Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.287
Filtrar
1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806563

RESUMEN

Background: This study evaluates the effectiveness of parent-assisted children's friendship training intervention for enhancing friendship quality and social skills among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We conducted a quasi-experimental study to investigate the effective outcomes of social skills and friendship quality in the pre-and post-parent-assisted CFT intervention phases; Methods: to conduct a 12-week field session, 30 children with their parents were selected. The Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales and the Quality of Play Questionnaire-Parent were used to assess the effectiveness of the parent-assisted children's friendship training during pre-and post-intervention. A semi-structured interview with parents was conducted at the end of the session; Results: findings revealed that intervention improved the social skills of these children. Additionally, the friendship quality of children with ASD improved before and after the intervention, however, engagement remained unchanged. Parents also showed some sort of improvement after the session as they reported a heightened sense of fear and resistance, awareness, learning and adjustment, change is not easy, and identifying support; Conclusions: there was clear evidence that children with ASD benefitted from parent-assisted CFTs in terms of social skills and friendship quality. However, larger and controlled studies are required to draw firm conclusions about this kind of intervention.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico , Trastornos Generalizados del Desarrollo Infantil , Niño , Amigos , Humanos , Malasia , Habilidades Sociales
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803581

RESUMEN

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a constellation of social deficits and repetitive sensory-motor behaviours. Aquatic therapy (AT) may be effective in improving the social interactions and behaviours in children with ASD. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an AT program on social competence and quality of life and to understand participant's experiences related to the intervention by obtaining qualitative data. A mixed methods intervention study was conducted among 6 children with ASD and their parents, with two research phases in a concurrent embedded design (an aquatic intervention as the quantitative design and a qualitative design in second step). The intervention and qualitative design followed international guidelines and were integrated into the method and reporting subheadings. Significant improvement was observed in the physical competence (p = 0.026) and important improvements in school functioning and aquatic skills, with no adverse events. Qualitative findings described: the meaning of AT intervention, patterns of behaviour and activities changes, social communication and social interaction. The aquatic intervention showed positive results for the social and physical competence, with elements of discordance, expansion, and confirmation between quantitative and qualitative results.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Calidad de Vida , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Niño , Comunicación , Humanos , Habilidades Sociales
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804140

RESUMEN

The objective of this study is to analyse the impact of physical education based on the adventure education programme on the social competences of adolescent boys. The participants (n = 70) were 1st grade high school students between 15 and 16 years old. Adolescents' social competences were measured using the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and Social Competence Questionnaire (SCQ) before and after the intervention. An experimental repeated-measures design was used, with a comparison group. ANOVA (2 × 2) for interaction group x time showed statistical significance in competences revealed in situations of social exposure (F1, 68 = 5.16, p < 0.05, partial η2 = 0.07) and competences revealed in situations requiring assertiveness (F1, 68 = 4.73, p < 0.05, partial η2 = 0.07). Using the adventure education (AE) programme may be recommended as a way of developing social skill competences revealed in situations of social exposure and competences revealed in situations requiring the assertiveness of adolescents through physical activity that can be easily integrated into the school environment.


Asunto(s)
Educación y Entrenamiento Físico , Habilidades Sociales , Adolescente , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagen , Estudiantes
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672115

RESUMEN

Migration in Chile has increased exponentially in recent years, with education being one of the main focuses of attention in this cultural transformation. Integration and social competence in the migrant population are determined by several factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential effects of resilience and acculturation stress on the levels of integration and social competence in migrant students in Northern Chile. In total, 292 school children of both genders aged 8 to 18, from the fourth grade to senior year of high school, participated in the investigation. A subscale of the Child and Adolescent Assessment System (Sistema de evaluación de niños y adolescentes SENA) was used to assess integration and social competence. Additionally, the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-12) and the Acculturation Stress Source Scale (FEAC) were used. The results show that integration and social competence have statistically significant and direct associations with resilience (p < 0.001) and indirect associations with acculturation stress (p = 0.009). Both constructs could be defined as protection and risk factors, respectively, and should be considered in educational contexts to favor adaptation in the integration of migrant children and adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Aculturación , Migrantes , Adolescente , Niño , Chile , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Habilidades Sociales , Estudiantes
7.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(2): 1-9, 2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646028

