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1.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 129-131, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647982

RESUMEN

The summer tanager, Piranga rubra (L., 1758) is a medium-sized songbird formerly belonging to the tanager family Thraupidae but now has been placed within the family Cardinalidae. Nothing is known about the coccidian parasites of this stunningly colorful bird. Feces from 2 P. rubra found dead in McCurtain County, Oklahoma were collected and examined for coccidia; 1 was found to be passing a new species of Isospora. Oocysts of Isospora mccurtainensis n. sp. are subspheroidal to ovoidal with a smooth bilayered wall, measure (length × width [L × W]) 21.7 × 19.5 µm, and have a L/W ratio of 1.1; a micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a bilobed and refractile polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal and measure 13.9 × 8.6 µm, L/W 1.6; a knoblike Stieda body is present as well as a distinct sub-Stieda body. The sporocyst residuum is composed of a granular compact cluster with a dense, irregular mass of granules lying between and dispersed among the sporozoites. This is the first coccidian reported from P. rubra and, most important, only the first known from the Cardinalidae in the mainland of the United States.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/parasitología , Isospora/clasificación , Isosporiasis/veterinaria , Pájaros Cantores/parasitología , Animales , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Isospora/aislamiento & purificación , Isosporiasis/parasitología , Masculino , Microscopía de Interferencia/veterinaria , Oklahoma , Oocistos/aislamiento & purificación , Oocistos/ultraestructura
2.
Parasite ; 28: 10, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544075

RESUMEN

The Italian wolf population in human-modified landscapes has increased greatly in the last few decades. Anthropisation increases the risk of transmission of many zoonotic infections and in this context, control of taeniid cestode species needs to be addressed from a One Health perspective. Predator-prey interactions are at the root of taeniid cestode transmission, and the wolf plays a key role in the maintenance and transmission of taeniids. To date, all available data on the taeniids of wolves in Italy refer to populations living in a wild habitat. Between 2018 and 2019, we investigated taeniids in a wolf pack living in a highly anthropic hilly agro-ecosystem. Thirty-eight faecal samples were collected and analysed, 4 of which were also genetically characterised for individual wolves and belonged to three different animals. Samples collected were analysed microscopically and by molecular analysis in order to identify the taeniid species. Taeniid eggs were detected in 34.2% (13/38) of samples. Within samples positive to taeniid eggs only Echinococcus granulosus s.s. and Taenia hydatigena were identified in 26.3% and 10.5% of the samples, respectively. On microscopic examination, Capillaria spp., Ancylostomatidae and Toxocara canis eggs, Crenosoma vulpis larvae, and coccidian oocysts were also found. The combination of low biodiversity of taeniid species with a high occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. recorded in this study could be the consequence of a deeper link occurring between wolves and livestock in human-modified landscapes than in wild settings.


Asunto(s)
Cestodos , Infecciones por Cestodos , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales , Lobos , Animales , Cestodos/fisiología , Infecciones por Cestodos/epidemiología , Infecciones por Cestodos/parasitología , Infecciones por Cestodos/veterinaria , Echinococcus granulosus , Ecosistema , Heces/parasitología , Italia , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/parasitología , Lobos/parasitología
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e016320, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605387

RESUMEN

This study aimed to identify the intestinal parasites of road-killed wild felines in the North Central and North, Paraná state, southern Brazil. The animals were monitored by sampling previously established transects. The places where the felines were run over were mapped, the animals were identified, and the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated. The feces were submitted to coproparasitological techniques of spontaneous sedimentation, floating in hypersaturated NaCl solution and centrifugal floating in zinc sulfate. All the parasitic structures detected were photomicrographed. In the coproparasitological analyses were identified oocysts of Cystoisospora spp., eggs of Ancylostomatidae, and Capillaria spp.; eggs of Aelurostrongylus spp., Toxocara spp., Physaloptera spp., Taenia spp., and Spirometra spp.; Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae; and eggs and adults of Ancylostoma cati and Taenia spp. One of the cats was parasitized by a flea of Ctenocephalides felis felis. Based on these results, the animals analyzed in this study supplied important samples for the evaluation of parasitic diversity of North of Paraná and suggested that this region may have conditions that allow the maintenance of these parasites life cycles in the environment and among wildlife.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Enfermedades de los Gatos , Parasitosis Intestinales , Parásitos , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales , Animales , Animales Salvajes/parasitología , Biodiversidad , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/parasitología , Gatos , Heces/parasitología , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Parasitosis Intestinales/veterinaria , Parásitos/aislamiento & purificación , Parásitos/fisiología , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/parasitología , Prevalencia
4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(3): e301-e308, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607029

