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1.
Crit Rev Microbiol ; 47(3): 359-375, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653206

RESUMEN

Halitosis or oral malodor is one of the most common reasons for the patients' visit to the dental clinic, ranking behind only dental caries and periodontitis. In the present times, where social and professional communications are becoming unavoidable, halitosis has become a concern of growing importance. Oral malodor mostly develops due to the putrefaction of substrates by the indigenous bacterial populations. Although culture-based studies have provided adequate information on halitosis, the high throughput omics technologies have amplified the resolution at which oral microbial community can be examined and has led to the detection of a broader range of taxa associated with intra-oral halitosis (IOH). These microorganisms are regulated by the interactions of their ecological processes. Thus to develop effective treatment strategies, it is important to understand the microbial basis of halitosis. In the current review, we provide an update on IOH in context to the role of the oral microbiome, metabolic pathways involved, and novel diagnostic tools, including breathomics. Understanding oral microbiota associated with halitosis from a broader ecological perspective can provide novel insights into one's oral and systemic health. Such information can pave the way for the emergence of diagnostic tools that can revolutionize the early detection of halitosis and various associated medical conditions.


Asunto(s)
Halitosis/microbiología , Microbiota , Boca/microbiología , Animales , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/metabolismo , Halitosis/diagnóstico , Humanos , Redes y Vías Metabólicas , Boca/metabolismo
2.
ACS Sens ; 6(3): 733-741, 2021 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528988

RESUMEN

Indirectly monitoring halitosis via the detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) biomarkers using gas sensors is a newly emerging technique. However, such H2S sensors are required with critically high selectivity and sensitivity, as well as a ppb-level detection limit, which remains technologically challenging. To address such issues, here, we have developed highly sensitive and selective H2S sensors with NiO/WO3 nanoparticles (NPs), which have been synthesized by firstly hydrolyzing WO3 NPs and subsequently decorating with NiO NPs in a hydrothermal process. Theoretically, the NiO/WO3 NPs assist in forming a thicker electron depletion layer, adsorbing more oxygen species O2- to oxidize H2S and finally release more electrons. Beneficially, 2.1 wt % NiO/WO3 NPs show high sensitivity to H2S (Ra/Rg = 15031 ± 1370 @ 10 ppm, 100 °C), which is 42.6-fold higher than that of the pristine WO3 NPs (Ra/Rg = 353 ± 5.6 @ 10 ppm, 100 °C). Further, the H2S sensor shows ppb-level detection limit (Ra/Rg = 4.95 ± 2.9 @ 0.05 ppm, 100 °C) and high selectivity. Practically, NiO/WO3 NP sensor prototype has been employed to detect the simulated exhaled halitosis compared with that of gas chromatography, revealing a close concentration of H2S. Our investigation offers an experimental base in future intelligent medical applications.


Asunto(s)
Halitosis , Sulfuro de Hidrógeno , Nanopartículas , Biomarcadores , Humanos
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525419

RESUMEN

Altogether, 81% of Korean college students experience halitosis and concomitant psychosocial problems such as depression and lowered self-esteem, as well as poor oral-health-related quality of life. Although halitosis causes many social and psychological problems among college students, there have been no reports of improvement interventions. This study aimed to identify the effects of ingesting tablets of the oral probiotic Weissella cibaria CMU (Chonnam Medical University, Gwangju, Korea) on halitosis and examine its effects on psychosocial indicators. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group or the control group. They ingested W. cibaria CMU or the placebo, depending on which group they belonged to, before going to bed daily for eight weeks. The measured indicators were subjective halitosis, subjective oral-health status, depression, self-esteem, and oral-health-related quality of life. Measurements were at baseline and eight weeks later. The participants showed statistically significant differences in subjective halitosis and oral-health-related quality of life. For college students with halitosis, intake of the oral probiotic for eight weeks could be a useful nursing intervention for reducing halitosis and improving oral-health-related quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Halitosis , Probióticos , Método Doble Ciego , Halitosis/prevención & control , Humanos , Salud Bucal , Probióticos/uso terapéutico , Calidad de Vida , República de Corea , Estudiantes , Weissella
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535384