RESUMEN

Research carried out in 2016 by the authors investigated the challenges that doctors in training experience around leadership and followership in the NHS. The study explored contemporary healthcare leadership culture and the role of followership from the perspective of early career doctors. It found that the leadership and followership challenges for these doctors in training were associated with issues of social and professional identity, communication, the medical hierarchy, and relationships with senior colleagues (support and trust). These challenges were exacerbated by the busy and turbulent clinical environment in which they worked. To cope with various clinical situations and forms of leadership, doctors in training engage in a range of different followership behaviours and strategies. The study raised implications for medical education and training and suggested that followership should be included as part of formal training in communication and team working skills. The importance of both leadership and followership in the delivery of safe and effective patient care has been brought sharply into focus by the COVID-19 pandemic. This article revisits these challenges in light of the pandemic and its impact on the experiences of doctors in training.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica , Liderazgo , Cuerpo Médico de Hospitales , Enseñanza/tendencias , /epidemiología , Movilidad Laboral , Conducta Cooperativa , Educación Médica/métodos , Educación Médica/tendencias , Humanos , Cuerpo Médico de Hospitales/educación , Cuerpo Médico de Hospitales/psicología , Cuerpo Médico de Hospitales/normas , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Habilidades Sociales
8.
Behav Ther ; 52(2): 324-337, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622503

RESUMEN

Although the alliance is a consistent predictor of treatment outcomes in psychosocial interventions, few studies have examined this association among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, youth-therapist alliance has never been examined in social skills interventions (SSIs), a common modality for this population. In this study, thirty-four youth with ASD (Mage = 12.41; 79% male) participated in a community-delivered, group-based SSI in a summer camp format led by eight Head Therapists (Mage = 32.12; 50% male). Early alliance and change in alliance over the course of the treatment were assessed via self- and observer-reported measures. Both self- and observer-rated alliance were associated with positive treatment outcomes as reported by parents (decreased problem behaviors) and other peers in the group (reciprocated friendship and social preference). These results provide the first evidence of the role of the alliance in an SSI for youth with ASD and add to the growing body of literature that demonstrates the importance of assessing and addressing the alliance in treatment for this population.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Problema de Conducta , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Padres , Grupo Paritario , Habilidades Sociales
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD013457, 2021 02 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583058

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been associated, in part, with the dysfunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors at excitatory synapses and glutamate abnormalities. Medications related to glutamatergic neurotransmission, such as D-cycloserine - which is a partial agonist of the NMDA glutamate receptor - are potential treatment options for the core features of ASD. However, the potential effect of D-cycloserine on the social and communication skills deficits of individuals with ASD has not been thoroughly explored and no systematic reviews of the evidence have been conducted. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of D-cycloserine compared with placebo for social and communication skills in individuals with ASD. SEARCH METHODS: In November 2020, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, six other databases and two trials registers. We also searched the reference lists of relevant publications and contacted the authors of the included study, Minshawi 2016, to identify any additional studies. In addition, we contacted pharmaceutical companies, searched manufacturers' websites and sources of reports of adverse events.  SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any duration and dose of D-cycloserine, with or without adjunct treatment, compared to placebo in individuals with ASD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted relevant data, assessed the risk of bias, graded the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach, and analysed and evaluated the data. We provide a narrative report of the findings as only one study is included in this review. MAIN RESULTS: We included a single RCT (Minshawi 2016) funded by the United States Department of Defense. It was conducted at two sites in the USA: Indiana University School of Medicine and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Centre. In the included study, 67 children with ASD aged between 5 and 11 years were randomised to receive either 10 weeks (10 doses) of (50 mg) D-cycloserine plus social skills training, or placebo plus social skills training. Randomisation was carried out 1:1 between D-cycloserine and placebo arms, and outcome measures were recorded at one-week post-treatment. The 'risk of bias' assessment for the included study was low for five domains and unclear for two domains. The study (67 participants) reported low certainty evidence of little to no difference between the two groups for all outcomes measured at one week post-treatment: social interaction impairment (mean difference (MD) 3.61 (assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale), 95% confidence interval (CI) -5.60 to 12.82); social communication impairment (MD -1.08 (measured using the inappropriate speech subscale of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC)), 95% CI -2.34 to 0.18); restricted, repetitive, stereotyped patterns of behaviour (MD 0.12 (measured by the ABC stereotypy subscale), 95% CI -1.71 to 1.95); serious adverse events (risk ratio (RR) 1.11, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.31); non-core symptoms of ASD (RR 0.97 (measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale), 95% CI 0.49 to 1.93); and tolerability of D-cycloserine (RR 0.32 (assessed by the number of dropouts), 95% CI 0.01 to 7.68).  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are unable to conclude with certainty whether D-cycloserine is effective for individuals with ASD. This review included low certainty data from only one study with methodological issues and imprecision. The added value of this review compared to the included study is we assessed the risk of bias and evaluated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. Moreover, if we find new trials in future updates of this review, we could potentially pool the data, which may either strengthen or decrease the evidence for our findings.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/tratamiento farmacológico , Comunicación , Cicloserina/uso terapéutico , Habilidades Sociales , Niño , Preescolar , Cicloserina/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Indiana , Masculino , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Ohio , Pacientes Desistentes del Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Placebos/uso terapéutico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Conducta Estereotipada/efectos de los fármacos
10.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 30(1): 57-66, ene. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-197953