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths and Giardia duodenalis are responsible for a large burden of disease globally. In low-resource settings, household finished floors (eg, concrete floors) might reduce transmission of soil-transmitted helminths and G duodenalis. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of children nested within two randomised trials in rural Bangladesh and Kenya, we estimated associations between household finished flooring and soil-transmitted helminths and G duodenalis prevalence. In 2015-16, we collected stool samples from children aged 2-16 years in rural Bangladesh and Kenya. We detected soil-transmitted helminth infection using quantitative PCR (qPCR; Bangladesh n=2800; Kenya n=3094), and G duodenalis using qPCR in Bangladesh (n=6894) and ELISA in Kenya (n=8899). We estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) using log-linear models adjusted for potential confounders. FINDINGS: 7187 (92·2%) of 7795 children in Bangladesh and 9077 (93·7%) of 9686 children in Kenya provided stool specimens that were analysed by qPCR. At enrolment, 691 (10%) households in Bangladesh and 471 (5%) households in Kenya had finished floors. In both countries, household finished flooring was associated with lower Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence (Bangladesh aPR 0·33, 95% CI 0·14-0·78; Kenya 0·62, 0·39-0·98) and any soil-transmitted helminths (Bangladesh 0·73, 0·52-1·01; Kenya 0·57, 0·37-0·88). Household finished floors were also associated with lower Necator americanus prevalence in Bangladesh (0·52, 0·29-0·94) and G duodenalis prevalence in both countries (Bangladesh 0·78, 0·64-0·95; Kenya 0·82, 0·70-0·97). INTERPRETATION: In low-resource settings, living in households with finished floors over a 2-year period was associated with lower prevalence of G duodenalis and some soil-transmitted helminths in children. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Task Force for Global Health.


Asunto(s)
Pisos y Cubiertas de Piso/métodos , Giardiasis/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Población Rural , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Países en Desarrollo , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Giardiasis/transmisión , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Vivienda , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Suelo/parasitología
5.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 89-97, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556182

RESUMEN

Freshwater gastropods of the genera Lymnaea Lamarck, 1799, Physa Draparnaud, 1801, Gyraulus Charpentier, 1837, Radix Montfort, 1810, and Stagnicola Jeffreys, 1830 are considered suitable intermediate hosts for avian schistosomes. A large trematode biodiversity survey performed across 3 yr on 6 lakes in Alberta confirmed 3 already-reported snail hosts for 7 North American avian schistosomes; however, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) nucleotide sequence from 1 cercarial sample (from a single specimen of Planorbella trivolvis) was distinct from all other COI schistosome sequences. As part of a simultaneous, comparable study of P. trivolvis by us in Michigan, we collected another cercarial type from 6 lakes that was 99% similar (COI) to the aforementioned cercarial type. Phylogenetic analyses of the COI and 28S rDNA genes recovered the former cercaria in a clade of avian schistosomes. In Michigan, the feces of a Canada goose (Branta canadensis Linnaeus, 1758) had a miracidium with an identical COI nucleotide sequence. Preliminary swimmer's itch and cercarial emergence studies were performed to determine if the cercariae could cause swimmer's itch and to study the emergence pattern as compared with species of Trichobilharzia Skrjabin and Zakharow, 1920.


Asunto(s)
Gastrópodos/parasitología , Schistosoma/aislamiento & purificación , Alberta , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Aves , Cercarias/anatomía & histología , Cercarias/clasificación , Cercarias/aislamiento & purificación , Dermatitis/parasitología , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/genética , Heces/parasitología , Humanos , Lagos , Michigan , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 28S/genética , Schistosoma/anatomía & histología , Schistosoma/clasificación , Schistosoma/fisiología , Alineación de Secuencia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 201, 2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622284

