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1.
Front Neural Circuits ; 18: 1389110, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601266

RESUMEN

The error-related negativity and an N2-component recorded over medial frontal cortex index core functions of cognitive control. While they are known to originate from agranular frontal areas, the underlying microcircuit mechanisms remain elusive. Most insights about microcircuit function have been derived from variations of the so-called canonical microcircuit model. These microcircuit architectures are based extensively on studies from granular sensory cortical areas in monkeys, cats, and rodents. However, evidence has shown striking cytoarchitectonic differences across species and differences in the functional relationships across cortical layers in agranular compared to granular sensory areas. In this minireview, we outline a tentative microcircuit model underlying cognitive control in the agranular frontal cortex of primates. The model incorporates the main GABAergic interneuron subclasses with specific laminar arrangements and target regions on pyramidal cells. We emphasize the role of layer 5 pyramidal cells in error and conflict detection. We offer several specific questions necessary for creating a specific intrinsic microcircuit model of the agranular frontal cortex.


Asunto(s)
Lóbulo Frontal , Macaca , Animales , Lóbulo Frontal/fisiología , Células Piramidales , Interneuronas , Haplorrinos , Primates , Cognición , Corteza Cerebral
2.
J Hum Evol ; 190: 103494, 2024 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564844

RESUMEN

The body proportions of extant animals help inform inferences about the behaviors of their extinct relatives, but relationships between body proportions, behavior, and phylogeny in extant primates remain unclear. Advances in behavioral data, molecular phylogenies, and multivariate analytical tools make it an opportune time to perform comprehensive comparative analyses of primate traditional limb length proportions (e.g., intermembral, humerofemoral, brachial, and crural indices), body size-adjusted long bone proportions, and principal components. In this study we used a mix of newly-collected and published data to investigate whether and how the limb length proportions of a diverse sample of primates, including monkeys, apes, and modern humans, are influenced by behavior and phylogeny. We reconfirm that the intermembral index, followed by the first principal component of traditional limb length proportions, is the single most effective variable distinguishing hominoids and other anthropoids. Combined limb length proportions and positional behaviors are strongly correlated in extant anthropoid groups, but phylogeny is a better predictor of limb length proportion variation than of behavior. We confirm convergences between members of the Atelidae and extant apes (especially Pan), members of the Hylobatidae and Pongo, and a potential divergence of Presbytis limb proportions from some other cercopithecoids, which correlate with adaptations for forelimb-dominated behaviors in some colobines. Collectively, these results substantiate hypotheses indicating that extinct hominins and other hominoid taxa can be distinguished by analyzing combinations of their limb length proportions at different taxonomic levels. From these results, we hypothesize that fossil skeletons characterized by notably disparate limb length proportions are unlikely to have exhibited similar behavioral patterns.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Hylobatidae , Humanos , Animales , Filogenia , Haplorrinos , Fósiles , Primates , Extremidad Superior , Evolución Biológica
3.
J Med Primatol ; 53(2): e12697, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539278

RESUMEN

Balantioides coli (=Balantidium coli), a large ciliated protozoan, is reported in multiple free-ranging and captive primate species, often in association with a clinical presentation that requires medical intervention. This report describes the clinical effectiveness of paromomycin sulfate against B.coli in zoo-kept mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx, at orally doses of 8-31 mg/kg, once daily (SID) for 7 days) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla, at orally doses of 1.4-3.1 mg/kg, SID for 5 days).


Asunto(s)
Balantidium , Mandrillus , Animales , Paromomicina/farmacología , Paromomicina/uso terapéutico , Gorilla gorilla , Haplorrinos , Animales de Zoológico
4.
Neurosci Res ; 201: 46-49, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460842

RESUMEN

For animals, including humans, to have self-awareness, the ability to reflect on one's own perceptions and cognitions, which is known as metacognition, and an understanding of consistency of the self from the past to the present and into the future based on metacognition is essential. Through the mediation of self-consciousness, animals are thought to be able to proactively act to change their environment rather than passively responding to changes in their environment. However, it has not been known whether animals have self-awareness, and, if so, how it is implemented neurobiologically. In this review article, I introduce our studies examining the neural basis of metacognitive abilities for past, present, and future actions in macaque monkeys and humans, and explore the evolutionary origins of self-awareness.