RESUMEN

There are no systematic reviews of the use of parent-child interaction measures employed within studies examining the effects of parent-mediated intervention on toddlers with autism. Best practices recommend using parent-child interaction measures to assess whether interventions aimed at strengthening parent-child interactions are functioning as intended. A systematic review of parent-mediated early intervention studies of toddlers with autism was conducted. The purpose was to examine the use of parent-child interaction measures to assess parent positive support of toddler social communication and report feasibility characteristics for early interventionist practitioners. Experimental parent-mediated intervention studies of social communication among children with autism younger than 36 months were identified. Measurement approaches to parent support of social communication were quantified. Of 25 studies, only 7 studies reported parent and child outcomes using an instrument designed to measure the construct of parent support of child social communication during observed parent-child interaction. Measures reported are of limited relevance for early intervention practitioners due to administration burden and lack of feasibility for repeated measurement of progress toward increasing parent support of toddler social communication. This study highlights the need for feasible practitioner tools for monitoring progress of parent support of social communication for toddlers with autism


No hay revisiones sistemáticas acerca de las medidas de interacción padres-hijo que se utilizan en los estudios que analizan los efectos de la intervención en niños autistas mediada por los padres. Las mejores prácticas recomiendan controlar la medición de las intervenciones mediadas por los padres, las cuales han sido diseñadas para mejorar las habilidades de comunicación social de los niños con el fin de saber si dichas intervenciones funcionan según lo previsto. El propósito de este artículo es presentar los resultados de una revisión sistemática de la literatura que examina específicamente la medición de la interacción entre padres e hijos en estudios de intervención mediada por padres de niños pequeños con autismo. Se utilizó un enfoque PRISMA para identificar estudios experimentales de intervención mediada por padres, enfocados en la comunicación social de niños pequeños con autismo. Las formas utilizadas para medir el apoyo de los padres de la comunicación social en cada uno de estos estudios fueron cuantificadas. De 25 estudios solo 7 incluyeron una medida de observación directa de la interacción entre padres e hijos en la que se presentaron los índices de comportamiento de padres e hijos. Los métodos de evaluación utilizados para medir la interacción entre padres e hijos en los estudios experimentales publicados tienden a buscar profesionales altamente capacitados y especializados, que además requiere bastante tiempo para codificar. En consecuencia, estas herramientas de medición tienen una utilidad limitada para los profesionales que precisan de herramientas breves y confiables que además tengan una base psicométrica para medir la interacción entre padres e hijos para tomar decisiones basadas en datos sobre si sus intervenciones están teniendo los efectos previstos. El estudio destaca la necesidad de contar con instrumentos de medición con base psicométrica que permitan seguir de manera accesible el progreso del apoyo sobre comunicación social para padres de niños pequeños con autismo


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adulto , Trastorno Autístico/epidemiología , Trastorno Autístico/psicología , Habilidades Sociales , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/psicología , Psicometría , Comunicación Social , Conducta Infantil/psicología
11.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(3): e309-e319, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341153

