Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.867
Filtrar
1.
Parasite ; 28: 33, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812465

RESUMEN

Molecular biology has been gaining more importance in parasitology. Recently, a commercial multiplex PCR assay detecting helminths was marketed: the Allplex™ GI-Helminth(I) Assay. It targets Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis spp., Necator americanus, Strongyloides spp., Taenia spp. and Trichuris trichiura, but also the two most common microsporidia genera in human health, i.e. Enterocytozoon spp. and Encephalitozoon spp. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the Allplex™ GI-Helminth(I) Assay to classical diagnostic methods, based on a cohort of 110 stool samples positive for helminths (microscopy) or for microsporidia (PCR). Samples were stored at -80 °C until analysis by the Allplex™ GI-Helminth(I) Assay. False-negatives were re-tested with bead-beating pretreatment. Without mechanical lysis, concordance and agreement between microscopy and Allplex™ GI-Helminth(I) Assay ranged from 91% to 100% and from 0.15 to 1.00, respectively depending on the target. Concordance was perfect for Taenia spp. (n = 5) and microsporidia (n = 10). False-negative results were observed in 54% (6/13), 34% (4/11) and 20% (7/35) of cases, for hookworms, E. vermicularis and Strongyloides spp. detection, respectively. For these targets, pretreatment improved the results, but only slightly. Trichuris trichiura detection was critically low without pretreatment, as only 9% (1/11) of the samples were positive, but detection reached 91% (10/11) with bead-beating pretreatment. Mechanical lysis was also needed for Ascaris spp. and Hymenolepis spp. to reduce false-negative results from 1/8 to 1/21, respectively, to none for both. Overall, with an optimized extraction process, the Allplex™ GI-Helminth(I) Assay allows the detection of numerous parasites with roughly equivalent performance to that of microscopy, except for hookworms.


Asunto(s)
Helmintos , Parásitos , Animales , Heces , Humanos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex , Parásitos/genética
2.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(4): 543-545, 2021 04 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857416

RESUMEN

In many parts of the world, women are co-infected with intestinal helminths and sexually transmitted pathogens. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Chetty et al. demonstrate that intestinal helminth infection increases epithelial damage and pathology associated with herpes virus infection.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección , Helmintiasis , Helmintos , Virosis , Animales , Eosinófilos , Femenino , Helmintiasis/complicaciones , Herpesvirus Humano 2 , Humanos , Salud de la Mujer
3.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(4): 207, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654216
4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238953, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729385

RESUMEN

Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo-helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw vegetable has a high risk of acquiring geo-helminth infections. The authors believe that preventing the human to enter to the vegetable farmland for defecation, avoiding the irrigation of agricultural fields via night soil, and educating the people on proper washing and cooking of vegetables may be useful in reducing parasitic infections.


Asunto(s)
Helmintos , Verduras , Animales , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Humanos , Pakistán , Suelo
5.
Zootaxa ; 4927(2): zootaxa.4927.2.4, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756709

RESUMEN

No species of freshwater Nematomorpha have been described from Iceland, but they have been identified anecdotally. Recent surveys in Iceland using freshwater gastropods as biodiversity indicators resulted in the collection of adult free-living hairworms and their non-adult stages including cysts in snail paratenic hosts and juvenile worms in ground beetle definitive hosts. Additionally, specimens acquired from the Icelandic Institute of Natural History indicate nematomorphs are common in Iceland. A single specimen from the Faroe Islands National Museum represents a new species record. Our morphological and molecular characterization indicated all the samples belong to the species Gordionus wolterstorffii, a common nematomorph found throughout Europe. Also, we provide the first descriptions of the cyst stage for the genus Gordionus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on 10 species of Gordionus and one species of the closely related genus Parachordodes indicates that Gordionus is not monophyletic. Combining our morphological and phylogenetic investigations, we discuss the lack of clarity in diagnostic morphological characters and the need for additional global collections to clarify the taxonomy of Gordionus.