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the level of halitosis in patients with/without fixed crowns and in addition the influence of various crown parameters on halitosis was also explored. METHODS: In total, 96 subjects (fixed crowns = 52; no crowns = 44) participated in the study. The levels volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), and dimethyl sulphide (CH3SCH3) were evaluated with breath samples using gas chromatography and used for classification as presence or absence of halitosis. The periodontal clinical parameters for all the participants as well as the crown parameters for participants with fixed crowns were also evaluated. Cross tabulation, Chi-square test, and one-way analysis of variance tests were used for the statistical analysis and comparisons. RESULTS: Breath samples revealed, 50 (52.1%) participants were suffering from halitosis. Out of VSCs, the level of CH3SCH3 (62.5%) was found to be the most prevalent. Significant correlations were observed between the presence of fixed crowns and oral halitosis (p < 0.001). Statistically significant difference in the concentration of H2S and CH3SH (p < 0.001) and no significance for CH3SCH3 (p = 0.075) between patients with/without fixed crowns was found. The presence of halitosis was more prevalent in the subjects with crown parameters (subgingival margin, over-contoured margin, open-crown margin, over-contoured and under-contoured crowns) considered clinically defective/unacceptable (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Presence of fixed dental crowns significantly contributes to the oral halitosis. Dental crowns with defects significantly impair the hygienic conditions and oral microflora resulting in high prevalence of halitosis.


Asunto(s)
Halitosis , Sulfuro de Hidrógeno , Cromatografía de Gases , Coronas , Halitosis/epidemiología , Humanos , Compuestos de Azufre
5.
West Afr J Med ; 38(2): 120-124, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641145

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many individuals, irrespective of their age, sex and social status suffer from halitosis. There is very little evidence, however, of the disease burden in Ghana. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of self-perceived halitosis in La, a suburb in Accra. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among adults in La. The main outcome variable was self-perceived halitosis. Other variables collected included the socio-demographic characteristics (age, sex, occupation category, education), previous visit to a dentist, and previous/current consumption of alcohol. Background characteristics for all respondents were described, and summaries for variables reported. Cross-tabulations were done to explore the factors related to self-perceived halitosis. RESULTS: A total of 324 participants were involved in the study. This consisted of 165 males (51%) and 159 females (49%). The mean age of the entire population was 41.2±14.9 years. The prevalence of self-perceived halitosis among the study population was 18%, while halitosis was found to be significantly distributed among persons with bleeding gums (p=0.007) and those who poorly rated their oral hygiene (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Halitosis is a source of concern to a considerable number of inhabitants of La. Education in this regard is therefore essential in promoting awareness and better oral health practices.


Asunto(s)
Halitosis , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Ghana/epidemiología , Halitosis/epidemiología , Halitosis/etiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Bucal , Higiene Bucal
6.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 29: 195-200, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427224

RESUMEN

Halitosis is a widespread condition presenting several social and psychological implications, leading to a reduction in the quality of life of an individual. Halitosis, per definition, defines an unpleasant smell of the exhaled air, independent of its etiology. It can have a long-term prevalence or be transient, making it difficult to establish this symptom's epidemiology. Oral malodor can be attributed to a high local concentration of intraoral microbial populations, particularly those of the tongue's biofilm, as well as the biofilms associated with teeth and periodontal tissue. Frequently, the treatment options rely on improving oral health via tongue cleaning, detecting periodontal diseases, insufficient dental restorations, alternating diets, and/or alleviating local factors. Different methods targeting specific bacteria species have been designed to improve this condition. The aim here is to underline the correlation between oral biofilms and halitosis, describing prime bacteria species influencing oral malodor and addressing new concepts to ameliorate this condition.


Asunto(s)
Halitosis , Enfermedades Periodontales , Halitosis/diagnóstico , Halitosis/etiología , Humanos , Salud Bucal , Calidad de Vida , Lengua
8.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(1): 102458, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045536