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Early childhood development (ECD) programmes can help address early disadvantages for the 43% of children younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries who have compromised development. We aimed to test the effectiveness of two group-based delivery models for an integrated ECD responsive stimulation and nutrition education intervention using Kenya's network of community health volunteers. METHODS: We implemented a multi-arm, cluster-randomised community effectiveness trial in three rural subcounties across 60 villages (clusters) in western Kenya. Eligible participants were mothers or female primary caregivers aged 15 years or older with children aged 6-24 months at enrolment. If married or in established relationships, fathers or male caregivers aged 18 years or older were also eligible. Villages were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to one of three groups: group-only delivery with 16 fortnightly sessions; mixed delivery combining 12 group sessions with four home visits; and a comparison group. Villages in the intervention groups were randomly assigned (1:1) to invite or not invite fathers and male caregivers to participate. Households were surveyed at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Assessors were masked. Primary outcomes were child cognitive and language development (score on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development third edition), socioemotional development (score on the Wolke scale), and parental stimulation (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment inventory). Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03548558. FINDINGS: Between Oct 1 and Nov 12, 2018, 1152 mother-child dyads were enrolled and randomly assigned (n=376 group-only intervention, n=400 mixed-delivery intervention, n=376 comparison group). At the 11-month endline survey (Aug 5-Oct 31, 2019), 1070 households were assessed for the primary outcomes (n=346 group only, n=373 mixed delivery, n=351 comparison). Children in group-only villages had higher cognitive (effect size 0·52 SD [95% CI 0·21-0·83]), receptive language (0·42 SD [0·08-0·77]), and socioemotional scores (0·23 SD [0·03-0·44]) than children in comparison villages at endline. Children in mixed-delivery villages had higher cognitive (0·34 SD [0·05-0·62]) and socioemotional scores (0·22 SD [0·05-0·38]) than children in comparison villages; there was no difference in language scores. Parental stimulation also improved for group-only (0·80 SD [0·49-1·11]) and mixed-delivery villages (0·77 SD [0·49-1·05]) compared with the villages in the comparison group. Including fathers in the intervention had no measurable effect on any of the primary outcomes. INTERPRETATION: Parenting interventions delivered by trained community health volunteers in mother-child groups can effectively promote child development in low-resource settings and have great potential for scalability. FUNDING: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud/organización & administración , Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Madres/educación , Responsabilidad Parental , Población Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Preescolar , Cognición , Países en Desarrollo , Emociones , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Kenia , Masculino , Método Simple Ciego , Habilidades Sociales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
12.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 46(1): 80-90, 2021 01 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377489

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) are at risk of experiencing challenges in social adjustment. However, the specific social behaviors of PBTS have rarely been directly assessed. This pilot study explores the first novel use of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, second edition (ADOS-2), to evaluate the social behaviors of PBTS. METHODS: Twenty-six PBTS (ages 9-17 years; M = 7.8 years from diagnosis; 52% male; 41% received radiation treatment) completed the ADOS-2. The proportion of the sample experiencing impairment was examined descriptively across all items of the ADOS-2, as well as by a summary "overall score" created for this study, and using the ADOS-2 "diagnostic algorithm" scores for autism. Social adjustment, cognitive, medical, and demographic variables were explored as correlates of the ADOS-2 "overall score". RESULTS: Study recruitment was 34%, impeded by distance from the tertiary-care center. The percentage of PBTS experiencing detectable impairments ranged from 0% to 50% across ADOS-2 items. Cranial radiation treatment, lower IQ, and slower cognitive processing were associated with higher impairment on the ADOS-2 "overall score". CONCLUSION: The ADOS-2 can be used to assess the discrete social behaviors of PBTS. This study provides a foundation for future investigations using the ADOS-2 to assess social behaviors in this population. Identifying specific social behavior difficulties in PBTS is key to refining much needed targeted social skills interventions for this population.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Sobrevivientes , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto , Conducta Social , Habilidades Sociales
14.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(2): 7-22, jul.-dez. 2020. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1125728

