6.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 682-691, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050850

RESUMEN

This study aimed to verify the effect of a multicomponent intervention on cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRF), and to determine the prevalence of responders on CMRF among children and adolescents with overweight/obesity. This is a quasi-experimental study, developed with 35 children and adolescents with overweight/obesity (control group (CG) = 18; intervention group (IG) = 17), aged between 7 and 13 years. Participants in IG underwent a multicomponent intervention for 12 weeks. The following variables were evaluated: anthropometric measures, maturational stages and CMRF (body fatness, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoprotein) (HDL-C, LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and AST/ALT ratio. Mixed analysis of variance and the prevalence of responders were used for statistical analysis. There was a significant time x group interaction on body fatness (p < 0.001), HOMA-IR (p = 0.01), HDL-C (p < 0.001), LDL-C (p = 0.009) and TC (p < 0.001). The prevalence of responders for CMRF in IG and CG was respectively: body fatness (47%; 0%; p = 0.04), HOMA-IR (58.8%; 16.6%; p = 0.04); triglycerides (17.6%; 5.5%; p = 0.31); HDL-C (76.4%; 5.5%; p = 0.01), LDL-C (35.3%; 5%; p = 0.08), TC (64.7%; 5%; p = 0.01), AST (5.8%; 0%; p = 0.87), ALT (29.4%; 11.1%; p = 0.24) and AST/ALT ratio (24.4%; 22.2%; p = 0.67). Multicomponent intervention induced positive changes on CMRF along with a higher prevalence of positive adaptations in IG than the CG in some of the cardiometabolic outcomes assessed.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable , Ejercicio Físico , Sobrepeso/prevención & control , Padres/psicología , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Apoyo Social , Adolescente , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Distribución de la Grasa Corporal , Niño , Colesterol/sangre , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Femenino , Homeostasis , Humanos , Resistencia a la Insulina/fisiología , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Triglicéridos/sangre
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228269, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995593

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia and abnormal glycemic traits are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Although the association between the two traits is well established, there still exists a gap in the evidence for the direction of causality. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the direction of the causal relationship between lipids and glycemic traits in an Indian population using bidirectional Mendelian randomization (BMR). METHODS: The BMR analysis was conducted on 4900 individuals (2450 sib-pairs) from the Indian Migration Study. Instrument variables were generated for each lipid and glycemic trait (fasting insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, HOMA-ß, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides) to examine the causal relationship by applying two-stage least squares (2SLS) regression in both directions. RESULTS: Lipid and glycemic traits were found to be associated observationally, however, results from 2SLS showed that only triglycerides, defined by weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) of 3 SNPs (rs662799 at APOAV, rs780094 at GCKR and rs4420638 at APOE/C1/C4), were observed to be causally effecting 1.15% variation in HOMA-IR (SE = 0.22, P = 0.010), 1.53% in HOMA- ß (SE = 0.21, P = 0.001) and 1.18% in fasting insulin (SE = 0.23, P = 0.009). No evidence for a causal effect was observed in the reverse direction or between any other lipid and glycemic traits. CONCLUSION: The study findings suggest that triglycerides may causally impact various glycemic traits. However, the findings need to be replicated in larger studies.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/análisis , Lípidos/sangre , Carácter Cuantitativo Heredable , Adulto , Colesterol/sangre , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Técnicas de Genotipaje , Humanos , India , Insulina/sangre , Resistencia a la Insulina/genética , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Masculino , Análisis de la Aleatorización Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Triglicéridos/sangre
8.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 32(1): 27-34, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970995

RESUMEN

We aimed to investigate the relationship between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and the incident stroke subtypes. We enrolled 11 027 participants between the ages of 18 and 90 years without a history of stroke in 12 Japanese communities. Cox's regression models were used for stroke subtypes, adjusted for traditional risk factors, according to the categories based on HDL-C concentrations: 1.04 to 1.55 mmol/L, ≥1.56 mmol/L, and <1.03 mmol/L (as the reference). During a mean follow-up of 10.7 years, 412 stroke events had occurred. However, HDL-C was not significantly associated with the incidence of cerebral infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhage. High HDL-C concentration was associated with a decreased incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage in women (hazard ratio = 0.23; 95% confidence interval = 0.06-0.89), but not in men (hazard ratio = 0.73; 95% confidence interval = 0.27-1.97). Therefore, high HDL-C concentration might have a protective effect on the incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage, particularly in women.