Asunto(s)
Macaca , Metacognición , Animales , Humanos , Haplorrinos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Prospectivos
5.
Zool Res ; 45(2): 292-298, 2024 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485499

RESUMEN

Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are maternally inherited and have the potential to cause severe disorders. Mitochondrial replacement therapies, including spindle, polar body, and pronuclear transfers, are promising strategies for preventing the hereditary transmission of mtDNA diseases. While pronuclear transfer has been used to generate mitochondrial replacement mouse models and human embryos, its application in non-human primates has not been previously reported. In this study, we successfully generated four healthy cynomolgus monkeys ( Macaca fascicularis) via female pronuclear transfer. These individuals all survived for more than two years and exhibited minimal mtDNA carryover (3.8%-6.7%), as well as relatively stable mtDNA heteroplasmy dynamics during development. The successful establishment of this non-human primate model highlights the considerable potential of pronuclear transfer in reducing the risk of inherited mtDNA diseases and provides a valuable preclinical research model for advancing mitochondrial replacement therapies in humans.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Mitocondriales , Enfermedades de los Roedores , Ratones , Humanos , Femenino , Animales , Enfermedades Mitocondriales/genética , Enfermedades Mitocondriales/prevención & control , Enfermedades Mitocondriales/veterinaria , Haplorrinos/genética , Mitocondrias/genética , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Primates/genética
6.
Microb Pathog ; 190: 106628, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508422

RESUMEN

Rotavirus infections in suckling and weaning piglets cause severe dehydration and death, resulting in significant economic losses in the pig breeding industry. With the continuous emergence of porcine rotavirus (PoRV) variants and poor vaccine cross-protection among various genotypes, there is an urgent need to develop alternative strategies such as seeking effective antiviral products from nature, microbial metabolites and virus-host protein interaction. Sialidases play a crucial role in various physiopathological processes and offer a promising target for developing antivirus drugs. However, the effect of bacterial-derived sialidases on the infection of PoRVs remains largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the impact of bacterial-derived sialidases (sialidase Cp and Vc) on PoRV strain OSU(Group A) infection, using differentiated epithelial monkey kidney cells (MA104) as a model. Our results indicated that the pretreatment of MA104 with exogenous sialidases effectively suppressed PoRV OSU in a concentration-dependent manner. Notably, even at a concentration of 0.01 µU/mL, sialidases significantly inhibited the virus (MOI = 0.01). Meanwhile, we found that sialidase Vc pretreatment sharply reduced the binding rate of PoRV OSU. Last, we demonstrated that PoRV OSU might recognize α-2,3-linked sialic acid as the primary attachment factor in MA104. Our findings provide new insights into the underlying mechanism of PoRV OSU infections, shedding lights on the development of alternative antivirus approaches based on bacteria-virus interaction.


Asunto(s)
Neuraminidasa , Infecciones por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Replicación Viral , Animales , Neuraminidasa/metabolismo , Neuraminidasa/genética , Rotavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Rotavirus/fisiología , Porcinos , Replicación Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular , Células Epiteliales/virología , Células Epiteliales/microbiología , Acoplamiento Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/farmacología , Antivirales/farmacología , Haplorrinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/microbiología
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6287, 2024 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491154

RESUMEN

The absence of a natural animal model is one of the main challenges in Alzheimer's disease research. Despite the challenges of using nonhuman primates in studies, these animals can bridge mouse models and humans, as nonhuman primates are phylogenetically closer to humans and can spontaneously develop AD-type pathology. The capuchin monkey, a New World primate, has recently attracted attention due to its skill in creating and using instruments. We analyzed one capuchin brain using structural 7 T MRI and performed a neuropathological evaluation of three animals. Alzheimer-type pathology was found in the two of the capuchins. Widespread ß-amyloid pathology was observed, mainly in focal deposits with variable morphology and a high density of mature plaques. Notably, plaque-associated dystrophic neurites associated with disruption of axonal transport and early cytoskeletal alteration were frequently found. Unlike in other species of New World monkeys, cerebral arterial angiopathy was not the predominant form of ß-amyloid pathology. Additionally, abnormal aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau, resembling neurofibrillary pathology, were observed in the temporal and frontal cortex. Astrocyte hypertrophy surrounding plaques was found, suggesting a neuroinflammatory response. These findings indicate that aged capuchin monkeys can spontaneously develop Alzheimer-type pathology, indicating that they may be an advantageous animal model for research in Alzheimer's disease.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Cebinae , Humanos , Animales , Ratones , Anciano , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/patología , Cebus , Haplorrinos , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Placa Amiloide/patología , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6450, 2024 03 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548764

