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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e25123, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761678

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and the rapid transmission of NoV renders infection control problematic. Our study aimed to investigate viral shedding in gastroenteritis in children caused by variants of emerging norovirus strains infections.We used RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequencing to measure NoV genome copies in stool to understand the relationship between the clinical manifestations and viral shedding in hospitalized patients. The near full-length NoV genome sequence was amplified via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and NoV recombination was analyzed using the Recombination Analysis Tool (RAT).From January 2015 to March 2018, 77 fecal specimens were collected from hospitalized pediatric patients with confirmed NoV gastroenteritis. The NoV genotypes were GII.4 (n = 22), non-GII.4 (n = 14), GII.4 Sydney (n = 21), and GII.P16-GII.2 (n = 20). Viral load increased from days 2 to 9 from the illness onset, resulting in an irregular plateau without peaks. After day 9, the viral load declined gradually and most viral shedding in feces ceased by day 15. The average viral load was highest in GII.4 Sydney followed by GII.P16-GII.2 infections and lowest in non-GII.4 infections. GII.4 unclassified infections showed the longest viral shedding time, followed by GII.4 Sydney infections, GII.P16-GII.2 recombinant infection resulted in the shortest duration. NoVs evolved to form a group of GII.P16-GII.2 variants during the 2017 to 2018 period.The viral load and shedding period and was different in variants of NoV infections in children. High mutation rate of emerging and re-emerging variants was observed to an enhanced epidemic risk rendering continuous surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Caliciviridae/virología , Gastroenteritis/virología , Variación Genética , Norovirus/genética , Esparcimiento de Virus/genética , Preescolar , Heces/virología , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Pacientes Internos/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Recombinación Genética , Taiwán , Carga Viral
2.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573340

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Viral gastroenteritis remains a major cause of hospitalisation in young children. This study aimed to determine the distribution and diversity of enteric viruses in children ≤5 years, hospitalised with gastroenteritis at Kalafong Provincial Tertiary Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa, between July 2016 and December 2017. METHODS: Stool specimens (n = 205) were screened for norovirus GI and GII, rotavirus, sapovirus, astrovirus and adenovirus by multiplex RT-PCR. HIV exposure and FUT2 secretor status were evaluated. Secretor status was determined by FUT2 genotyping. RESULTS: At least one gastroenteritis virus was detected in 47% (96/205) of children. Rotavirus predominated (46/205), followed by norovirus (32/205), adenovirus (15/205), sapovirus (9/205) and astrovirus (3/205). Norovirus genotypes GI.3, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.7, GII.12, GII.21, and rotavirus strains G1P[8], G2P[4], G2P[6], G3P[4], G3P[8], G8P[4], G8P[6], G9P[6], G9P[8] and sapovirus genotypes GI.1, GI.2, GII.1, GII.4, GII.8 were detected; norovirus GII.4[P31] and rotavirus G3P[4] predominated. Asymptomatic norovirus infection (GI.3, GI.7, GII.4, GII.6, GII.13) was detected in 22% of 46 six-week follow up stools. HIV exposure (30%) was not associated with more frequent or severe viral gastroenteritis hospitalisations compared to unexposed children. Rotavirus preferentially infected secretor children (p = 0.143) and norovirus infected 78% secretors and 22% non-secretors. CONCLUSION: Rotavirus was still the leading cause of gastroenteritis hospitalisations, but norovirus caused more severe symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Gastroenteritis/virología , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Biodiversidad , Preescolar , Heces/virología , Femenino , Gastroenteritis/terapia , Hospitalización , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Sudáfrica , Virus/clasificación , Virus/genética
3.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562073