Asunto(s)
HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Accidente Cerebrovascular/sangre , Adulto Joven
9.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0225348, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935216

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets are associated with cardiovascular risk factors; however, the results of different studies are inconsistent. PURPOSE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the relationship between low-carbohydrate diets and cardiovascular risk factors. METHOD: Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library) were searched from their inception to November 2018. We collected data from 12 randomized trials on low-carbohydrate diets including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, and blood pressure levels, as well as weight as the endpoints. The average difference (MD) was used as the index to measure the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on cardiovascular risk factors with a fixed-effects model or random-effects model. The analysis was further stratified by factors that might affect the results of the intervention. RESULTS: From 1292 studies identified in the initial search results, 12 randomized studies were included in the final analysis, which showed that a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with a decrease in triglyceride levels of -0.15mmol/l (95% confidence interval -0.23 to -0.07). Low-carbohydrate diet interventions lasting less than 6 months were associated with a decrease of -0.23mmol/l (95% confidence interval -0.32 to -0.15), while those lasting 12-23 months were associated with a decrease of -0.17mmol/l (95% confidence interval -0.32 to -0.01). The change in the body weight in the observation groups was -1.58kg (95% confidence interval -1.58 to -0.75); with for less than 6 months of intervention,this change was -1.14 kg (95% confidence interval -1.65 to -0.63),and with for 6-11 months of intervention, this change was -1.73kg (95% confidence interval -2.7 to -0.76). The change in the systolic blood pressure of the observation group was -1.41mmHg (95% confidence interval-2.26 to -0.56); the change in diastolic blood pressure was -1.71mmHg (95% confidence interval-2.36 to -1.06); the change in plasma HDL-C levels was 0.1mmHg (95% confidence interval 0.08 to 0.12); and the change in serum total cholesterol was 0.13mmol/l (95% confidence interval 0.08 to 0.19). The plasma LDL-C level increased by 0.11mmol/l (95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.19), and the fasting blood glucose level changed 0.03mmol/l (95% confidence interval -0.05 to 0.12),which was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis confirms that low-carbohydrate diets have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk factors but that the long-term effects on cardiovascular risk factors require further research.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Dieta Baja en Carbohidratos , Dieta con Restricción de Grasas , Ingestión de Energía , Presión Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/sangre , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Riesgo , Triglicéridos/sangre
10.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227357, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910446

RESUMEN

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) which is caused by obesity and insulin resistance, is well known for its predictive capability for the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The development of MetS is associated with multiple genetic factors, environmental factors and lifestyle. We performed a genome-wide association study to identify single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) related to MetS in large Korean population based samples of 1,362 subjects with MetS and 6,061 controls using the Axiom® Korean Biobank Array 1.0. We replicated the data in another sample including 502 subjects with MetS and 1,751 controls. After adjusting for age and sex, rs662799 located in the APOA5 gene were significantly associated with MetS. 15 SNPs in GCKR, C2orf16, APOA5, ZPR1, and BUD13 were associated with high triglyceride (TG). 14 SNPs in APOA5, ALDH1A2, LIPC, HERPUD1, and CETP, and 2 SNPs in MTNR1B were associated with low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and high fasting blood glucose respectively. Among these SNPs, 6 TG SNPs: rs1260326, rs1260333, rs1919127, rs964184, rs2075295 and rs1558861 and 11 HDL-C SNPs: rs4775041, rs10468017, rs1800588, rs72786786, rs173539, rs247616, rs247617, rs3764261, rs4783961, rs708272, and rs7499892 were first discovered in Koreans. Additional research is needed to confirm these 17 novel SNPs in Korean population.