RESUMEN

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Malodor is a multifactorial condition with oral pathology representing the main culprit and the tongue being the first to second contributor to the malodor. Bacterial load can represent a quantifiable measure regardless of the original pathology. We hypothesize that reduction in malodor can be represented by tongue changes both in appearance, bacterial and biofilm load reduction (measured by CFU and volatile gases measurement), organoleptic measurement and subjective improvement. METHODS: A randomized controlled prospective study under IRB approval. Diagnostic criteria for enrollment and follow up were organoleptic test by 2 judges, Halimeter reading, tongue colors changes HALT questionnaire and direct aerobic and anaerobic tongue cultures measured by CFU. Patients were treated with laser tongue debridement (LTD) with an Er,Cr:YSGG solid state laser has been shown to be effective in biofilm reduction. RESULTS: 54 patients recruited with 35 available for follow up. Improvement was observed on all objective and QOL subjective parameters. Treatment was tolerated well with minimal discomfort. CONCLUSIONS: The tongue is proven to be a major contributor to oral malodor and must be addressed in treatment protocol. LTD significantly reduces malodor by subjective and objective criteria. While impossible to determine whether the tongue serves as a bacterial reservoir or is the origin for oral bacteria it is clear that LTD improves oral hygiene and reduces malodor. LTD is safe and easy to perform. We encourage LTD to be a crucial part of any oral malodor treatment protocol. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinical trials, NCT04120948. Registered 25 September 2019 - Retrospectively registered, https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/action/SelectProtocol?sid=S00098SX&selectaction=Edit&uid=U0000W0Y&ts=51&cx=-elnx7e.


Asunto(s)
Desbridamiento/métodos , Halitosis/cirugía , Láseres de Estado Sólido/uso terapéutico , Lengua/microbiología , Lengua/cirugía , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biopelículas , Femenino , Halitosis/microbiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
9.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(10): 557-560, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156297

RESUMEN

Halitosis (bad breath) is caused by a number of volatiles originating, in most cases, in the oral cavity (intra-oral halitosis). These unpleasant smelling gases are volatile sulphur compounds such as hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide secreted as a result of bacterial metabolism. Bacteria on the tongue dorsum, as well as oral pathologies such as gingivitis and periodontitis, are the main causes of intra-oral halitosis. Saliva has a number of functions that can affect intra-oral halitosis, such as mechanical cleaning, moistening of the oral cavity and antibacterial properties. Very low secretion of saliva (hyposalivation) can affect intra-oral halitosis.


Asunto(s)
Halitosis , Halitosis/etiología , Humanos , Saliva , Compuestos de Azufre , Lengua
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(45): e23092, 2020 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157981

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dental biofilm accumulation and poor personal oral hygiene are known major risk factors for gingivitis and halitosis. However, it is not clear how studies compare the effectiveness of hygiene regimens, associated with outcomes centered on patients. METHODS: A randomized, blind, controlled clinical trial involving 58 participants aged from 12 to 17 years, who search the Department of Pediatric Dentistry of Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, will be conducted. Immediately, the volunteers will be inserted into Group 1 (commercially available hygiene regimen) or Group 2 (tooth brushing alone). In Group 1, participants will receive Colgate Total 12 toothpastes, Plax mouthwashes and Colgate Ultrasoft toothbrushes, while Group 2 will use Colgate Cavity Protection toothpastes and Colgate Ultrasoft toothbrushes. The interventions will be conducted in the periods of 1, 3, and 6 months after the baseline, when the evaluations will also be performed. Biofilm and halitosis indexes will be evaluated. Data regarding discomfort, satisfaction and the socioeconomic/individual characteristics will also be computed. DISCUSSION: Although toothbrushing has shown positive effects in decreasing biofilm and in gingival health, there is no comparison in the literature of different brushing regimens with halitosis measurement in adolescents. In addition, the effectiveness of these protocols would be confirmed from the acceptability of the volunteers.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental/terapia , Dentífricos/uso terapéutico , Gingivitis/terapia , Halitosis/terapia , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/métodos , Cepillado Dental , Pastas de Dientes/uso terapéutico , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , Ácido Silícico/uso terapéutico , Método Simple Ciego , Resultado del Tratamiento
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077409

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We sought new markers to predict oral malodor. STUDY DESIGN: Seventy-five adults complaining of oral malodor were classified into 3 groups clinically: no oral malodor, physiologic oral malodor, and periodontitis-derived oral malodor. In addition to conventional clinical parameters, 7 salivary components, occlusal force, and lip-closing force were compared among the groups. RESULTS: Concerning the salivary components, cariogenic bacteria, occult blood, leukocytes, and ammonia differed significantly among the groups. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that tongue-coating scores and ammonia levels were significantly associated with genuine oral malodor, including physiologic oral malodor and periodontitis-derived oral malodor, and the tongue-coating score, plaque index, and occult blood level were significantly associated with periodontitis-derived oral malodor. Occlusal force and lip-closing force did not differ among the groups. However, there was a statistically significant interaction between occlusal force and lip-closing force in oral malodor in women (P = .019). CONCLUSIONS: Novel salivary markers, ammonia levels, and occult blood levels may predict genuine oral malodor and periodontitis-derived oral malodor, respectively. An interaction effect between occlusal force and lip-closing force on oral malodor was identified in women.