RESUMEN

The contemporary surge in metagenomic sequencing has transformed knowledge of viral diversity in wildlife. However, evaluating which newly discovered viruses pose sufficient risk of infecting humans to merit detailed laboratory characterization and surveillance remains largely speculative. Machine learning algorithms have been developed to address this imbalance by ranking the relative likelihood of human infection based on viral genome sequences, but are not yet routinely applied to viruses at the time of their discovery. Here, we characterized viral genomes detected through metagenomic sequencing of feces and saliva from common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and used these data as a case study in evaluating zoonotic potential using molecular sequencing data. Of 58 detected viral families, including 17 which infect mammals, the only known zoonosis detected was rabies virus; however, additional genomes were detected from the families Hepeviridae, Coronaviridae, Reoviridae, Astroviridae and Picornaviridae, all of which contain human-infecting species. In phylogenetic analyses, novel vampire bat viruses most frequently grouped with other bat viruses that are not currently known to infect humans. In agreement, machine learning models built from only phylogenetic information ranked all novel viruses similarly, yielding little insight into zoonotic potential. In contrast, genome composition-based machine learning models estimated different levels of zoonotic potential, even for closely related viruses, categorizing one out of four detected hepeviruses and two out of three picornaviruses as having high priority for further research. We highlight the value of evaluating zoonotic potential beyond ad hoc consideration of phylogeny and provide surveillance recommendations for novel viruses in a wildlife host which has frequent contact with humans and domestic animals.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/virología , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Heces/virología , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Metagenómica , Filogenia , Virus de la Rabia/clasificación , Virus de la Rabia/genética , Virus de la Rabia/aislamiento & purificación , Saliva/virología , Virus/clasificación , Virus/genética
4.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(1): 122-124, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610243

RESUMEN

The route of transmission of Novel SARS-CoV-2 virus is ambiguous. In this regard we planned a study to find out SARS-CoV-RNA shedding in various clinical samples of 9 COVID-19 positive patients. SARS-CoV-RNA was detected in nasal swab (NS), throat swab (TS) and faecal sample but was not detected in serum and urine samples. We also report that SARS-CoV-2-RNA persisted in faeces for >20 days. Persistence of faecal RNA might impose challenge in infection control and the disease may spread to household contacts if discharged. Perineal cleaning and hygiene may be advised at the time of vaginal delivery.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , ARN Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Heces/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cavidad Nasal/virología , Faringe/virología , Factores de Tiempo , Carga Viral , Adulto Joven
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573534

RESUMEN

Abstract: This report, from the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program and collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, describes the rotavirus genotypes identified in children and adults with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2018. During this period, 690 faecal specimens were referred for rotavirus G- and P- genotype analysis, including 607 samples that were confirmed as rotavirus positive. Of these, 457/607 were wild-type rotavirus strains and 150/607 were identified as rotavirus vaccine-like. Genotype analysis of the 457 wild-type rotavirus samples from both children and adults demonstrated that G3P[8] was the dominant genotype nationally, identified in 52% of samples, followed by G2P[4] (17%). The Australian National Immunisation Program, which previously included both RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccines, changed to Rotarix exclusively on 1 July 2017. Continuous surveillance is needed to identify if the change in vaccination schedule could affect rotavirus genotype distribution and diversity in Australia.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Rotavirus/inmunología , Australia/epidemiología , Preescolar , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Heces/virología , Femenino , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/virología , Genotipo , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Vigilancia de la Población , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Vacunas contra Rotavirus/administración & dosificación , Vacunas Atenuadas
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573535

RESUMEN

Abstract: This report, from the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program and collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, describes the rotavirus genotypes identified in children and adults with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2019. During this period, 964 faecal specimens had been referred for rotavirus G- and P- genotype analysis, including 894 samples that were confirmed as rotavirus positive. Of these, 724/894 were wild-type rotavirus strains and 169/894 were identified as vaccine-like. A single sample could not be determined as wild-type or vaccine-like due to poor sequencing. Genotype analysis of the 724 wild-type rotavirus samples from both children and adults demonstrated that G3P[8] was the dominant genotype nationally, identified in 46.7% of samples, followed by G2P[4] in 8.8% of samples. The Australian National Immunisation Program (NIP) changed to the exclusive use of Rotarix as of 1 July 2017. The NIP had previously included two live-attenuated oral vaccines: Rotarix (monovalent, human) and RotaTeq (pentavalent, human-bovine reassortant) in a state-based vaccine selection. Continuous surveillance is imperative to determine the effect of this change in rotavirus vaccine schedule on the genotype distribution and diversity in Australia.