Asunto(s)
HDL-Colesterol/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Síndrome Metabólico/genética , Alelos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/genética , Glucemia/genética , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/genética , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/patología , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patología , Ayuno , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Resistencia a la Insulina/genética , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/sangre , Síndrome Metabólico/patología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/genética , Obesidad/patología , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
11.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 104-107, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915344

RESUMEN

Pregnancy is accompanied by changes in the maternal lipoprotein metabolism that may serve to satisfy the nutritional demands of the fetus in addition to the energy requirements of the mother. Early pregnancy is considered the anabolic phase, characterized by increased hepatic production of triglycerides and enhanced removal of triglycerides from the circulation, resulting in an increased deposition of fat in maternal adipose tissue. Late pregnancy is referred to as the catabolic phase, the release of free fatty acids from adipocytes is enhanced due to both relative insulin resistance and stimulation of hormones. Although it is known that cholesterol rises in pregnancy, at present it is not routinely measured or treated. However, a growing body of evidence from animal and human studies suggests adverse consequences of high cholesterol levels in pregnancy. High lipid profile, a major factor behind atherosclerosis may leads to unconsciousness. To avoid such problems during pregnancy this longitudinal study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry, Mymensingh Medical College in co-operation with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital and Community Based Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh from July 2011 to December 2012 to compare the changes in high density lipoprotein cholesterol level during 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. A total of one hundred subjects were participated in this study comprising of second and third trimester of pregnancy. All subjects were made to fast overnight at least for a minimum of 8 hours. Blood samples were taken and analyzed by enzymatic colorimetric kit method. Pregnancy has been found to be associated with changes in lipid profile and this differs with each trimester. The average results were analyzed with respect to each pregnancy for the whole group. The study proves that serum High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increases in second trimester (48.71±7.61mg/dl) than third trimester (47.01±7.45mg/dl) of Pregnancy. So, Lipid profile estimation and monitoring should be made as a part of routine investigation during antenatal period.


Asunto(s)
HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Segundo Trimestre del Embarazo/sangre , Tercer Trimestre del Embarazo/sangre , Animales , Bangladesh , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Embarazo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228004, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990936

RESUMEN

Type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia are diseases that collectively increase the risk of patients developing cardiovascular complications. Several incretin-based drugs are reported to improve lipid metabolism, and one of these medications, anagliptin, is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor that has been shown to decrease serum triglyceride and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol. This study aimed to conduct an investigation into the effects of anagliptin on serum lipid profiles. This multicenter, open-label, randomized (1:1), parallel group study was designed to evaluate the effects of anagliptin on serum lipid profiles (triglycerides, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and cholesterol fractions). The study involved 24 patients with type 2 diabetes at two participating hospitals for a period of 24 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned to the anagliptin (n = 12) or control (n = 12) groups. Patients in the anagliptin group were treated with 200 mg of the drug twice daily. Patients in the control group did not receive anagliptin, but continued with their previous treatment schedules. Lipid metabolism was examined under fasting conditions at baseline and 24 weeks. Patients treated with anagliptin for 24 weeks exhibited significantly reduced levels of serum apolipoprotein B-48, a marker for lipid transport from the intestine, compared with the control group patients (P < 0.05). After 24 weeks of treatment, serum adiponectin levels were significantly raised, whereas glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were significantly lower compared with the baseline in the anagliptin group (P < 0.05), but not in the control group. This study showed that the DPP-4 inhibitor anagliptin reduces fasting apolipoprotein B-48 levels, suggesting that this drug may have beneficial effects on lipid metabolism possibly mediated by the inhibition of intestinal lipid transport.


Asunto(s)
Apolipoproteína B-48/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV/uso terapéutico , Dislipidemias/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapéutico , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Pirimidinas/uso terapéutico , Adiponectina/sangre , Anciano , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Dislipidemias/sangre , Ayuno/sangre , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Triglicéridos/sangre
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 376, 2020 01 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953392

RESUMEN

Mendelian randomization (MR) is an epidemiological technique that uses genetic variants to distinguish correlation from causation in observational data. The reliability of a MR investigation depends on the validity of the genetic variants as instrumental variables (IVs). We develop the contamination mixture method, a method for MR with two modalities. First, it identifies groups of genetic variants with similar causal estimates, which may represent distinct mechanisms by which the risk factor influences the outcome. Second, it performs MR robustly and efficiently in the presence of invalid IVs. Compared to other robust methods, it has the lowest mean squared error across a range of realistic scenarios. The method identifies 11 variants associated with increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, decreased triglyceride levels, and decreased coronary heart disease risk that have the same directions of associations with various blood cell traits, suggesting a shared mechanism linking lipids and coronary heart disease risk mediated via platelet aggregation.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Análisis de la Aleatorización Mendeliana/métodos , Proyectos de Investigación , Índice de Masa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Enfermedad Coronaria/sangre , Enfermedad Coronaria/epidemiología , Enfermedad Coronaria/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Pleiotropía Genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Epidemiología Molecular/métodos , Fenotipo , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Riesgo , Triglicéridos/sangre , Triglicéridos/genética
14.
Phytother Res ; 34(2): 329-339, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943427