Asunto(s)
Halitosis , Periodontitis , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Índice de Placa Dental , Femenino , Halitosis/diagnóstico , Humanos , Periodontitis/diagnóstico , Lengua
12.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e1764, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935823

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the accuracy of the Breath-Alert™ portable breath meter (BA) for the detection of halitosis in children and adolescents, considering the organoleptic test (OT) as the gold standard in this assessment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 children (aged 6-12 years). OT was performed by three independent examiners on a single occasion, obtaining three scores of 0-5 points on the Rosenberg's organoleptic scale. The median of the three evaluations for each child was used for analysis. BA was used according to the manufacturer's instructions, with breath odor scored from 0-5 points. Scores ≥2 on both tests were considered indicative of halitosis. RESULTS: A total of 26 (17.3%) and 23 (15.3%) children were detected with halitosis on the OT and BA tests, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the BA scores for the detection of halitosis were 80.76% and 98.38%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for BA were 91.3% and 96.06%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In the present study involving children, who require fast, practical examinations, BA proved to be an auxiliary tool to OT for the detection of halitosis in the practice of pediatric dentistry, demonstrating high sensitivity and specificity.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas Respiratorias/métodos , Halitosis/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Pruebas Respiratorias/instrumentación , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Halitosis/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Compuestos de Azufre/análisis
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237510, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810155

RESUMEN

Periodontitis is a highly prevalent condition leading to a continuous destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. It increases the risk for various systemic diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, screening for periodontitis is important. Screening measures can range from self-reported symptoms to clinical full-mouth periodontal examination. The hypothesis of our study was that self-reported parameters and clinical definition perform equally well in identifying periodontitis patients. The aim of this study was to develop, validate its internal consistency, and evaluate a self-reported instrument against periodontal clinical evaluation for diagnosis of periodontitis in a group of postpartum women, as well as to describe their periodontal status and the risk factors associated with periodontal disease. A cross-sectional study on postpartum women was conducted in a tertiary university hospital, from April 2018 to March 2019. Sociodemographic and behavioral data, periodontal clinical parameters, and self-reported periodontal perception were collected. A 16-item questionnaire was developed to obtain information about perceived periodontal alterations and oral hygiene habits. The utility of the questionnaire was tested against a periodontal diagnosis based on a full-mouth periodontal examination. The questionnaire was applied in 215 postpartum women aged 29.16±5.54 years (mean age (y) ± standard deviation) having the following periodontal status: 16 individuals without periodontal disease (7.44%), 32 individuals with gingivitis (14.88%), 19 individuals with mild periodontitis (8.84%), 132 individuals with moderate periodontitis (61.39%), and 16 individuals with severe periodontitis (7.44%). A significant association was observed between oral hygiene score, smoking status, and periodontal conditions (p<0.05). A significant association between the self-reported items related to "gum swelling", "halitosis", "previous periodontal diagnosis" and "previous periodontal treatment" with clinical periodontitis have been identified (p<0.05). Using self-reported questionnaires for detection of periodontal disease was ineffective in our studied population, since self-reported parameters and clinical definition do not appear to perform equally in identifying periodontitis cases. Clinical periodontal examination remains the gold standard for screening. Periodontitis was frequent in our group and the severity was significantly associated with the oral hygiene score and smoking. These results underline the necessity for periodontal clinical examination during pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Periodontales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Periodontales/etiología , Trastornos Puerperales/epidemiología , Trastornos Puerperales/etiología , Autoinforme , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Europa Oriental/epidemiología , Femenino , Gingivitis/epidemiología , Gingivitis/etiología , Halitosis/epidemiología , Halitosis/etiología , Humanos , Higiene Bucal/estadística & datos numéricos , Periodontitis/epidemiología , Periodontitis/etiología , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Rumanía/epidemiología , Autoinforme/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
14.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e098, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813836