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Mozambique, infection by intestinal parasites is reported all over the country. However, infection in children with diarrhoea is mostly focused in the southern region of Mozambique. This work aims to determine the frequency and potential risk factors for infection by Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica in children under-five years hospitalized with diarrhoea in Hospital Central de Nampula, northern Mozambique. METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital-based surveillance was conducted between March 2015 and January 2018 in children admitted with diarrhoea in Hospital Central de Nampula. Sociodemographic information was obtained through semi-structured interviews applied to the children's caregivers. A single stool sample was collected from each child to detect antigens from Cryptosporidium spp., G. lamblia, and E. histolytica using an immune-enzymatic technique. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (with 95% Confidence Intervals) were obtained by logistic regression models to identify factors associated with infection by Cryptosporidium spp. and G. lamblia. RESULTS: The median age and interquartile intervals of our sample population was 12 months (8-20). Intestinal protozoa were detected in 21.4% (59/276). Cryptosporidium spp. was the most common protozoa (13.9% - 38/274), followed by G. lamblia (9.1% - 25/274) and E. histolytica (0.4% - 1/275). Children with illiterate caregiver's (p-value = 0.042) and undernourished (p-value = 0.011) were more likely to be infected by Cryptosporidium spp. G. lamblia was more common in children living in households with more than four members (p-value = 0.039). E. histolytica was detected in an eleven month's child, co-infected with Cryptosporidium spp. and undernourished. CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia were the most common pathogenic intestinal protozoa detected in children with diarrhoea hospitalized in the Hospital Central de Nampula. Our findings obtained highlight the importance of exploring the caregiver's education level, children's nutritional status for infections with Cryptosporidium spp., and living conditions, namely crowded households for infections with G. lamblia in children younger than five years.


Asunto(s)
Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/parasitología , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Áreas de Pobreza , Preescolar , Coinfección/epidemiología , Coinfección/parasitología , Estudios Transversales , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Mozambique/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
7.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200431, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503146

RESUMEN

Giardia duodenalis infection is distributed worldwide and can achieve prevalence around 60%, especially in developing countries. This protozoan is divided into eight assemblages, in which A and B have high zoonotic potential, whereas C to H are host-specific. This scenario is changing as molecular studies progress, highlighting that knowledge on host-specificity still has a long way to go. Understanding the players involved in transmission routes enables rational designs of control strategies. Considering the high prevalence of giardiasis, this review aims to gather together the data on available studies on the distribution of G. duodenalis assemblages in Brazil until September 2020.


Asunto(s)
Heces/parasitología , Giardia/clasificación , Giardia/genética , Giardiasis/diagnóstico , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Genotipo , Giardia/aislamiento & purificación , Giardiasis/epidemiología , Giardiasis/parasitología , Giardiasis/veterinaria , Humanos , Prevalencia , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Zoonosis
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 37, 2021 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422116

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Strongyloidiasis, one of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), can be fatal in immunocompromised patients. Available data on Strongyloides stercoralis infection in high-risk patients in Iran are limited. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of S. stercoralis infection and associated risk factors among high-risk patients as well as to evaluate the sensitivity of the diagnostic tests used in the diagnose of S. stercoralis infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed from 2019 to 2020 among 300 high-risk patients in Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran. Patients with autoimmune diseases, uncontrolled diabetes, HIV/AIDS, cancer, organ transplant, hematological malignancy, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were examined using direct smear examination, formalin-ether concentration, Baermann funnel technique, agar plate culture, and ELISA test. Since agar plate culture was considered the reference diagnostic test, culture-positive samples were confirmed by PCR amplification and the sequencing of the nuclear 18S rDNA (SSU) hypervariable region (HVRIV) of the parasite. RESULTS: The prevalence of S. stercoralis infection was 1%, 1.3%, 2%, 2.7%, and 8.7% using direct smear examination, formalin-ether concentration, Baermann funnel technique, agar plate culture, and ELISA test, respectively. All culture-positive samples were confirmed by SSU-PCR. According to the results, the most sensitive test was ELISA, with 100% sensitivity, followed by the Baermann funnel technique with the sensitivity of 75%. Direct smear examination, formalin-ether concentration technique, and Baermann funnel technique had the highest PPV (100%) while the ELISA test had the highest NPV (100%). Significant eosinophilia was observed in the patients whose culture test was positive (7/8; P < 0.05). In the present study, the majority of the positive cases by the agar plate culture had a history of prolonged exposure to soil and of asthma and COPD and were > 60 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Given that the ELISA test had the highest NPV, the screening of all high-risk patients for S. stercoralis infection in endemic areas is recommended prior to starting corticosteroid therapy with the ELISA test. The results indicate the importance of paying attention to patients with unknown eosinophilia in endemic areas. Ivermectin should be available to strongyloidiasis patients in the endemic areas.