RESUMEN

Arithmetic operations are complex mental processes rooted in the abstract concept of numerosity. Despite the significance, the neural architecture responsible for these operations has remained largely uncharted. In this study, we explored the presence of specific neuronal activity in the dorsal premotor cortex of the monkey dedicated to numerical addition and subtraction. Our findings reveal that many of these neural activities undergo a transformation, shifting their coding from arithmetic to motor representations. These motor representations include information about which hand to use and the number of steps involved in the action. We consistently observed that cells related to the right-hand encoded addition, while those linked to the left-hand encoded subtraction, suggesting that arithmetic operations and motor commands are intertwining with each other. Furthermore, we used a multivariate decoding technique to predict the monkey's behaviour based on the activity of these arithmetic-related cells. The classifier trained to discern arithmetic operations, including addition and subtraction, not only predicted the arithmetic decisions but also the subsequent motor actions of the right and left-hand. These findings imply a cognitive extension of the motor cortex's function, where inherent neural systems are repurposed to facilitate arithmetic operations.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Motora , Animales , Corteza Motora/fisiología , Haplorrinos , Procesos Mentales/fisiología , Formación de Concepto , Neuronas , Mapeo Encefálico
10.
J Vis ; 24(2): 7, 2024 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386341

RESUMEN

Studies have shown that duration perception depends on several visual processes. However, the stages of visual processes that contribute to duration perception remain unclear. This study examined the effects of categorical differences in face adaptation on perceived duration. In all the experiments, we compared the perceived durations of human, monkey, and cat faces (comparison stimuli) after adapting to a human face. Results revealed that the human comparison stimuli were perceived shorter than the monkey and cat comparison stimuli (categorical face adaptation on duration perception [CFAD]). The difference between the face categories disappeared when the adapting stimulus was rendered unrecognizable by phase scrambling, indicating that adaptation to low-level visual properties cannot fully account for the CFAD effect. Furthermore, CFAD was preserved but attenuated when the adapting stimulus was inverted or a 1,000-ms interval was inserted before the comparison stimuli, which implied that CFAD occurred as long as the adapting stimulus was perceived as a face and not simply based on conceptual category processes. These findings indicate that face adaptation affects perceived duration in a category-specific manner (the CFAD effect) and highlights the involvement of visual categorical processes in duration perception.


Asunto(s)
Reconocimiento Facial , Humanos , Animales , Haplorrinos
11.
Science ; 383(6685): 803-804, 2024 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386729

RESUMEN

Breeder would be the country's largest; locals and animal welfare advocates are concerned.


Asunto(s)
Experimentación Animal , Bienestar del Animal , Cruzamiento , Animales , Experimentación Animal/ética , Haplorrinos , Estados Unidos , Investigación Farmacéutica
12.
Eur J Neurosci ; 59(7): 1657-1680, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38414108

RESUMEN

The timescales of the dynamics of a system depend on the combination of the timescales of its components and of its transmission delays between components. Here, we combine experimental stimulation data from 10 studies in macaque monkeys that reveal the timing of excitatory and inhibitory events in the basal ganglia circuit, to estimate its set of transmission delays. In doing so, we reveal possible inconsistencies in the existing data, calling for replications, and we propose two possible sets of transmission delays. We then integrate these delays in a model of the primate basal ganglia that does not rely on direct and indirect pathways' segregation and show that extrastriatal dopaminergic depletion in the external part of the globus pallidus and in the subthalamic nucleus is sufficient to generate ß-band oscillations (in the high part, 20-35 Hz, of the band). More specifically, we show that D2 and D5 dopamine receptors in these nuclei play opposing roles in the emergence of these oscillations, thereby explaining how completely deactivating D5 receptors in the subthalamic nucleus can, paradoxically, cancel oscillations.