Asunto(s)
Programas de Inmunización/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Rotavirus/prevención & control , Animales , Australia/epidemiología , Bovinos , Preescolar , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Heces/virología , Femenino , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/prevención & control , Gastroenteritis/virología , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Vigilancia de la Población , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Vacunas contra Rotavirus/administración & dosificación , Vacunas contra Rotavirus/inmunología , Vacunas Atenuadas
7.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(5): 1137-1142, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526973

RESUMEN

Background: It's reported SARS-CoV-2 could transmit via gastrointestinal tract, with or without pulmonary symptoms. However, as far as we know, there is no effective marker to predict the virus discharge in stool and initial gastrointestinal involvement of COVID-19 patients. Aims: We aimed to investigate the likely biomarker predicting virus discharge in stool and initial gastrointestinal involvement of COVID-19, which may assist the clinicians in better preventing COVID-19 spread. Methods: The patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, including vomiting, diarrhea, with or without respiratory symptoms, attending the Sixth People's Hospital of Wenzhou, and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, were screened by qRT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed COVID-19 patients, without any history of intaking contaminated food or water, were all enrolled to investigate the association between circulating lymphocyte count and virus discharge, initial gastrointestinal involvement. Results: Seventy-six COVID-19 patients were included in the final analysis (mean age of 44.5 years, male 44.7%), with 24 (31.5%) complained of initial gastrointestinal symptoms. Significantly lower circulating lymphocyte count was found in the patients with positive results of qRT-PCR on stool (p = 0.012). Patients were divided into tertile groups by circulating lymphocyte count: lymphocyte ≤0.88*10^9/l ( n = 25 ), 0.88*10^9/l -1.2*10^9/l ( n = 28 ), and >1.2*10^9/l ( n = 23 ), respectively. When circulating lymphocyte count increased from 1st tertile to the 2nd and 3rd tertiles, the risk of initial gastrointestinal symptoms decreased by nearly 75% (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.98, p = 0.047), 83% (OR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.63, p = 0.008), after adjusting for likely confounders. Conclusions: The circulating lymphocyte count is inversely associated with virus discharge in stool, and the risk of initial gastrointestinal involvement in COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
/inmunología , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/virología , Adulto , Heces/virología , Femenino , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/inmunología , Humanos , Recuento de Linfocitos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos
8.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 65, 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557906

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused irreparable damage to society, and the damage continues. Pediatricians are confronted with COVID-19 in a variety of presentations, which may lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis of the disease plays an important role in preventing transmission of the virus in the community. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a 27-month-old previously healthy Iranian female child who presented with fever and bloody diarrhea, diagnosed with COVID-19 based on contact history, exclusion of enteric bacterial pathogens and parasites, and positive stool and nasopharyngeal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests. The patient had viral shedding for more than a month. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatric population usually does not present with typical clinical features of COVID-19, which are respiratory involvement. Dysentery may be the only presentation of this disease, and long-term isolation should be considered, as the viral shedding may last for more than a month.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Disentería/virología , /complicaciones , Preescolar , Heces/virología , Femenino , Fiebre/virología , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Esparcimiento de Virus
9.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247367, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617590