RESUMEN

This study sought to summarize clinical evidence of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) administration on cardiovascular disease risk factors. PubMed, Scopus, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science, and Google Scholar were systematically searched from inception to June 2019 to identify randomized clinical trials, which assessed the effect of sour tea consumption on lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and blood pressure in adult populations. Mean and standard deviation for each parameter were extracted to calculate effect size. Cochrane Collaboration tools were used to evaluate risk of bias assessment. A total of seven randomized clinical trials consisting 362 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled effect size demonstrated that sour tea consumption significantly reduces fasting plasma glucose (-3.67 mg/dl, 95% confidence interval, CI [-7.07, -0.27]; I2 = 37%), systolic blood pressure (-4.71 mmHg, 95% CI [-7.87, -1.55]; I2 = 53%), and diastolic blood pressure (-4.08 mmHg, 95% CI [-6.48, -1.67]; I2 = 14%). Although no significant effect was observed on triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol following sour tea consumption, a trend toward a significant reduction was found in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol serum concentrations (p = 0.08). This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that sour tea consumption could have beneficial effect in controlling glycemic status and blood pressure among adult population.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/efectos de los fármacos , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Hibiscus/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Riesgo , , Triglicéridos/sangre
15.
Am Heart J ; 221: 60-66, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927126

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is inversely related to risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in epidemiologic studies but is a poorer predictor of MACE in patients with established coronary heart disease. HDL particle concentration (HDLP) has been proposed as a better predictor of risk. We investigated whether HDLP is associated with risk of MACE after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: The dal-Outcomes trial compared the CETP inhibitor dalcetrapib with placebo in patients with recent ACS. In a nested case-cohort analysis, total, large, medium, and small HDLPs were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at baseline (4-12 weeks after ACS) in 476 cases with MACE and 902 controls. Hazard ratios (HRs; case-control) for 1-SD increment of HDLP or HDL-C at baseline were calculated with and without adjustment for demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment variables. Similarly, HRs for MACE were calculated for changes in HDLP or HDL-C from baseline to month 3 of assigned treatment. RESULTS: Over median follow-up of 28 months, the risk of MACE was not associated with baseline HDLP (adjusted HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.84-1.15, P = .81), any HDLP subclass, or HDL-C. Dalcetrapib increased HDL-C and total, medium, and large HDLP and decreased small HDLP but had no effect on MACE compared with placebo. There were no association of risk of MACE with change in HDLP or HDL-C and no interaction with assigned study treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Neither baseline HDLP nor the change in HDLP on treatment with dalcetrapib or placebo was associated with risk of MACE after ACS.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Coronario Agudo/sangre , Angina Inestable/epidemiología , Enfermedad Coronaria/mortalidad , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangre , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Síndrome Coronario Agudo/tratamiento farmacológico , Anciano , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Casos y Controles , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Compuestos de Sulfhidrilo/uso terapéutico
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 545-554, 2020 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927581