Asunto(s)
Dopamina , Núcleo Subtalámico , Animales , Haplorrinos , Ganglios Basales/fisiología , Núcleo Subtalámico/fisiología , Globo Pálido/fisiología
13.
PLoS Biol ; 22(2): e3002500, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363801

RESUMEN

The frontopolar cortex (FPC) is, to date, one of the least understood regions of the prefrontal cortex. The current understanding of its function suggests that it plays a role in the control of exploratory behaviors by coordinating the activities of other prefrontal cortex areas involved in decision-making and exploiting actions based on their outcomes. Based on this hypothesis, FPC would drive fast-learning processes through a valuation of the different alternatives. In our study, we used a modified version of a well-known paradigm, the object-in-place (OIP) task, to test this hypothesis in electrophysiology. This paradigm is designed to maximize learning, enabling monkeys to learn in one trial, which is an ability specifically impaired after a lesion of the FPC. We showed that FPC neurons presented an extremely specific pattern of activity by representing the learning stage, exploration versus exploitation, and the goal of the action. However, our results do not support the hypothesis that neurons in the frontal pole compute an evaluation of different alternatives. Indeed, the position of the chosen target was strongly encoded at its acquisition, but the position of the unchosen target was not. Once learned, this representation was also found at the problem presentation, suggesting a monitoring activity of the synthetic goal preceding its acquisition. Our results highlight important features of FPC neurons in fast-learning processes without confirming their role in the disengagement of cognitive control from the current goals.


Asunto(s)
Objetivos , Haplorrinos , Aprendizaje , Corteza Cerebral , Conducta Exploratoria , Neuronas , Animales
14.
Bioanalysis ; 16(7): 135-148, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385901

RESUMEN

Background: DB-1003 is a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody with higher affinity than omalizumab. In the affinity capture elution (ACE)-based bridging electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA) for antibodies to DB-1003, monkey serum IgE caused false-positive results. Materials & methods: The target-specific antibody or its F(ab')2 fragment was used to mitigate drug target interference in an ACE-based bridging ECLIA for the detection of anti-DB-1003 antibodies. Results: The sensitivity of the developed assay was at least 100 ng/ml. When the anti-drug antibody concentration was 250 ng/ml, the assay tolerated at least 20.0 µg/ml of the monkey IgE. Conclusion: Incorporating the target-specific antibody or its F(ab')2 fragment can overcome the interference from monkey serum IgE in ACE-based bridging ECLIA for anti-DB-1003 antibody detection.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Animales , Suero , Haplorrinos , Inmunoglobulina E , Fragmentos Fab de Inmunoglobulinas
15.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0287893, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324542

RESUMEN

Wildlife trafficking creates favorable scenarios for intra- and inter-specific interactions that can lead to parasite spread and disease emergence. Among the fauna affected by this activity, primates are relevant due to their potential to acquire and share zoonoses - infections caused by parasites that can spread between humans and other animals. Though it is known that most primate parasites can affect multiple hosts and that many are zoonotic, comparative studies across different contexts for animal-human interactions are scarce. We conducted a multi-parasite screening targeting the detection of zoonotic infections in wild-caught monkeys in nine Peruvian cities across three contexts: captivity (zoos and rescue centers, n = 187); pet (households, n = 69); and trade (trafficked or recently confiscated, n = 132). We detected 32 parasite taxa including mycobacteria, simian foamyvirus, bacteria, helminths, and protozoa. Monkeys in the trade context had the highest prevalence of hemoparasites (including Plasmodium malariae/brasilianum, Trypanosoma cruzi, and microfilaria) and enteric helminths and protozoa were less common in pet monkeys. However, parasite communities showed overall low variation between the three contexts. Parasite richness (PR) was best explained by host genus and the city where the animal was sampled. Squirrel (genus Saimiri) and wooly (genus Lagothrix) monkeys had the highest PR, which was ~2.2 times the PR found in tufted capuchins (genus Sapajus) and tamarins (genus Saguinus/Leontocebus) in a multivariable model adjusted for context, sex, and age. Our findings illustrate that the threats of wildlife trafficking to One Health encompass exposure to multiple zoonotic parasites well-known to cause disease in humans, monkeys, and other species. We demonstrate these threats continue beyond the markets where wildlife is initially sold; monkeys trafficked for the pet market remain a reservoir for and contribute to the translocation of zoonotic parasites to households and other captive facilities where contact with humans is frequent. Our results have practical applications for the healthcare of rescued monkeys and call for urgent action against wildlife trafficking and ownership of monkeys as pets.