RESUMEN

This study aimed to identify the specimen type that has high positivity and its proper sampling time for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing to promote diagnostic efficiency. All SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis in Zhoushan City were followed up for viral shedding in respiratory tract specimens and faecal samples. Positivity was analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively by proper statistical approaches with strong testing power. Viral shedding in respiratory tract and faecal specimens was prolonged to 45 and 40 days after the last exposure, respectively. The overall positive rate in respiratory tract specimens was low and relatively unstable, being higher in the early-to-mid stage than in the mid-to-late stage of the disease course. Compared with respiratory tract specimens, faecal samples had a higher viral load, higher overall positive rate, and more stable positivity in different disease courses and varied symptomatic status. Faecal specimens have the potential ability to surpass respiratory tract specimens in virus detection. Testing of faecal specimens in diagnosis, especially for identifying asymptomatic carriers, is recommended. Simultaneously, testing respiratory tract specimens at the early-to-mid stage is better than testing at the mid-to-late stage of the disease course. A relatively small sample size was noted, and statistical approaches were used to address it. Information was missing for both specimen types at different stages of the disease course due to censored data. Our research extends the observed viral shedding in both specimen types and highlights the importance of faecal specimen testing in SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Healthcare workers, patients, and the general public may all benefit from our study findings. Disposal of sewage from hospitals and residential areas should be performed cautiously because the virus sheds in faeces and can last for a long time.


Asunto(s)
/métodos , Heces/virología , Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Esparcimiento de Virus , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /virología , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Manejo de Especímenes , Adulto Joven
10.
Biotechniques ; 70(3): 149-159, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512248

RESUMEN

One goal of microbial ecology researchers is to capture the maximum amount of information from all organisms in a sample. The recent COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the RNA virus SARS-CoV-2, has highlighted a gap in traditional DNA-based protocols, including the high-throughput methods the authors previously established as field standards. To enable simultaneous SARS-CoV-2 and microbial community profiling, the authors compared the relative performance of two total nucleic acid extraction protocols with the authors' previously benchmarked protocol. The authors included a diverse panel of environmental and host-associated sample types, including body sites commonly swabbed for COVID-19 testing. Here the authors present results comparing the cost, processing time, DNA and RNA yield, microbial community composition, limit of detection and well-to-well contamination between these protocols.


Asunto(s)
ADN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Microbiota/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/aislamiento & purificación , /genética , Animales , Biodiversidad , Gatos , Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Heces/microbiología , Heces/virología , Femenino , Alimentos y Bebidas Fermentados/microbiología , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Masculino , Metagenómica/métodos , Ratones , Saliva/microbiología , Saliva/virología , Piel/microbiología , Piel/virología
11.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(2): 179-186, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486373

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Global distribution of human bocavirus (HBoV) has been known to associate with viral gastroenteritis in pediatric population. This study was conducted in Chiang Mai, Thailand from 2012 to 2018 to investigate epidemiology and genotype distribution of HBoV in pediatric patients less than 5 years old hospitalized with diarrhea. METHODS: A total of 2727 fecal specimens were investigated for the presence of HBoV using nested-PCR targeting partial VP1 capsid region. The detected HBoV strains were further characterized by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Detection rate of HBoV infection in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea was 5.2%. Three genotypes of HBoV were detected with the most predominance of HBoV1 (50.4%), followed by HBoV2 (42.5%), and HBoV3 (7.1%). The majority of HBoV positive cases were children of 1 to <2 years old (31.9%) with high detection rate of HBoV1 and HBoV2. HBoV infection occurred all year-round. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that majority of HBoV1 displayed the genetic relationship with HBoV1 strains reported previously from Asia whereas only a few were related to the strains from Europe, South America, and Middle East. The HBoV2 and HBoV3 were also mainly closely related to the strains reported from Asia and a few from South America and North Africa. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights distribution of HBoV genotypes circulating in pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Overall, three genotypes of HBoV were detected with equally high prevalence of HBoV1 and HBoV2 whereas HBoV3 was detected with much lower prevalence.


Asunto(s)
Gastroenteritis/virología , Bocavirus Humano/genética , Infecciones por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Niño , Preescolar , Heces/virología , Femenino , Gastroenteritis/diagnóstico , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Genoma Viral , Genotipo , Bocavirus Humano/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Infecciones por Parvoviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Parvoviridae/virología , Filogenia , Tailandia/epidemiología
12.
Arch Virol ; 166(2): 613-617, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389103

RESUMEN

To investigate the viral communities in diarrhoeal faeces of Tibetan pigs, 146 diarrhoeic samples were collected from 16 pigs farms on the Tibetan plateau. Nineteen viruses belonging to eleven viral taxonomic families were identified in a pooled library. Metagenomics analysis revealed that the viruses were mainly small linear and circular DNA viruses. Furthermore, sequences of 10 NS1 genes and two complete genomes of PBuVs were obtained by PCR amplification. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis showed that the PBuVs from Tibetan pigs displayed more abundant genetic diversity than those from domestic pigs. This is the first description of the faecal viral community in Tibetan pigs associated with diarrhoea.