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs; e.g., acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are produced by microbial fermentation of fiber in the colon. Evidence is lacking on how high-fiber diets that differ in macronutrient composition affect circulating SCFAs. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the effects of 3 high-fiber isocaloric diets differing in %kcal of carbohydrate, protein, or unsaturated fat on circulating SCFAs. Based on previous literature, we hypothesized that serum acetate, the main SCFA in circulation, increases on all high-fiber diets, but differently by macronutrient composition of the diet. METHODS: OmniHeart is a randomized crossover trial of 164 men and women (≥30 y old); 163 participants with SCFA data were included in this analysis. We provided participants 3 isocaloric high-fiber (∼30 g/2100 kcal) diets, each for 6 wk, in random order: a carbohydrate-rich (Carb) diet, a protein-rich (Prot) diet (protein predominantly from plant sources), and an unsaturated fat-rich (Unsat) diet. We used LC-MS to quantify SCFA concentrations in fasting serum, collected at baseline and the end of each diet period. We fitted linear regression models with generalized estimating equations to examine change in ln-transformed SCFAs from baseline to the end of each diet; differences between diets; and associations of changes in SCFAs with cardiometabolic parameters. RESULTS: From baseline, serum acetate concentrations were increased by the Prot (ß: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.35), Unsat (ß: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.33), and Carb (ß: 0.12; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.24) diets; between diets, only Prot compared with Carb was significant (P = 0.02). Propionate was decreased by the Carb (ß: -0.10; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.03) and Unsat (ß: -0.10; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.04) diets, not the Prot diet; between diet comparisons of Carb vs. Prot (P = 0.006) and Unsat vs. Prot (P = 0.002) were significant. The Prot diet increased butyrate (ß: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.09) compared with baseline, but not compared with the other diets. Increases in acetate were associated with decreases in insulin and glucose; increases in propionate with increases in leptin, LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; and increases in butyrate with increases in insulin and glucose, and decreases in HDL cholesterol and ghrelin (Ps < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Macronutrient composition of high-fiber diets affects circulating SCFAs, which are associated with measures of appetite and cardiometabolic health. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00051350.


Asunto(s)
Carbohidratos de la Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Grasas Insaturadas/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/sangre , Adulto , Apetito , Presión Sanguínea , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/análisis , Fibras de la Dieta/análisis , Proteínas en la Dieta/análisis , Grasas Insaturadas/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
17.
Clin Biochem ; 75: 7-14, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678428

RESUMEN

Cardiovascular diseases are among the main causes of mortality worldwide, and dyslipidemia is a principal factor risk. Hence the study of biochemical markers is necessary for early diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate biomarkers to diagnose the risks of cardiovascular diseases in healthy Brazilian and African young adults. DESIGN & METHODS: Weight, height, waist circumference, percentage of body fat and systemic blood pressure were measured; and fasting blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, and apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured on automated equipment using commercially available kits, in addition to the tests of antioxidant capacity of HDL and the enzymatic activity of Paraoxonase 1. RESULTS: After statistical analysis, it was found that BMI, WC, fat (%), triglycerides, ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and Vmax were higher in Brazilians, while HDL-c, ApoA-I, Lag Time, Vmax and PON1 activity were higher in Africans. In Brazilians, the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio was related to obesity factors and lipid profile, but in Africans it was related only to lipids. The antioxidant capacity of HDL and PON1 activity was better in Africans. Through independence testing, we observed an association with moderate risk of myocardial infarction with gender in Africans. In the binary logistic regression analysis, it was found that men in general - and particularly African men - have higher risk of myocardial infarction than women; Odds Ratio 2144 (CI95%: 1343-3424) and 2281 (CI95%: 1082-4811), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The anthropometric and biochemical parameters of Brazilians, especially men, predispose them to greater risks of cardiovascular diseases.


Asunto(s)
Apolipoproteína A-I/sangre , Arildialquilfosfatasa/sangre , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Adolescente , Angola/epidemiología , Biomarcadores/sangre , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/sangre , Femenino , Guinea Bissau/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(2): 104563, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831329

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Juvenile-onset mixed connective tissue disease (JMCTD) is a chronic inflammatory disease. We have previously demonstrated preclinical atherosclerosis in these patients, now exploring this further by assessing markers of endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with JMCTD and 33 age-and sex-matched controls were included. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), Il-6 and, von Willenbrand factor (vWF) were assayed from blood taken at the time of carotid ultrasound. RESULTS: Our major findings were: (1) Levels of sICAM-1 (P < .001), IL-6 (P = .004), and vWF (P = .001) were higher, whereas (2) high density lipoprotein cholesterol (<.01) and apolipoprotein A1 (P < .01) were lower in the patient group compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with JMCTD had significantly increased levels of markers of endothelial dysfunction.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores/sangre , Enfermedades de las Arterias Carótidas/sangre , Endotelio Vascular/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adhesión Intercelular/sangre , Interleucina-6/sangre , Enfermedad Mixta del Tejido Conjuntivo/sangre , Factor de von Willebrand/análisis , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangre , Enfermedades de las Arterias Carótidas/diagnóstico , Grosor Intima-Media Carotídeo , Estudios de Casos y Controles , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedad Mixta del Tejido Conjuntivo/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedad Mixta del Tejido Conjuntivo/tratamiento farmacológico , Ultrasonografía Doppler en Color , Regulación hacia Arriba , Adulto Joven
19.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 57: 126408, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587838