Asunto(s)
Strongyloides stercoralis , Estrongiloidiasis/epidemiología , Estrongiloidiasis/parasitología , Adulto , Animales , Asma , Estudios Transversales , Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/métodos , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Formaldehído , Humanos , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Irán/epidemiología , Ivermectina/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prevalencia , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Factores de Riesgo , Suelo , Strongyloides stercoralis/aislamiento & purificación , Estrongiloidiasis/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto Joven
9.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 16-22, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498083

RESUMEN

Horses in Iceland have been isolated for more than 1,000 yr but still harbor a similar range of gastrointestinal parasites as do horses across the world. The long isolation of the horses and their parasites presumably means that no resistance genes have been introduced into the Parascaris spp. population. It is therefore of particular interest to investigate the efficacy of ivermectin on Parascaris spp. infecting Icelandic foals. Potential treatment failure of ivermectin in Iceland will add substantial new information on how resistance can arise independently. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of subcutaneous injection of ivermectin for the treatment of Parascaris spp. infection in foals and to identify the Parascaris species present in the west and north of Iceland. A fecal egg count reduction (FECR) test (FECRT) was performed on 50 foals from 8 farms, including an untreated control group of 6 foals, from September to November 2019. The foals were between 3 and 5 mo of age at the start of the study and had not previously been treated with anthelmintic drugs. Each foal was treated subcutaneously with off-label use of Ivomec® injection 10 mg/ml or Noromectin® 1% at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg. The FECR for each farm was calculated in 2 ways, by the eggCounts package in R and by the Presidente formula (FECRT). Both calculation methods resulted in efficacy levels between 0% and 80.78%, indicating ivermectin resistance on all farms. We also confirmed, by karyotyping, that the species of equine ascarid present in the west and north of Iceland is Parascaris univalens. This study provides evidence for treatment failure of ivermectin against P. univalens infection in foals. Since Icelandic horses have been isolated on the island for more than 1,000 yr, this implies that resistance alleles have developed independently in the Icelandic Parascaris population. The actual clinical impact of ivermectin resistance is unknown but another drug of choice should be considered to treat Parascaris infection in foals in Iceland.


Asunto(s)
Antiparasitarios/farmacología , Infecciones por Ascaridida/veterinaria , Ascaridoidea/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades de los Caballos/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de los Caballos/parasitología , Ivermectina/farmacología , Animales , Antiparasitarios/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Ascaridida/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Ascaridida/parasitología , Ascaridoidea/clasificación , Teorema de Bayes , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Heces/parasitología , Caballos , Islandia , Ivermectina/uso terapéutico , Cariotipificación/veterinaria , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos/veterinaria , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 20, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413119

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Globally, urogenital and intestinal parasitosis remain significant health challenges. They are associated with rising morbidity, death, and many harmful outcomes. A little is known concerning parasitosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our study planned to investigate the urogenital and intestinal parasitic infections among type 2 diabetes patients compare to non-diabetic (Control) individuals and examine the intensity of helminthiasis in both groups. METHODS: At Kosti Teaching Hospital (Sudan), 300 Urine and 300 stool samples have collected from 150 type 2 diabetes and 150 control individuals, along with the socio-demographic data using a structured questionnaire. The parasitic infections were examined by direct sedimentation technique for urine specimens. Whereas, for fecal samples, simple-direct saline, formal-ether concentration, Kato-Katz, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques were used. RESULTS: Out of 150 type 2 diabetes patients studied, 31 (20.6%) and 14 (9.3%) had intestinal parasitosis and urogenital schistosomiasis, respectively. Whereas, 16 (10.6%) and 8 (5.3%) of the control group were infected, respectively. Compared to the control group, the odds of testing positive for either urogenital schistosomiasis (AOR: 2.548, 95% CI: 0.836-7.761, P = 0.100) or intestinal parasitic diseases (AOR: 2.099, 95% CI: 0.973-4.531, P = 0.059) were greater in diabetic individuals. Likewise, the intensities of helminthiasis were much higher in the diabetic patients and positively correlated with the duration of illness. The rate of urogenital schistosomiasis was also significantly different among the disease duration subcategories. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has highlighted the relationship of type 2 diabetes with urogenital and intestinal parasitic infections and enhanced our knowledge about the frequency of particular urogenital and intestinal parasites as well as the intensity of helminths infection in type 2 diabetes compared to non-diabetic individuals, which are important for further studies.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/parasitología , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Esquistosomiasis Urinaria/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Población Rural , Sudán/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
11.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 655-663, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409626