RESUMEN

We carried out an evaluation of the evidence of internal structure and scores reliability of the Social Skills Inventory for the Elderly (SSI-E) in a sample of 616 Brazilian elderly, between the ages of 60 and 94, from diverse Social-economic stratum. We used EFA, CFA, and reliability measures (Composite Reliability). SSI-E is a 20-item instrument (χ2/gl = 1.406, CFI = 0.912, RMSEA = 0.037, SRMR = 0.0563) with four factors: Emotional expressiveness; Assertiveness; Conversation and social resourcefulness; Affective-sexual approach. The composite reliability of the factors ranged between 0.70 and 0.80, suggesting good precision. The SSI-E allows a very parsimonious application. We discuss the implications of these findings for research, assessment, and intervention on mental health among the elderly.


Considerando a ausência de um instrumento de habilidades sociais específico para idosos, os objetivos deste estudo foram obter e validar uma estrutura própria de itens e fatores para o Inventário de Habilidades Sociais para idosos (IHSI-Del-Prette). Os participantes foram 616 pessoas entre 60 e 94 anos, de diversos níveis socioeconômicos. Foram realizadas Análise Fatorial Exploratória, Análise Fatorial Confirmatória e avaliação da confiabilidade composta. O IHSI-Del-Prette é composto por 20 itens (χ2/gl = 1.406, CFI = 0.912, RMSEA = 0.037, SRMR = 0.0563) organizados em quatro fatores: Assertividade; Conversação e desenvoltura social; Abordagem afetivo-sexual, com confiabilidade composta entre 0.70 e 0.80. O IHSI-Del-Prette possibilita uma avaliação precisa, com contribuições para pesquisa, avaliação e intervenção relacionadas à saúde mental em idosos.


Considerando la ausencia de un instrumento específico de habilidades sociales para los ancianos, los objetivos de este estudio fueron obtener y validar una estructura específica de ítems y factores para el Inventario de Habilidades Sociales para los ancianos (IHSI-Del-Prette). Los participantes fueron 616 personas entre 60 y 94 años, de diferentes niveles socioeconómicos. Se realizaron análisis factoriales exploratorios, análisis factoriales confirmatorios y evaluación de confiabilidad compuesta. El IHSI-Del-Prette consta de 20 ítems (χ2 / gl = 1,406, CFI = 0.912, RMSEA = 0.037, SRMR = 0.0563) distribuidos en cuatro factores: Asertividad; Conversación e ingenio social; Aproximación afectivo-sexual, con fiabilidad entre 0,70 y 0,80. El IHSI-Del-Prette permite una evaluación precisa, con contribuciones a la investigación, evaluación e intervención relacionadas con la salud mental en los ancianos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Asertividad , Ingenio y Humor como Asunto , Brasil , Absentismo , Habilidades Sociales , Ajuste Emocional
15.
GMS J Med Educ ; 37(7): Doc82, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33364361

RESUMEN

Objective: The AIXTRA Competence Center for Training and Patient Safety at RWTH Aachen University has developed a concept to enable learning of communication skills with simulated persons (SP) digitally. Methodology: Existing SP cases in curricular teaching were checked for digital applicability and modified. Digital seminars with the methodology of simulated conversations with SP, for planned 690 students for the courses "history taking", 6th semester, conversations in psychiatry, 8th semester, and in the clinical competence course, 10th semester, were conducted via video conferencing software. The structure is similar to SP-seminars in classroom teaching with a case presentation, a doctor/patient dialogue and a feedback session. In the 6th and 10th semester, the seminars were evaluated anonymously by the students using an online questionnaire. SP were asked by e-mail for their assessment. The lecturers were asked about their experience with the digital seminars by means of qualitative interviews. Results: The survey of students with 92 completed questionnaires indicates a high level of acceptance. Digital teaching with SP was rated "very good" by 63% of the students and "good" by 37% as an overall mark for the course. The digital implementation is well practicable, the retention and accessibility of all learning goals is rated as given. Conclusion: Digital teaching with SP can be well realized with appropriate preparation. Specific aspects of digital implementation (e.g. role and data protection) must be taken into account. The differentiated evaluation of the surveys will bring further results and deductive questions.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Educación a Distancia/organización & administración , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Simulación de Paciente , Habilidades Sociales , Comunicación por Videocoferencia/organización & administración , Competencia Clínica , Curriculum , Humanos , Pandemias , Relaciones Médico-Paciente
16.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 26(2): 145-154, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-197250