Asunto(s)
Virus ADN/genética , Diarrea/virología , Variación Genética/genética , Sus scrofa/virología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Animales , China , Heces/virología , Genoma Viral/genética , Metagenómica/métodos , Filogenia , Porcinos , Tibet
13.
Arch Virol ; 166(2): 451-460, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392822

RESUMEN

To investigate the epidemic profile and genetic diversity of porcine bocavirus (PBoV), 281 clinical samples, including 236 intestinal tissue samples and 45 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic piglets on 37 different pig farms in central China, and two SYBR Green I-based quantitative PCR assays were developed to detect PBoV1/2 and PBoV3/4/5, respectively. One hundred forty-eight (52.67%) of the 281 clinical samples were positive for PBoV1/2, 117 (41.63%) were positive for PBoV3/4/5, 55 (19.57%) were positive for both PBoV1/2 and PBoV3/4/5, and 86.49% (32/37) of the pig farms were positive for PBoV. Overall, the prevalence of PBoV was 74.73% (210/281) in central China. Subsequently, nearly full-length genomic sequences of two PBoV strains (designated CH/HNZM and PBoV-TY) from two different farms were determined. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the two PBoV strains obtained in this study belonged to the PBoV G2 group and had a close relationship to 10 other PBoV G2 strains but differed genetically from PBoV G1, PBoV G3, and seven other bocaviruses. CH/HNZM and PBoV-TY were closely related to the PBoV strain GD18 (KJ755666), which may be derived from the PBoV strains 0912/2012 (MH558677) and 57AT-HU (KF206160) through recombination. Compared with reference strain ZJD (HM053694)-China, more amino acid variation was found in the NS1 proteins of CH/HNZM and PBoV-TY. These data extend our understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of PBoV.


Asunto(s)
Bocavirus/genética , Infecciones por Parvoviridae/virología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Animales , China , Heces/virología , Variación Genética/genética , Epidemiología Molecular/métodos , Filogenia , Prevalencia , Porcinos
14.
Food Microbiol ; 95: 103709, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397626

RESUMEN

The ongoing pandemic involving severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised the question whether this virus, which is known to be spread primarily though respiratory droplets, could be spread through the fecal-oral route or via contaminated food. In this article, we present a critical review of the literature exploring the potential foodborne transmission of several respiratory viruses including human coronaviruses, avian influenza virus (AVI), parainfluenza viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, and Nipah virus. Multiple lines of evidence, including documented expression of receptor proteins on gastrointestinal epithelial cells, in vivo viral replication in gastrointestinal epithelial cell lines, extended fecal shedding of respiratory viruses, and the ability to remain infectious in food environments for extended periods of time raises the theoretical ability of some human respiratory viruses, particularly human coronaviruses and AVI, to spread via food. However, to date, neither epidemiological data nor case reports of clear foodborne transmission of either viruses exist. Thus, foodborne transmission of human respiratory viruses remains only a theoretical possibility.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/virología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/transmisión , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/virología , Animales , Aves , /virología , Heces/virología , Humanos , /aislamiento & purificación
15.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 2, 2021 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397461