RESUMEN

Coccidiosis is an intestinal parasitic disease that causes huge economic losses in the poultry industry globally. Henan and Hubei, as important poultry production provinces in China, have great pressure for the prevention and control of chicken coccidiosis. In order to obtain information on the local prevalence of Eimeria species, we used an internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequence of ribosomal DNA to identify the species from 318 fresh fecal samples. The fecal samples and the data relating to farm information were collected from 137 farms in Hubei and Henan provinces. As shown by genus-specific PCR results, the positivity rate of Eimeria was 97.17% (309/318), and the most common species were Eimeria mitis (66.67%), E. tenella (46.86%), and E. necatrix (41.51%). Then, we analyzed the correlation between the background information of each sample and the PCR identification results, which showed that indigenous farms in Henan province were at the greatest risk of harboring highly pathogenic Eimeria species and a larger proportion of such farms were positive for E. necatrix, the most pathogenic species. The results of this study showed that chicken coccidia was widespread, which provides important insights into the control of chicken coccidiosis in this region.


Asunto(s)
Pollos/parasitología , Coccidiosis/veterinaria , Eimeria/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/parasitología , Animales , China/epidemiología , Coccidiosis/epidemiología , Coccidiosis/parasitología , Eimeria/clasificación , Eimeria/genética , Granjas/estadística & datos numéricos , Heces/parasitología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Prevalencia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 751-754, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409637

RESUMEN

Protozoa of the genus Sarcocystis are obligatory heterogenous parasites with both definitive and intermediate hosts. Opossums (Didelphis aurita) can shed multiple species of Sarcocystis with birds as the intermediate host. The pathologies of Sarcocystis species in birds have not been thoroughly elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study to determine the main lesions that can occur in acute and chronic infections in intermediate hosts, when they ingest infective sporocysts that are shed in the opossum's feces, using budgerigars as a model. To this end, 12 budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, were divided into two groups that received an inoculum with 60 and 120 sporocysts. Birds that died or were euthanized were necropsied, and the lung, tongue, liver, brain, heart, and skeletal striated muscles were collected and fixed in 10% formalin for histopathological analysis. The infectivity varied according to the sample and infective dose. Acute histopathological lesions were characterized by evidence of slightly degenerated hepatocyte cords that permeated the region of the blood vessel and hepatic sinusoids. Pulmonary tissue lesions were also observed in the parabronchial region with the presence of inflammatory infiltrates associated with areas of edema and atelectasis. In chronic infections, few mature cysts were observed in the chest, and many mature cysts in the thigh and tongue muscles. Thus, it was possible to conclude that lesions are highly characteristic in acute infection and, in chronic infections, cysts were present but without major lesions. In this case, the preferred organs of parasitism were the thigh and the tongue.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/patología , Didelphis/parasitología , Melopsittacus/parasitología , Sarcocystis/patogenicidad , Sarcocistosis/veterinaria , Animales , Enfermedades de las Aves/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Aves/parasitología , Heces/parasitología , Oocistos/aislamiento & purificación , Oocistos/patogenicidad , Sarcocystis/aislamiento & purificación , Sarcocistosis/epidemiología , Sarcocistosis/parasitología , Sarcocistosis/patología
13.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 731-737, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442815

RESUMEN

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a zoonosis caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, a heteroxenous parasite belonging to Cestoda class. AE is currently considered an important public health issue, but epidemiological and notably molecular data from several endemic countries, including Pakistan, are sparse. Here we report the first detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in wildlife from Pakistan after real-time PCR and sequencing confirmation in the faecal samples of three foxes from northern Kaghan and Siran regions. The occurrence is estimated at 4.4% (95% CI 0.9-12.4). In order to go further in the epidemiological investigations on E. multilocularis and due to the potential presence of other Echinococcus species, we suggest the need for further epidemiological surveys targeting E. multilocularis and E. granulosus sensu lato isolates from humans and intermediate hosts as well as definitive hosts from wildlife in Pakistan.