Asunto(s)
Helmintos , Animales , Dinamarca , Documentación , Helmintos/genética , Islandia , Filogenia
6.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 48-58, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535233

RESUMEN

To date, all free-living adult hairworms have been reported from aquatic habitats. However, in Oklahoma, a recently described gordiid, Gordius terrestris, is consistently encountered in terrestrial habitats. We found this gordiid species has a unique egg morphology, unlike that of any other hairworm species, with an outer shell separated by distinct space from a thick inner membrane surrounding the developing larva. Because of this unique egg morphology and the occurrence of free-living hairworms in terrestrial habitats, it was hypothesized that G. terrestris represents the first report of a hairworm species with a terrestrial life cycle. In this study, we observed thousands of free-living adult worms in terrestrial habitats such as wet lawns and underneath wet sod during the winter. We found evidence of worms mating in these terrestrial habitats, followed by female worms burrowing and ovipositing in the soil. In the laboratory, significantly more females burrowed in the soil than males, providing a plausible explanation for the extreme male-biased sex ratio observed for free-living worms found on wet lawns. Finally, we collected terrestrial earthworms infected with the cyst stage of this gordiid species in the field and confirmed those observations by infecting earthworms with G. terrestris larvae in the laboratory. Taken together, these observations strongly support the hypothesis that G. terrestris has a terrestrial life cycle.


Asunto(s)
Helmintos/fisiología , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Oligoquetos/parasitología , Suelo/parasitología , Animales , Femenino , Helmintos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Masculino , Oklahoma , Lluvia , Estaciones del Año
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498343

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coinfection of malaria and intestinal helminths affects one third of the global population, largely among communities with severe poverty. The spread of these parasitic infections overlays in several epidemiological locations and the host shows different outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis determine the pooled prevalence of malaria and intestinal helminthiases coinfections among malaria suspected patients in Ethiopia. METHODS: Primary studies published in English language were retrieved using appropriate search terms on Google Scholar, PubMed/MEDLINE, CINHAL, Scopus, and Embase. The Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) was used for critical appraisal of studies. A pooled statistical meta-analysis was conducted using STATA Version 14.0 software. The heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed using the I2 statistics and Egger's test, respectively. Duval and Tweedie's nonparametric trim and fill analysis using the random-effect analysis. The Random effects model was used to estimate the summary prevalence of comorbidity of malaria and soil transmitted helminthiases and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). The review protocol has registered in PROSPERO number CRD42019144803. RESULTS: We identified ten studies (n = 6633 participants) in this study. The overall pooled result showed 13% of the ambulatory patients infected by malaria and intestinal helminths concurrently in Ethiopia. The pooled prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, and mixed infections were 12, 30, and 6%, respectively. The most common intestinal helminth parasites detected were Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Tirchuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONS: The comorbidity of malaria and intestinal helminths causes lower hemoglobin level leading to maternal anemia, preterm delivery, and still birth in pregnant women and lactating mother. School-aged children and neonates coinfected by plasmodium species and soil transmitted helminths develop cognitive impairment, protein energy malnutrition, low birth weight, small for gestational age, and gross motor delay. The Ministry of Health of Ethiopia and its international partners working on malaria elimination programs should give more emphasis to the effect of the interface of malaria and soil transmitted helminths, which calls for an integrated disease control and prevention.


Asunto(s)
Helmintos , Malaria , Animales , Niño , Comorbilidad , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Lactancia , Malaria/epidemiología , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Embarazo , Prevalencia
9.
Mol Immunol ; 131: 1-5, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440289

RESUMEN

Helminths can interact with their hosts in many different ways, including through the secretion of soluble molecules (such as lipids, glycans and proteins) and extracellular vesicles (EVs). The field of helminth secreted EVs has significantly advanced in recent years, mainly due to the molecular characterisation of EV proteomes and research highlighting the potential of EVs and their constituent molecules in the diagnosis and control of parasitic infections. Despite these advancements, the lack of appropriate isolation and purification methods is impeding the discovery of suitable biomarkers for the differentiation of helminth EV populations. In the present review we offer our viewpoint on the different proteomic techniques and approaches that have been developed, as well as solutions to common pitfalls and challenges that could be applied to advance the study of helminth EVs.


Asunto(s)
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Helmintos/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Animales , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Helmintos/patogenicidad , Enfermedades Parasitarias/parasitología , Proteómica/métodos
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2241: 257-274, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486742

RESUMEN

Eosinophils secrete a number of proinflammatory mediators that include cytokines, chemokines, and granule proteins which are responsible for the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory responses. The eosinophil granule proteins, ECP, EDN, MBP, and EPO, possess antimicrobial activity against bacteria, helminths, protozoa, and viruses. In this chapter, we describe various assays used to detect and quantitate the antimicrobial activities of eosinophil granule proteins, particularly ECP and EDN. We have taken a model organism for each assay and described the method for antiviral, antihelminthic, antiprotozoan, and antibacterial activity of purified eosinophil granule proteins.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas en los Gránulos del Eosinófilo/aislamiento & purificación , Proteínas en los Gránulos del Eosinófilo/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/métodos , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/metabolismo , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Bacterias , Gránulos Citoplasmáticos/fisiología , Proteínas en los Gránulos del Eosinófilo/metabolismo , Eosinófilos/fisiología , Helmintos , Humanos , Virus
11.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(1): e52-e60, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338459