RESUMEN

La confluencia en las expectativas de los padres y los docentes incide en el desarrollo socioacadémico de los menores. Por otro lado, las evaluaciones de los profesores influyen en la autoevaluación y el rendimiento de los estudiantes. Durante la implementación de un programa psicoeducativo para la prevención del trabajo infantil, comparamos la evaluación de las habilidades sociales por parte de los docentes con la autoevaluación de los menores y la valoración subjetiva del rendimiento académico por parte de los docentes con las calificaciones académicas obtenidas por los menores en el curso anterior. También exploramos la valoración cualitativa del trabajo infantil por parte de los docentes y de los padres. Los resultados pusieron de manifiesto una elevada consistencia interjueces en la evaluación de las habilidades sociales y una coincidencia moderada en la valoración del rendimiento académico. La evaluación de los profesores reflejó una visión más integrada de los aspectos sociales y académicos, en comparación con los menores. Combinando el análisis de correlaciones parciales con la visualización de redes, el factor de agresividad se reveló como el indicador con mayor centralidad en la evaluación socioacadémica de los menores, tanto para los docentes como para los estudiantes. Finalmente, los profesores mostraron mayor sensibilidad que los padres sobre las consecuencias negativas del trabajo infantil


The confluence in the expectations of parents and teachers affects children's socio-academic development. Teacher evaluations also influence student self-assessment and performance. During the implementation of a psychoeducational program for the prevention of child labor, two aspects of children development were compared: the evaluation of social skills by teachers with self-assessment of minors and subjective assessment of academic performance by teachers with academic qualifications obtained by minors in the previous course. We also explored thequalitative assessment of child labor by teachers and parents. The results showed a high inter-judge consistency in the evaluation of social skills and a moderate coincidence in the assessment of academic performance. The evaluation of teachers reflected a more integrated view of social and academic aspects, compared to minors. Combining the analysis of partial correlations with visualization of networks, the aggressiveness factor was revealed as the indicator with thegreatest centrality in children's socio-academic evaluation, both for teachers and students. Finally, teachers showed greater sensitivity than parents towards negative consequences of child labor


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Trabajo Infantil , Psicología Educacional , Habilidades Sociales , Éxito Académico , Educación Primaria y Secundaria
17.
Rev. esp. drogodepend ; 45(4): 29-48, oct.-dic. 2020. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-199684

RESUMEN

El Trastorno de juego en Internet (IGD) se ha convertido en objeto de estudio en todo el mundo para ofrecer servicios especializados de salud mental a las personas afectadas. Sin embargo, prima la escasez de estudios relacionados con la efectividad de los tratamientos psicológicos para el IGD. El objetivo principal del presente estudio es evaluar los cambios psicológicos producidos durante el proceso de intervención del "Programa Individualizado Psicoterapéutico para la Adicción a las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación" (PIPATIC) en adolescentes con IGD. MÉTODO: La muestra se compone de 31 adolescentes (de 12 a 18 años) de dos centros públicos de salud mental, asignados a (I) grupo experimental de intervención PIPATIC o (II) grupo de control de Terapia Cognitivo Conductual estándar (TCC). La intervención se evaluó en las fases pre, durante y post-tratamiento. RESULTADOS: No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre ninguno de los grupos en la fase de pretratamiento. En relación con las diferentes intervenciones examinadas, se encontraron diferencias significativas en las pruebas previas y posteriores en las siguientes variables: trastornos comórbidos, habilidades interpersonales y medidas de los terapeutas. Ambos grupos experimentaron una reducción significativa de los síntomas relacionados con el IGD, aunque el grupo PIPATIC experimentó mejoras significativas más relevantes tanto en el IGD cómo en el resto de variables examinadas. DISCUSIÓN Y CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados sugieren que el programa PIPATIC ha estimulado cambios más significativos en el tratamiento del IGD y sus síntomas comórbidos y habilidades sociales que la TCC. Por otro lado, cabe remarcar que la TCC estándar también consiguió mejoras en los participantes respecto al uso de videojuegos y la sintomatología del IGD. En consecuencia, el uso de un enfoque integrador que cuyo foco de intervención refiera tanto al IGD cómo a los síntomas comórbidos, las habilidades intrapersonales e interpersonales y la psicoterapia familiar parece resultar más efectivo en facilitar cambios psicológicos en adolescente que un foco de intervención únicamente centrado en abordar el trastorno adictivo


Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has become the subject of study all around the world in order to provide specialist mental health services for affected persons. Nevertheless, there is a definite shortage of studies on the effectiveness of psychological treatments for IGD. The main objective of this paper is to assess the psychological changes that take place during the intervention process on the "Individualised Psycho-therapy Program for Addiction to Information and Communication Technologies" (IPPAICT) in adolescents with IGD. METHOD: The sample consisted of 31 adolescents (aged 12 to 18) from two public mental health centres, assigned to (I) experimental IPPAICT group, or (II) Standard Behavioural Cognitive Therapy (SBCT). Interventional was assessed in the pre, during and post treatment stages. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between either of the groups in the pre-treatment stage. In regard to the different types of intervention, significant differences were observed in tests before and after in relation to the following variables: comorbid disorders, interpersonal skills and therapy measures. Both groups reported a significant reduction in the symptoms related to IGD, although the IPPAICT group reported more relevant significant improvements in IGD and the rest of the variables. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the IPPAICT programme brought about more significant changes in IGD treatment and comorbid symptoms and social skills than SBCT. On the other hand, attention is also brought to the fact that standard SBCT also reported improvements in the participants in regard to the use of videogames and IGD symptoms. Consequently, an integrating approach focussing on IGD and comorbid symptoms, intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and family psychotherapy appear to be more effective in bringing about psychological changes than an approach that exclusively focusses on treating the addiction disorder


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Juego de Azar/psicología , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Conducta Adictiva/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Juego de Azar/epidemiología , Conducta Adictiva/epidemiología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Escala de Evaluación de la Conducta , Relaciones Familiares , Factores Socioeconómicos , Inteligencia Emocional , Habilidades Sociales , Distribución por Edad , España/epidemiología
18.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 483-491, oct. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195665

RESUMEN

El objetivo de la investigación es identificar las características del alumnado que no participa en episodios de bullying en función de estereotipos de género, crianza; actitudes y estrategias cognitivas sociales y sobre-ingesta alimentaria. En el estudio participaron 1190 alumnos de educación básica de once escuelas públicas del Estado de México, México. Investigación cuantitativa, con estudio descriptivo y diseño transversal. Se recogieron datos a partir de cinco instrumentos que miden las variables de estudio: bullying, estereotipos de género, crianza, estrategias cognitivas sociales, sobre-ingesta alimentaria. Los resultados permitieron identificar cinco tipos de alumnos (víctimas de violencia escolar; víctimas de bullying; bully; doble rol y no involucrados), los contrastes de medias a través del ANOVA de un factor, identificó diferencias significativas en los grupos con respecto a cada una de las variables estudiadas. Se concluye que el alumnado que no se involucran en episodios de bullying, tienen más hábitos de salud, más habilidades sociales que facilitan adaptación al contexto social, sin identificarse con estereotipos tradicionales como el femenino y el machismo. Con respecto a la crianza de sus padres, se identifica que no son educados a través de prácticas de crianza inefectivas como el maltrato. Los resultados describen características definitorios del alumnado que no se involucra en episodios de bullying, lo que será de gran utilidad para la elaboración de programas de prevención e intervención


The objective of the research is to identify the characteristics of students who do not participate in bullying episodes (called "not involved"), in function of gender stereotypes, parenting styles; attitudes and social cognitive strategies and food intake. The study involved 1190 elementary school students, from eleven public schools in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Quantitative research, with descriptive study and cross-sectional design. Data were collected from five instruments that measure the study variables: bullying, gender stereotypes, parenting styles, social cognitive strategies, food intake. The results identified five types of students (victims of school violence; victims of bullying; bully; double role and not involved), the contrasts for one-way ANOVA of a factor, identified significant differences in the groups with respect to each of the variables studied. It is concluded that students who do not engage in bullying episodes (not involved), have more health habits, more social skills that facilitate adaptation to the social context, without identifying with traditional stereotypes such as traditional feminine and machismo. With regard to parenting, it is identified that they are not educated through ineffective parenting practices such as abuse. The results of this study describe defining characteristics of students who do not engage in bullying episodes, which will be very useful for the development of prevention and intervention programs