Asunto(s)
ADN de Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Echinococcus multilocularis/aislamiento & purificación , Zorros/parasitología , Animales , Animales Salvajes/parasitología , ADN de Helmintos/genética , Perros , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Heces/parasitología , Pakistán , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
14.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021009, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494130

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and other intestinal parasites in patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs in northern Iran and to investigate related risk factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 494 patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs, including cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy (n=188) and those treated with prolonged corticosteroid administration (n=306). All fresh fecal samples were examined using the direct wet-mount, formalin ethyl acetate concentration, and agar plate culture techniques. RESULTS: In total, 16.8% of patients were positive for at least 1 intestinal parasite; the helminthic and protozoan infection rates were 5.1% and 12.3%, respectively. The infection rate was significantly higher in corticosteroid-treated individuals (19.6%) than cancer patients (12.2%) (p<0.05). The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis among patients receiving chemotherapy and those treated with corticosteroids were 4.3% and 5.2%, respectively. The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis infection was significantly higher in older patients (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Strongyloidiasis is one of the most common parasites among patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs in northern Iran. Early diagnosis and proper treatment of these patients are necessary to minimize the complications of severe strongyloidiasis.


Asunto(s)
Inmunosupresores/uso terapéutico , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Strongyloides stercoralis/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 9, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407180

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of enteric infections in Aboriginal children aged 0-2 years using conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques and to explore associations between the presence of pathogens and child growth. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of Aboriginal children (n = 62) residing in a remote community in Northern Australia, conducted from July 24th - October 30th 2017. Stool samples were analysed for organisms by microscopy (directly in the field and following fixation and storage in sodium-acetate formalin), and by qualitative PCR for viruses, bacteria and parasites and serology for Strongyloides-specific IgG. Child growth (height and weight) was measured and z scores calculated according to WHO growth standards. RESULTS: Nearly 60% of children had evidence for at least one enteric pathogen in their stool (37/62). The highest burden of infection was with adenovirus/sapovirus (22.9%), followed by astrovirus (9.8%) and Cryptosporidium hominis/parvum (8.2%). Non-pathogenic organisms were detected in 22.5% of children. Ten percent of children had diarrhea at the time of stool collection. Infection with two or more pathogens was negatively associated with height for age z scores (- 1.34, 95% CI - 2.61 to - 0.07), as was carriage of the non-pathogen Blastocystis hominis (- 2.05, 95% CI - 3.55 to - 0.54). CONCLUSIONS: Infants and toddlers living in this remote Northern Australian Aboriginal community had a high burden of enteric pathogens and non-pathogens. The association between carriage of pathogens/non-pathogens with impaired child growth in the critical first 1000 days of life has implications for healthy child growth and development and warrants further investigation. These findings have relevance for many other First Nations Communities that face many of the same challenges with regard to poverty, infections, and malnutrition.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiología , Adenovirus Humanos/genética , Infecciones por Astroviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Caliciviridae/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/genética , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Mamastrovirus/genética , Sapovirus/genética , Infecciones por Adenovirus Humanos/virología , Adenovirus Humanos/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Infecciones por Astroviridae/virología , Australia/epidemiología , Infecciones por Caliciviridae/virología , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/parasitología , Diarrea/virología , Heces/parasitología , Heces/virología , Femenino , Gastroenteritis/parasitología , Gastroenteritis/virología , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Mamastrovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Prevalencia , Sapovirus/aislamiento & purificación
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 7, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407198