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the association between iron deficiency without anemia (IDNA) and serum lipid profiles in young women of around 20 years of age. METHODS: This study included non-anemic (hemoglobin ≥ 12 g/dL) female volunteers aged 18 to 22 years who were not taking mineral/vitamin supplements and living in the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan. These volunteers were classified into two groups based on their sFer (serum ferritin) levels: normal group (sFer ≥ 20 ng/mL, n = 36) and IDNA group (sFer < 20 ng/mL, n = 29). Venous blood samples were obtained from the antecubital veins of these volunteers after 10-12-h fasting to measure the hematological and biochemical parameters, including lipid levels and iron status. The results of each group were compared using Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney U test (for inhomogeneous variance). RESULTS: The serum cholesterol levels varied depending on the iron status in the women. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the IDNA group were significantly higher (P = 0.006) than that in the normal group. However, the levels of total cholesterol (T-CHO), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were not significantly different between the groups. Serum LDL-C levels were positively and significantly correlated with sFer levels in the IDNA group (Kendall's rank correlation 0.264, P = 0.044), but not in the normal group. The sFer level was not correlated with serum HDL-C in both groups. The reason for the high serum HDL-C levels in young women with IDNA is not yet clear. Compared to the normal group, the frequency of eating bread containing bran was significantly higher (P = 0.031) and that for yogurt was significantly lower (P = 0.040) in the IDNA group. The proportion of the women who were susceptible to infection, which was measured using the Cornell Medical Index, was significantly higher in the IDNA group than in the normal group. Among those susceptible to infection, the serum HDL-C level of the volunteers in the IDNA group was significantly higher than that of the volunteers in the normal group (P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that lipid parameters may be associated with IDNA and susceptibility to infection. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the changes in the serum cholesterol levels in individuals with IDNA and the clinical significance of these findings.


Asunto(s)
Anemia Ferropénica/sangre , Lípidos/sangre , Adolescente , Adulto , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Hierro/sangre , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Triglicéridos/sangre , Adulto Joven
20.
Maturitas ; 132: 7-16, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883666

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to clarify the effect of a specific standardised extract of red clover (Trifolium pratense) on the lipid profile of perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. METHODS: Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library electronic databases were searched for papers in English reporting randomized controlled trials published up to 2017. Reference lists from those papers were checked for further relevant publications. Studies were identified and reviewed for their eligibility for inclusion in this review. The changes from baseline in the levels of individual components of the lipid profiles were used to assess differences between the active treatment and placebo groups. Weighted mean differences and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated for continuous data using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Ten eligible studies (twelve comparisons) with 910 peri- and postmenopausal women were selected for systematic review. The meta-analysis showed changes in serum levels: total cholesterol, -0.29 (95 % CI: -0.53 to -0.06) mmol/L [-11.21 (95 % CI: -20.49 to -13.92) mg/dL], p = 0.0136; LDL-cholesterol, -0.13 (95 % CI: -0.35 to 0.09) mmol/L [-5.02 (95 % CI: -13.53 to 3.48) mg/dL], p = 0.2418; triglycerides, -0.15 (95 % CI: -0.32 to 0.01) mmol/L [-13.28 (95 % CI: -28.34 to 0.88) mg/dL], p = 0.0592; and HDL-cholesterol, 0.14 (95 % CI: -0.08 to 0.36) mmol/L [5.41 (95 % CI: -3.09-13.92) mg/dL], p = 0.2103. TheI2 statistic ranged from 87.95%-98.30 %, indicating significant heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a red clover extract is efficacious in reducing the concentrations of total cholesterol; however, changes in HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides are not as pronounced. Potentially, this means that women takingTrifolium pratense for menopausal symptoms can derive additional benefits from the plant's specific effect that corrects abnormal cholesterol levels. Additional studies are needed to assess its effects on post-menopausal women.


Asunto(s)
Isoflavonas/farmacología , Lípidos/sangre , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Trifolium , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Perimenopausia/sangre , Posmenopausia/sangre , Triglicéridos/sangre
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