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to validate (cross-culturally adapt and test psychometric properties) the Brazilian version of the Halitosis Associated Life-Quality Test (HALT). A process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation was conducted by a group of dental researchers. The first draft of the Brazilian Portuguese version was pre-tested on a sample of 33 individuals leading up to the final version of the questionnaire. The Brazilian version of the HALT (B-HALT) was applied to 100 individuals with halitosis (organoleptic score ≥ 2) and 100 individuals without halitosis (organoleptic score < 2). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to evaluate the dimensionality of B-HALT. Cronbach's alpha (α) and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to measure its reliability. For convergent validity, Spearman's correlation was conducted between the B-HALT and the organoleptic scores. The discriminant validity was evaluated through the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. EFA confirmed the unidimensionality of B-HALT, which has also demonstrated excellent internal consistency (α = 0.96) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.93). There was a positive correlation between B-HALT and organoleptic scores (r = 0.33; p < 0.001). B-HALT was able to discriminate between the groups with and without halitosis measured by the organoleptic method (p < 0.001) and self-reported halitosis (p < 0.001). B-HALT has demonstrated to be a reliable and valid tool to evaluate the oral health-related quality of life associated to halitosis in Brazilian adults.


Asunto(s)
Halitosis , Calidad de Vida , Brasil , Comparación Transcultural , Humanos , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
J Anim Sci ; 98(9)2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845313

RESUMEN

Periodontal disease (PD) is the most common clinical condition occurring in adult dogs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of daily dental chew administration on oral health outcomes in adult dogs. Twelve adult (mean age = 5.31 ± 1.08 yr; mean BW = 13.12 ± 1.39 kg) female beagle dogs were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design consisting of 28-d periods. On day 0 of each period, teeth were cleaned by a veterinary dentist blinded to treatments. Teeth then were scored for plaque, calculus, and gingivitis by the same veterinary dentist on day 28 of each period. Breath samples were measured for malodor (volatile sulfur compounds) on days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 27 of each period. All dogs consumed the same commercial dry diet throughout the study. Control dogs were offered the diet only (CT), while treatment groups received the diet plus one of three dental chews. Two novel chews (Bones & Chews Dental Treats [BC]; Chewy, Inc., Dania Beach, FL and Dr. Lyon's Grain-Free Dental Treats [DL]; Dr. Lyon's, LLC, Dania Beach, FL) and a leading brand chew (Greenies Dental Treats [GR]; Mars Petcare US, Franklin, TN) were tested. Each day, one chew was provided 4 h after mealtime. All tooth scoring data were analyzed using the Mixed Models procedure of SAS (version 9.4; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Halimeter data were analyzed using repeated measures using the Mixed Models procedure of SAS and testing for differences due to treatment, time, and treatment * time interaction. Data are reported as LS means ± SEM with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. DL performed at the same level as the leading brand, GR, as both resulted in lower (P < 0.05) plaque coverage and thickness scores, calculus coverage scores, and day 27 volatile sulfur concentrations compared with CT. Additionally, DL reduced (P < 0.05) volatile sulfur compounds on day 14 when compared with CT. BC reduced (P < 0.05) calculus coverage and day 27 volatile sulfur concentrations compared with CT. Our results suggest that the dental chews tested in this study may help slow the development and/or progression of PD in dogs.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Halitosis , Animales , Enfermedades de los Perros/terapia , Perros , Femenino , Gingivitis/veterinaria , Halitosis/veterinaria , Masticación , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Compuestos de Azufre
16.
J Vet Dent ; 37(1): 22-28, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627686

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of a dental chew with mechanical and chemical properties in 2 toy dog breeds. Eight Yorkshire terriers and 9 Chihuahuas participated in a crossover design trial. Gingivitis, dental plaque, calculus, and volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in the breath were assessed after 4 weeks and 9 weeks, respectively. When dogs were fed 1 dental chew per day they had significantly reduced gingivitis (-20%, P < .001), accumulation of plaque (-15%, P < .001), calculus (-35%, P = .001), and VSC concentration (-19%, P < .001) compared to when receiving no chew. A significant breed effect was observed on all the average dental indices and VSC concentration.