RESUMEN

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a coronavirus disease characterized by the rapid spread of severe diarrhea among pigs. PED virus (PEDV) infects and replicates mainly in the epithelial cells of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Serum or mucosal IgA antibody levels have been used to predict both vaccine efficacy and the level of protective immunity to enteric infectious diseases in individuals or herds. Details of the B-cell immune response upon PEDV infection, such as the systemic and mucosal PEDV IgA antibody response, the distribution of IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), and their role in virus clearance are not yet clear. In this experimental infection study, we observed similar fluctuations in PEDV IgA antibody levels in serum and intestinal contents of the upper and lower jejunum and ileum, but not fecal samples, over the 4-week experimental course. ASCs that actively secrete PEDV IgA antibody without in vitro stimulation were distributed mainly in the upper jejunum, whereas memory B cells that showed enhanced PEDV IgA antibody production upon in vitro stimulation were observed in mesenteric lymph nodes and the ileum. Our findings will contribute to the development of effective vaccines and diagnostic methods for PEDV.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Virus de la Diarrea Epidémica Porcina , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Animales , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Heces/química , Heces/virología , Inmunoglobulina A/sangre , Inmunoglobulina A/química , Inmunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , ARN Viral , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/sangre , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Células Vero
16.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 62, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389254

RESUMEN

Bovine rotavirus A (RVA) and bovine coronavirus (CoV) are the two main viral enteropathogens associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. The aim of the present work was to study the impact of group and individual housing systems in the epidemiology of RVA and CoV infection. Eleven calves reared in individual housing (FA) and nine calves in group housing (FB) were monitored during the first 7 weeks of life. Stool and serum samples were screened for RVA and CoV antigens by ELISA. IgG1 antibodies (Ab) to both antigens were also measured. From the 160 fecal samples collected, the proportion of positive samples to RVA and CoV was significantly higher in FB (23.6%) than in FA (9%) (p = 0.03). The geometric mean of colostral IgG1 Ab titers to CoV and RVA in FA (IgG1 anti-CoV 1024 and anti-RVA 1782.9) was lower than in FB (IgG1 anti-CoV 10,321.2 and anti-RVA 4096) at birth. Calves less than 2 weeks of life from FB had a higher risk of being infected by RVA (OR = 4.9; p = 0.01) and CoV (OR = 17.15; p = 0.01) than calves from FA. The obtained results showed that there was higher RVA and CoV shedding in group-housed calves than in individual-housed animals.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Vivienda para Animales , Infecciones por Rotavirus/veterinaria , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Argentina , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Calostro/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Coronavirus Bovino , Industria Lechera , Diarrea/veterinaria , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/veterinaria , Heces/virología , Femenino , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Estudios Longitudinales , Embarazo , Rotavirus , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Esparcimiento de Virus
17.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 733-744, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480553

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged as the cause of a global pandemic in 2019-2020. In March 2020, New York City became the epicenter in the United States for the pandemic. On 27 March 2020, a Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris jacksoni) at the Bronx Zoo in New York City developed a cough and wheezing with subsequent inappetence. Over the next week, an additional Malayan tiger and two Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in the same building and three lions (Panthera leo krugeri) in a separate building also became ill. The index case was anesthetized for diagnostic workup. Physical examination and bloodwork results were unremarkable. Thoracic radiography and ultrasonography revealed a bronchial pattern with peribronchial cuffing and mild lung consolidation with alveolar-interstitial syndrome, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was identified by real-time, reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) on oropharyngeal and nasal swabs and tracheal wash fluid. Cytologic examination of tracheal wash fluid revealed necrosis, and viral RNA was detected in necrotic cells by in situ hybridization, confirming virus-associated tissue damage. SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from the tracheal wash fluid of the index case, as well as the feces from one Amur tiger and one lion. Fecal viral RNA shedding was confirmed in all seven clinical cases and an asymptomatic Amur tiger. Respiratory signs abated within 1-5 days for most animals, although they persisted intermittently for 16 days in the index case. Fecal RNA shedding persisted for as long as 35 days beyond cessation of respiratory signs. This case series describes the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management of tigers and lions infected with SARS-CoV-2 and describes the duration of viral RNA fecal shedding in these cases. This report documents the first known natural transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from humans to nondomestic felids.