Asunto(s)
Helmintos , Parásitos , Plasmodium , Humanos , Animales , Perú/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Animales Salvajes/microbiología , Haplorrinos , Saguinus
16.
Addict Biol ; 29(2): e13380, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38333998

RESUMEN

Humans demonstrate significant behavioural advantages with particular perceptual dimensions (such as colour or shape) and when the relevant dimension is repeated in consecutive trials. These dimension-related behavioural modulations are significantly altered in neuropsychological and addiction disorders; however, their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we studied whether these behavioural modulations exist in other trichromatic primate species and whether repeated exposure to opioids influences them. In a target detection task where the target-defining dimension (colour or shape) changed trial by trial, humans exhibited shorter response time (RT) and smaller event-related electrodermal activity with colour dimension; however, macaque monkeys had shorter RT with shape dimension. Although the dimensional biases were in the opposite directions, both species were faster when the relevant dimension was repeated, compared with conditions when it changed, across consecutive trials. These indicate that both species formed dimensional sets and that resulted in a significant 'switch cost'. Scheduled and repeated exposures to morphine, which is analogous to its clinical and recreational use, significantly augmented the dimensional bias in monkeys and also changed the switch cost depending on the relevant dimension. These cognitive effects occurred when monkeys were in abstinence periods (not under acute morphine effects) but expressing significant morphine-induced conditioned place preference. These findings indicate that significant dimensional biases and set formation are evolutionarily preserved in humans' and monkeys' cognition and that repeated exposure to morphine interacts with their manifestation. Shared neural mechanisms might be involved in the long-lasting effects of morphine and expression of dimensional biases and set formation in anthropoids.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides , Morfina , Humanos , Animales , Morfina/farmacología , Haplorrinos , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacología , Condicionamiento Clásico , Cognición
17.
Cell ; 187(6): 1476-1489.e21, 2024 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401541

RESUMEN

Attention filters sensory inputs to enhance task-relevant information. It is guided by an "attentional template" that represents the stimulus features that are currently relevant. To understand how the brain learns and uses templates, we trained monkeys to perform a visual search task that required them to repeatedly learn new attentional templates. Neural recordings found that templates were represented across the prefrontal and parietal cortex in a structured manner, such that perceptually neighboring templates had similar neural representations. When the task changed, a new attentional template was learned by incrementally shifting the template toward rewarded features. Finally, we found that attentional templates transformed stimulus features into a common value representation that allowed the same decision-making mechanisms to deploy attention, regardless of the identity of the template. Altogether, our results provide insight into the neural mechanisms by which the brain learns to control attention and how attention can be flexibly deployed across tasks.


Asunto(s)
Atención , Toma de Decisiones , Aprendizaje , Lóbulo Parietal , Recompensa , Animales , Haplorrinos
18.
Elife ; 132024 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319151

RESUMEN

Schizophrenia results in part from a failure of prefrontal networks but we lack full understanding of how disruptions at a synaptic level cause failures at the network level. This is a crucial gap in our understanding because it prevents us from discovering how genetic mutations and environmental risks that alter synaptic function cause prefrontal network to fail in schizophrenia. To address that question, we developed a recurrent spiking network model of prefrontal local circuits that can explain the link between NMDAR synaptic and 0-lag spike synchrony deficits we recently observed in a pharmacological monkey model of prefrontal network failure in schizophrenia. We analyze how the balance between AMPA and NMDA components of recurrent excitation and GABA inhibition in the network influence oscillatory spike synchrony to inform the biological data. We show that reducing recurrent NMDAR synaptic currents prevents the network from shifting from a steady to oscillatory state in response to extrinsic inputs such as might occur during behavior. These findings strongly parallel dynamic modulation of 0-lag spike synchrony we observed between neurons in monkey prefrontal cortex during behavior, as well as the suppression of this 0-lag spiking by administration of NMDAR antagonists. As such, our cortical network model provides a plausible mechanism explaining the link between NMDAR synaptic and 0-lag spike synchrony deficits observed in a pharmacological monkey model of prefrontal network failure in schizophrenia.