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Estudiantes/psicología , Estereotipo de Género , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Percepción Social , Educación Primaria y Secundaria , Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis de Varianza , Factores Sexuales , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Habilidades Sociales
19.
Rev. esp. geriatr. gerontol. (Ed. impr.) ; 55(5): 279-285, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-199481

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: Ante el fenómeno del envejecimiento de la población, los problemas de salud relacionados con la edad tales como las demencias o la discapacidad visual asociada a enfermedades crónicas han ido aumentando progresivamente. El presente trabajo describe y analiza la eficacia y viabilidad de una intervención individualizada dirigida a dos varones usuarios de un centro de día con un diagnóstico de demencia y discapacidad visual severa que les dificulta la realización de las actividades propias del centro. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: El proyecto tuvo una duración de tres meses y contó con una fase de evaluación pre- y postintervención. Para la evaluación se utilizaron los instrumentos Mini-Examen Cognoscitivo, Escala de Depresión Geriátrica y un instrumento de registro observacional basado en el Dementia Categorization Recordin Observational System. La fase de intervención tuvo una duración de ocho semanas y se realizaron diferentes dinámicas adaptadas a los gustos e intereses de los participantes. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Tras la fase de intervención se observó una reducción clínicamente significativa de la sintomatología depresiva de ambos usuarios, así como una disminución en la frecuencia de conductas apáticas durante las horas que pasaban en el centro. Asimismo, se observó un aumento en las conductas de tipo prosocial y en las de implicación con las tareas realizadas. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que la personalización de las actividades que se realizan en centros a usuarios concretos incrementa la estimulación de los participantes, mejorando su bienestar mediante pequeñas adaptaciones poco costosas de las intervenciones que se realizan


INTRODUCTION: The ageing of the population has led to a progressive increase in age-related diseases, such as dementia or visual impairment, due to chronic diseases. This work describes and analyses the efficacy and feasibility of an individualised intervention carried out with two male users of a day-care centre with a diagnosis of dementia and a severe visual impairment, which made it difficult for them to take part in the regular activities of the centre. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The intervention process had a time frame of three months, and had an assessment phase before and after the intervention. For the assessment, use was made of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale, and an observational tool based on the Dementia Categorization Recording Observational System. The intervention lasted for eight weeks, and consisted of different dynamics adjusted to the preferences of the participants. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: After the intervention, a clinically significant reduction in the depressive symptomatology was observed for both participants, along with a reduction in the frequency of apathetic behaviour during the time they spent in the centre. Furthermore, an increase was observed in the prosocial behaviour and on the engagement with the task. The results show that the personalisation of the activities for particular users increases the stimulation of the participants, improving their well-being through small and inexpensive adaptations to the interventions that are carried out in the centres


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Demencia/psicología , Ceguera/psicología , Psicoterapia/métodos , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Técnicas Psicológicas/organización & administración , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Envejecimiento , Evaluación de Resultados de Intervenciones Terapéuticas , Habilidades Sociales
20.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200350, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965403

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to report the experience of telemonitoring Brazilian nursing homes before coronavirus and COVID-19 infections. METHODS: a descriptive experience report that occurred between March 18 and April 25, 2020 through telemonitoring nursing homes in Salvador, Bahia, following a script previously prepared for first contact and follow-up. The telemonitoring was carried out by professors from the School of Nursing of Universidade Federal da Bahia and Graduate Program students for four weeks. RESULTS: thirty-two institutions were followed for four weeks. Some facilities and difficulties appeared during the monitoring. FINAL CONSIDERATIOS: as nursing homes are collective households, their residents are vulnerable to transmission of infections. In addition, the diversity of structures and economic, social and human resources needs of these locations reveal their fragility and urgency of public policies that address such diversities.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Hogares para Ancianos , Casas de Salud , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Teléfono , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Enfermedades Profesionales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Habilidades Sociales , Teléfono/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...