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the etiology of childhood diarrhea in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) especially after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines. This study aimed to identify gastrointestinal pathogens in children with diarrhea (cases) and the carriage rate of these pathogens in asymptomatic children (controls). METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 203 cases and 73 controls who presented to two major hospitals in Al Ain city, UAE. Samples were analyzed with Allplex™ Gastrointestinal Full Panel Assay for common entero-pathogens. The association between diarrhea and the isolated pathogens was calculated in a multivariate logistic regression model. The adjusted attributable fractions (aAFs) were calculated for all pathogens significantly associated with cases. RESULTS: At least one pathogen was identified in 87 samples (42.8%) from cases and 17 (23.3%) from controls (P < 0.001). Rotavirus, norovirus GII and adenovirus were significantly more prevalent in cases. Their aAFs with 95% ci are 0.95 (0.64, 1.00) for rotavirus, 0.86 (0.38, 0.97) for norovirus GII and 0.84 (0.29, 0.96) for adenovirus. None of the 13 bacteria tested for were more commonly found in the cases than in controls. Cryptosporidium spp. were more significantly detected in cases than in controls. Co-infections occurred in 27.9% of the children. Viruses and parasites were significantly more likely to occur together only in the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex PCR revealed high positivity rates in both cases and controls which demand a cautious interpretation. Rotavirus remains the main childhood diarrhea pathogen in UAE. Effective strategies are needed to better control rotavirus and other causative pathogens.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiología , Adenovirus Humanos/genética , Infecciones por Caliciviridae/epidemiología , Coinfección/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarrea/epidemiología , Norovirus/genética , Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología , Rotavirus/genética , Infecciones por Adenovirus Humanos/virología , Adenovirus Humanos/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Infecciones por Caliciviridae/virología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Preescolar , Coinfección/parasitología , Coinfección/virología , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Diarrea/parasitología , Diarrea/virología , Heces/parasitología , Heces/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex/métodos , Norovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Rotavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Vacunas contra Rotavirus , Emiratos Árabes Unidos/epidemiología
17.
Exp Parasitol ; 222: 108078, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485874

RESUMEN

The blood flow in the mesenteric region is crucial for nutrient absorption and immune response in the gastrointestinal tract. The presence of nematodes or their excreted/secreted products seems to provoke vascular dysfunction. However, it is unclear whether and how the intestinal nematodes with habitat in the intestinal niche could affect the mesenteric vascular resistance. In this study, male Wistar rats were infected with 2000 larvae of S. venezuelensis, and experiments were conducted at 0 (non-infected control), 10 or 30 days post-infection (DPI). Eggs were counted in rats' feces and adult worms recovered from the small intestine. Second- or third-order mesenteric arteries were extracted for concentration-response curves (CRC) to phenylephrine [PE; in the presence or absence of L-NAME or indomethacin] and acetylcholine. The number of eggs and adult worms were significantly higher in the 10 DPI group than those of 30 DPI group. Augmented PE-induced contraction was seen after 30 DPI compared to 10 DPI or control group. Hypercontractility to PE was partially prevented by L-NAME and wholly abolished by indomethacin incubation. Endothelium-dependent relaxation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression were unchanged among groups. COX-1 and COX-2 display a different pattern of expression over the infection. Hypercontractility observed in mesenteric resistance arteries in the resolution time of S. venezuelensis infection may represent systemic damage, which can generate significant cardiovascular and gastrointestinal repercussions.


Asunto(s)
Células Endoteliales/fisiología , Intestinos/irrigación sanguínea , Arterias Mesentéricas/fisiopatología , Strongyloides/fisiología , Estrongiloidiasis/fisiopatología , Animales , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Gerbillinae , Masculino , Contracción Muscular , Enfermedades Desatendidas/fisiopatología , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos , Distribución Aleatoria , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2151-2163, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309376

RESUMEN

The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the effect of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine rotavirus (BRoV), and Cryptosporidiumparvum on dairy calf health and performance and to determine the prevalence of these pathogens. A total of 198 male dairy calves housed at a grain-fed veal facility were examined from June 11, 2018, to October 9, 2018. Calves were fed milk replacer twice daily and housed individually until weaning at 56 d. Once weaned, calves were moved into groups of 5 until they were moved to a finishing facility at 77 d. At the grain-fed veal facility, calves were scored for fecal consistency for the first 28 d and had fecal samples taken on arrival and at 7 and 14 d. Fecal samples were frozen and submitted to a commercial laboratory, where they were tested for BCoV, C.parvum, and 2 groups of BRoV: group A (BRoV A) and group B (BRoV B). Calves were weighed on arrival and at 14, 49, 56, and 77 d using a digital body scale. Treatments for disease and mortalities that occurred over the 77 d were also recorded. Statistical models, including Cox proportional hazards and repeated measures models, were built to determine the effect of infection with 1 of the pathogens. Over the 3 sampling points, 151 (85.8%), 178 (94.2%), 3 (1.5%), and 97 (57.4%) calves tested positive at least once for BCoV, BRoV A, BRoV B, and C.parvum, respectively. The source of the calves and the level of serum total protein measured on arrival were associated with testing positive for a pathogen. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea and severe diarrhea; calves that tested positive for BCoV and BRoV A had an increased proportion of days with severe diarrhea. In addition, calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a higher hazard of being treated for respiratory disease. With respect to body weight, calves that had diarrhea or severe diarrhea had lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d. Specifically, calves that had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea showed a reduction in weight gain of up to 15 kg compared to calves without diarrhea. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d; calves that tested positive for BCoV had a lower body weight at 56 and 77 d. This study demonstrates that the prevalence of BCoV, BRoV A, and C.parvum infection is high in this population of calves and has significant effects on the occurrence of diarrhea and body weight gain. Future studies should evaluate approaches for minimizing the effect of infection with these pathogens to improve the welfare, health, and productivity of dairy calves.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/fisiopatología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Coronavirus Bovino , Criptosporidiosis/fisiopatología , Cryptosporidium parvum , Infecciones por Rotavirus/veterinaria , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Estudios de Cohortes , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/fisiopatología , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Diarrea/parasitología , Diarrea/veterinaria , Diarrea/virología , Heces/química , Heces/parasitología , Heces/virología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Enfermedades Respiratorias/terapia , Enfermedades Respiratorias/veterinaria , Rotavirus , Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/fisiopatología , Aumento de Peso
19.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243946, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320918