Asunto(s)
Cálculos/veterinaria , Placa Dental/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros , Gingivitis/veterinaria , Halitosis/veterinaria , Animales , Cálculos Dentales/veterinaria , Índice de Placa Dental , Perros
17.
Minerva Stomatol ; 69(3): 174-182, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610725

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As there are few studies in Europe describing characteristics of breath malodor for large groups of patients, this retrospective study was designed to analyse the etiology of halitosis among patients attending a breath malodor center in Northern Italy. METHODS: Clinical records of 547 consecutive patients were reviewed and data on self-perceived halitosis, organoleptic scores, volatile sulphur compound (VSC) levels, and oral health condition were extracted and analysed. RESULTS: The prevalence of intra-oral halitosis was 90.7%. In 21 patients no objective signs of breath malodor could be found. Periodontitis and gingivitis were the main cause of bad breath in 33.9% of subjects and in combination with tongue coating in 55.2%. Only eight subjects have tongue coating as the only cause of halitosis. Ear, nose and throat (ENT)/extra-oral causes were found in 5.2% of the patients. VSC concentrations were lower in the psychogenic halitosis group, whereas no statistically significant differences were detected when comparing intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis except for (CH3)2S. CONCLUSIONS: Psychogenic halitosis is a rare condition among subjects complaining of suffering from bad breath. The most prevalent cause of halitosis is intra-oral, in particular a combination of tongue coating and periodontal disease. Tongue coating is rarely the primary cause of oral malodor.


Asunto(s)
Halitosis , Periodontitis , Humanos , Italia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Lengua
18.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 399-407, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515409

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Halitosis is an unpleasant breath odor which can be bothersome to individuals. Extra-oral halitosis is a type of halitosis caused by systemic conditions, bloodborne diseases, or pharmaceutical therapy. It is not related to local factors in the oral cavity. This systematic review aimed to identify the medications that can cause extra-oral halitosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted in accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). We searched online databases and also included hand searching to find relevant articles. Two authors independently performed the screening, data extraction and quality assessment of the included articles using the Cochrane Collaboration assessment tool. RESULTS: Thirty-four studies met the eligibility criteria. The medications which can cause extra-oral halitosis were categorised into 10 groups: acid reducers, aminothiols, anticholinergics, antidepressants, antifungals, antihistamines and steroids, antispasmodics, chemotherapeutic agents, dietary supplements, and organosulfur substances. CONCLUSION: Pharmaceutical therapy is a potential source of extra-oral halitosis. This finding can help clinicians detect the probable causes of halitosis. Further studies are needed to definitely determine the role of various medications in causing extra-oral halitosis.


Asunto(s)
Efectos Colaterales y Reacciones Adversas Relacionados con Medicamentos , Halitosis , Manejo de Datos , Humanos , Boca , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas
19.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(2): e2954, abr.-jun. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126510

RESUMEN

RESUMO Introdução: A halitose é um sinal da presença de mau cheiro ofensivo ao olfato humano, geralmente é provocada pela falta de higiene ou estilo de vida e afeta milhares de pessoas em todo o mundo. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão de literatura a respeito da etiologia, diagnóstico e tratamento da halitose buscando proporcionar um maior embasamento cientifico com informações atualizadas para os profissionais da área. Métodos: O estudo caracterizou-se por uma busca de artigos na base de dados eletrônicos PubMed, Lilacs, Google Acadêmico e Scielo publicados entre 2014 e 2019, em inglês, português e espanhol. Foram consultados 52 trabalhos, destes, 28 foram selecionados após uma criteriosa filtragem. Análise e integração das informações: Diversas etiologias advindas da cavidade bucal podem provocar a halitose. Existem vários exames complementares para auxílio diagnóstico da halitose, tais como testes sialométricos, organoléptico e a análise de presença de saburra para o diagnóstico. Há diversos protocolos instituídos para o tratamento da halitose, desde procedimentos preventivos a curativos. Conclusão: No que concerne a etiologia, a halitose pode ocorrer por fatores fisiológicos ou patológicos; 90 porcento dos casos tem como origem a cavidade oral, podendo estar associada ao biofilme dentário, cárie, língua saburrosa, próteses mal adaptadas e cicatrização tecidual. O diagnóstico deve ser realizado por meio de um exame clínico criterioso. A utilização de questionários para colher informações como frequência, duração, quantidade de vezes que aparece no mesmo dia, hábitos e medicamentos utilizados ajudarão na elucidação do caso. O sucesso do tratamento depende do diagnóstico e da implementação de uma terapia relacionada com a causa-efeito e de uma abordagem multidisciplinar racional que se torna essencial para a obtenção de bons resultados, com objetivo de melhorar a saúde oral, bem como, seus efeitos individuais e sociais(AU)