Schizophrenia is a long-term mental health condition that can cause a person to see, hear or believe things that are not real. Although researchers do not fully understand the causes of schizophrenia, it is known to disrupt synapses, which connect neurons in the brain to form circuits that carry out a specific function when activated. This disruption alters the pattern of activity among the neurons, distorting the way that information is processed and leading to symptoms. Development of schizophrenia is thought to be due to interactions between many factors, including genetic makeup, changes in how the brain matures during development, and environmental stress. Despite animal studies revealing how neural circuits can fail at the level of individual cells, it remains difficult to predict or understand the complex ways that this damage affects advanced brain functions. Previous research in monkeys showed that mimicking schizophrenia using a drug that blocks a particular type of synapse prevented neurons from coordinating their activity. However, this did not address how synaptic and cellular changes lead to disrupted neural circuits. To better understand this, Crowe et al. developed a computational model of neural circuits to study how they respond to synapse disruption. To replicate the brain, the model consisted of two types of neurons ­ those that activate connecting cells in response to received signals and those that suppress them. This model could replicate the complex network behavior that causes brain cells to respond to sensory inputs. Increasing the strength of inputs to the network caused it to switch from a state in which the cells fired independently to one where the cells fired at the same time. As was previously seen in monkeys, blocking a particular type of synapse thought to be involved in schizophrenia prevented the cells from coordinating their signaling. The findings suggest that schizophrenia-causing factors can reduce the ability of neurons to fire at the same instant. Disrupting this process could lead to weaker and fewer synapses forming during brain development or loss of synapses in adults. If that is the case, and scientists can understand how factors combine to trigger this process, the mechanism of coordinated activity failure revealed by the model could help identify treatments that prevent or reverse the synapse disruption seen in schizophrenia.


Asunto(s)
Esquizofrenia , Animales , Inhibición Psicológica , Mutación , Neuronas , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato , Haplorrinos
19.
PLoS Biol ; 22(2): e3002520, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364194

RESUMEN

Decision-making requires processing of sensory information, comparing the gathered evidence to make a judgment, and performing the action to communicate it. How neuronal representations transform during this cascade of representations remains a matter of debate. Here, we studied the succession of neuronal representations in the primate prefrontal cortex (PFC). We trained monkeys to judge whether a pair of sequentially presented displays had the same number of items. We used a combination of single neuron and population-level analyses and discovered a sequential transformation of represented information with trial progression. While numerical values were initially represented with high precision and in conjunction with detailed information such as order, the decision was encoded in a low-dimensional subspace of neural activity. This decision encoding was invariant to both retrospective numerical values and prospective motor plans, representing only the binary judgment of "same number" versus "different number," thus facilitating the generalization of decisions to novel number pairs. We conclude that this transformation of neuronal codes within the prefrontal cortex supports cognitive flexibility and generalizability of decisions to new conditions.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Prefrontal , Primates , Animales , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiología , Haplorrinos , Neuronas/fisiología , Toma de Decisiones/fisiología
20.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Jan 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338316

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The development of an anti-drug antibody (ADA)-tolerant pharmacokinetic (PK) assay is important when the drug exposure is irrelevant to toxicity in the presence of ADA. We aimed to develop and validate an ADA-tolerant assay for an exatecan-based antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) in monkey plasma. RESULTS: The assay tolerated 5.00 µg/mL of ADA at 12 µg/mL of ADC. Its accuracy and precision results satisfied the acceptance criteria. Furthermore, the assay was free from hook and matrix effects and exhibited good dilutional linearity. Additionally, the ADC in plasma samples was stable under different storage conditions. METHOD: An ADA-tolerant ADC assay was configured with an anti-payload antibody for capture, and a drug-target protein combined with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled antibody against a drug-target-protein tag for detection. Samples were firstly acidified to dissociate drug and ADA complexes, and to convert the carboxylate form to the lactone form of exatecan molecules; then, the ADAs in the samples were removed with a naked antibody-coated microplate. The treated samples were further incubated with coated anti-payload antibody and captured ADC molecules were quantified by the detection reagent. The developed assay was optimized and validated against regulatory guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: The assay met both methodological and sample-related ADA tolerance requirements, and was applicable to a nonclinical study in cynomolgus monkeys.


Asunto(s)
Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Inmunoconjugados , Animales , Haplorrinos , Anticuerpos
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