Asunto(s)
/veterinaria , Heces/virología , Leones/virología , Tigres/virología , Animales , Animales de Zoológico , Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Proteínas Bacterianas/aislamiento & purificación , /epidemiología , Proteínas de Unión al ADN/genética , Proteínas de Unión al ADN/aislamiento & purificación , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Factores de Transcripción/aislamiento & purificación
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 78, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482757

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel disease which has been having a worldwide affect since December 2019. Evidence regarding the effects of SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy is conflicting. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 has been demonstrated in biological samples during pregnancy (placenta, umbilical cord or amniotic fluid); however, maternal and fetal effects of the virus are not well known. METHODS: Descriptive, multicentre, longitudinal, observational study in eight tertiary care hospitals throughout Spain, that are referral centres for pregnant women with COVID-19. All pregnant women with positive SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction during their pregnancy or 14 days preconception and newborns born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 will be included. They will continue to be followed up until 4 weeks after delivery. The aim of the study is to investigate both the effect of COVID-19 on the pregnancy, and the effect of the pregnancy status with the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 disease. Other samples (faeces, urine, serum, amniotic fluid, cord and peripheral blood, placenta and breastmilk) will be collected in order to analyse whether or not there is a risk of vertical transmission and to describe the behaviour of the virus in other fluids. Neonates will be followed until 6 months after delivery to establish the rate of neonatal transmission. We aim to include 150 pregnant women and their babies. Ethics approval will be obtained from all the participating centres. DISCUSSION: There is little information known about COVID-19 and its unknown effects on pregnancy. This study will collect a large number of samples in pregnant women which will allow us to demonstrate the behaviour of the virus in pregnancy and postpartum in a representative cohort of the Spanish population.


Asunto(s)
/fisiopatología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/fisiopatología , Aborto Espontáneo/epidemiología , Adulto , Líquido Amniótico/virología , /transmisión , Heces/virología , Femenino , Sangre Fetal/virología , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Longitudinales , Leche Humana/virología , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Mortalidad Perinatal , Placenta/virología , Preeclampsia/epidemiología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/mortalidad , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , España/epidemiología , Orina/virología
19.
Med Hypotheses ; 147: 110476, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482620

RESUMEN

At the end of 2019, an emerging outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that first reported from Wuhan, China. The first manifestations of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 was flu-like symptoms, while other type of manifestations, especially gastrointestinal manifestations were discovered recently. As of June 2020, there is no specific drug or treatment strategy for COVID-19, a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, so different combination of antiviral drugs is currently being used. Gut microbiota mostly consists of four phyla, including Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. The interaction between gut microbiota and immune system through releasing some cytokines such as IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ that play roles in the severity of COVID-19. In this article, a new potential treatment for COVID-19 by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is described. FMT revealed promising results in different diseases, especially recurrent clostridium difficile infection, and it might reduce length of hospital admission and severity of the disease by modification of gut microbiota composition.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Trasplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Tracto Gastrointestinal/microbiología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/virología , Bacterias/clasificación , China , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Heces/virología , Humanos , Sistema Inmunológico , Pulmón/microbiología , Modelos Teóricos
20.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 967-972, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420817

RESUMEN

Neboviruses (NeVs) are important causative agents of calf diarrhea that belong to the family Caliciviridae. In this study, we investigated the genomic characteristics of a NeV strain from yaks that has a novel RdRp genotype. The complete genome of this strain (YAK/NRG-A9/19/CH) is 7454 nt in length and shares 68.3%-79.7% nt sequence identity with those of other NeVs. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of this strain shares 66.5%-78.5% nt sequence identity (74.0%-89.3% aa sequence identity) with the eight available complete NeV RdRp sequences, and a phylogenetic analysis based on these sequences showed that the new strain formed an independent branch, indicating that the RdRp of strain YAK/NRG-A9/19/CH may represent a novel RdRp genotype of NeV. These results contribute to a further understanding of the molecular characteristics and genetic evolution of NeVs.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Caliciviridae/veterinaria , Caliciviridae/genética , Proteínas de la Cápside/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , /genética , Animales , Caliciviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Evolución Molecular , Heces/virología , Genotipo , Filogenia , ARN Viral/genética
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