RESUMEN Introducción: Halitosis o mal olor es ofensivo al olfato humano, generalmente es provocada por la falta de higiene o estilo de vida y afecta a miles de personas en todo el mundo. Objetivo: Llevar a cabo una revisión de la literatura sobre la etiología, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la halitosis buscando proporcionar una mayor base científica con información actualizada para los profesionales en el campo. Métodos: El estudio se caracterizó por una búsqueda de artículos en la base de datos electrónica PubMed, Lilacs, Google Scholar y SciELO publicados entre 2014 y 2019, en inglés, portugués y español. Se consultaron 52 documentos, de los cuales 28 fueron seleccionados después de un filtrado cuidadoso. Análisis e integración de las informaciones: Diversas etiologías provenientes de la cavidad bucal pueden provocar la halitosis. Existen varios exámenes complementarios para ayudar a diagnosticar la halitosis, tales como pruebas sialométricas, organolépticas y el análisis de presencia de saburra para el diagnóstico. Hay varios protocolos instituidos para el tratamiento de la halitosis, desde procedimientos preventivos a curativos. Conclusiones: En cuanto a la etiología de la halitosis puede ocurrir debido a factores fisiológicos o patológicos. Aunque el 90 por ciento de los casos se originan en la cavidad bucal y pueden estar asociados con biopelículas dentales, caries, toques de lengua, prótesis mal adaptadas y cicatrización de tejidos. El diagnóstico debe hacerse mediante un examen clínico cuidadoso. El uso de cuestionarios para recopilar información como la frecuencia, la duración, la cantidad de veces que aparece el mismo día, los hábitos y los medicamentos utilizados ayudarán a dilucidar el caso. El tratamiento exitoso depende del diagnóstico y la implementación de la terapia de causa y efecto y de un enfoque multidisciplinario racional que es esencial para obtener resultados exitosos para mejorar la salud bucal y sus efectos individuales y social(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Oral halitosis or malodor is offensive to the human sense of smell. It is often the result of poor hygiene or lifestyle and affects thousands of people worldwide. Objective: Conduct a literature review about the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of halitosis with the purpose of contributing a broader scientific basis of updated information for professionals in the field. Methods: The study was characterized by a search for papers published in the electronic databases PubMed, Lilacs, Google Scholar and Scielo between 2014 and 2019 in English, Portuguese or Spanish. A total 52 papers were consulted, of which 28 were selected after careful filtering. Data analysis and integration: Halitosis may be due to a variety of oral cavity etiologies. Several complementary tests are available which help diagnose halitosis, e.g. sialometric tests, organoleptic tests and analysis of the presence of saburra for the diagnosis. Several protocols have been implemented for the treatment of halitosis. These range from preventive to healing procedures. Conclusions: The etiology of halitosis may be due to physiological or pathological factors. Although 90 percent of the cases originate in the oral cavity and may be associated with dental biofilm, caries, tongue saburra, ill-fitted prostheses or tissue scarring, diagnosis should be based on careful clinical examination. Using questionnaires to gather information such as frequency, duration, number of times it appears on the same day, habits and medications will help elucidate the case. Successful treatment depends on the diagnosis and implementation of a cause-and-effect therapy and a rational multidisciplinary approach which is essential to obtain positive outcomes and improve oral health as well as its individual and social effects(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Salud Bucal , Halitosis/diagnóstico , Halitosis/etiología , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto , Bases de Datos Bibliográficas , Halitosis/terapia
20.
Periodontol 2000 ; 83(1): 277-294, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385874

RESUMEN

Patient-based outcomes complement clinical data with patients' self-evaluation of their physical, psychological, and social well-being, and as such facilitate clinical decision-making, assessing the quality of care provided, and evaluating practices and policies. Some validated generic oral health-related quality of life measures used in recent research indicated a high performance. There is a proportional relationship between the quality of life and periodontitis, ie, the higher the level of periodontitis, the poorer the oral health-related quality of life. This relationship is heightened by the presence of symptoms such as bleeding, halitosis, and mobility. On the other hand, periodontal treatment has demonstrated the capability to improve quality of life substantially. Future research should focus on questionnaires that are able to explain the interlinked pathways between periodontal conditions, approaches to treatment approaches, and patients' well-being. The acquisition of new knowledge in the field is essential for the whole community, as we treat people not millimeters.


Asunto(s)
Halitosis , Enfermedades Periodontales , Periodontitis , Atención Odontológica , Humanos , Salud Bucal , Calidad de Vida
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