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH), i.e., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms are among the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in Ethiopia. Although pre-school aged children pay a high morbidity toll associated with STH infections, evidence on prevalence, intensity and intervention status is lacking in Ethiopia. This study, therefore, aimed to address these gaps to inform decision made on STH. METHODS: We did a community-based cross-sectional study in five districts of Gamo Gofa zone, Southern Ethiopia; in January 2019. Data were collected using pre-tested questionnaire, and the Kato-Katz technique was used to diagnose parasites eggs in stool. Then, collected data were edited and entered into EpiData 4.4.2, and exported to SPSS software (IBM, version 25) for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2462 PSAC participated in this study. Overall, the prevalence of STH was 23.5% (578/2462) (95% confidence interval (CI) = 21.8%-25.2%). As caris lumbricoides was the most prevalent (18.6%), followed by Trichuris trichiura (9.2%), and hookworms (3.1%). Of the total, 7.4% PSAC were infected with two STH species. Most of the positive cases with STH showed low infection intensities, while 15.1% ascariasis cases showed moderate infection intensities. The study found that 68.7% of PSAC were treated with albendazole. Also, household's level data showed that 39.4% used water from hand-dug well; 52.5% need to travel ≥30 minutes to collect water; 77.5% did not treat water, and 48.9% had no hand washing facility. In addition, almost 93% care givers achieved less than the mean knowledge and practice score (≤5) on STH prevention. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that significant proportions of pre-school aged children are suffering from STH infections despite preventive chemotherapy exist at the study area. Also, gaps in the interventions against STH were highlighted. Thus, a call for action is demanding to eliminate STH among PSAC in Ethiopia by 2030.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/transmisión , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Adolescente , Anciano , Ancylostomatoidea/patogenicidad , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Ascaris lumbricoides/patogenicidad , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintiasis/patología , Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Helmintos/patogenicidad , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/prevención & control , Trichuris/patogenicidad
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318254

RESUMEN

Strongyloidiasis is one of the neglected helminths infection that is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Due to its variable presentation, its diagnosis is often a challenge. We report a case of an immigrant patient with asthma who later developed eosinophilia. After 3 years of unexplained eosinophilia, he developed B symptoms and had frequent asthma exacerbations. He was later diagnosed with strongyloidiasis and treated with ivermectin. His B symptoms resolved, and his asthma exacerbations decreased significantly. Due to the frequent use of corticosteroids in asthma exacerbations, this case illustrates the importance of Strongyloides screening in asthmatics from high-risk regions. It also displays the importance of further investigating patients with asthma who develop eosinophilia and have frequent exacerbations while on optimal asthma treatment. Having a high index of suspicion is essential when making this diagnosis, as clinical presentation is often variable and does not follow a standard time course.


Asunto(s)
Corticoesteroides/efectos adversos , Asma/parasitología , Eosinofilia/parasitología , Estrongiloidiasis/diagnóstico , Anciano , Animales , Antiparasitarios/uso terapéutico , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Eosinofilia/tratamiento farmacológico , Heces/parasitología , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Recurrencia , Strongyloides stercoralis/aislamiento & purificación , Estrongiloidiasis/complicaciones , Estrongiloidiasis/tratamiento farmacológico
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