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Driven by global targets to eliminate soil-transmitted helminths as a public health problem, governments have rapidly rolled out control programmes using school and community-based platforms. To justify and target ongoing investment, quantification of impact and identification of remaining high-risk areas are needed. We aimed to assess regional progress towards these targets. METHODS: We did a continental-scale ecological analysis using a Bayesian space-time hierarchical model to estimate the effects of known environmental, socioeconomic, and control-related factors on the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths, and we mapped the probability that implementation units had achieved moderate-to-heavy intensity infection prevalence of less than 2% among children aged 5-14 years between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2018. FINDINGS: We incorporated data from 26 304 georeferenced surveys, spanning 3096 (60%) of the 5183 programmatic implementation units. Our findings suggest a reduction in the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in children aged 5-14 years in sub-Saharan Africa, from 44% in 2000 to 13% in 2018, driven by sustained delivery of preventive chemotherapy, improved sanitation, and economic development. Nevertheless, 1301 (25%) of 5183 implementation units still had an estimated prevalence of moderate-to-heavy intensity infection exceeding the 2% target threshold in 2018, largely concentrated in nine countries (in 1026 [79%] of 1301 implementation units): Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Cameroon, Angola, Mozambique, Madagascar, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. INTERPRETATION: Our estimates highlight the areas to target and strengthen interventions, and the areas where data gaps remain. If elimination of soil-transmitted helminths as a public health problem is to be achieved in sub-Saharan Africa by 2030, continued investment in treatment and prevention activities are essential to ensure that no areas are left behind. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Suelo/parasitología , Análisis Espacial , Adolescente , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Helmintos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113387, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918996

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Propolis has been used in folk medicine for thousands of years and, in the past few decades, it has attracted renewed interest. Although propolis has been traditionally used in many communities worldwide against parasitic diseases, its effect against Schistosoma mansoni infection remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To demonstrate the effects of Brazilian red propolis on Schistosoma mansoni ex vivo and in an animal model of schistosomiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro, we monitored phenotypic and tegumental changes as well as the effects of the crude extract of propolis on pairing and egg production. In a mouse infected with either immature (early infection) or adult (chronic infection) worms, propolis was administered by oral gavage and we studied the influence of this natural product on worm burden and egg production. RESULTS: Propolis 25 µg/mL reduced motility and caused 100% mortality of adult parasites ex vivo. Further analysis revealed a pronounced reduction in oviposition after exposure to propolis at sub-lethal concentrations. In addition, scanning electron microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of schistosomes. In the animal model, propolis markedly reduced worm burden and egg production in both early and chronic S. mansoni infection when compared to untreated control animals. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of Brazilian red propolis in both in vitro and in vivo studies suggests its potential anthelmintic properties against S. mansoni infection.


Asunto(s)
Antiparasitarios/uso terapéutico , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Helmintos/efectos de los fármacos , Óvulo/efectos de los fármacos , Própolis/uso terapéutico , Esquistosomiasis mansoni/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antiparasitarios/aislamiento & purificación , Brasil/etnología , Enfermedad Crónica , Femenino , Helmintos/fisiología , Masculino , Ratones , Óvulo/fisiología , Própolis/farmacología , Distribución Aleatoria , Esquistosomiasis mansoni/patología
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243946, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320918

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH), i.e., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms are among the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in Ethiopia. Although pre-school aged children pay a high morbidity toll associated with STH infections, evidence on prevalence, intensity and intervention status is lacking in Ethiopia. This study, therefore, aimed to address these gaps to inform decision made on STH. METHODS: We did a community-based cross-sectional study in five districts of Gamo Gofa zone, Southern Ethiopia; in January 2019. Data were collected using pre-tested questionnaire, and the Kato-Katz technique was used to diagnose parasites eggs in stool. Then, collected data were edited and entered into EpiData 4.4.2, and exported to SPSS software (IBM, version 25) for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2462 PSAC participated in this study. Overall, the prevalence of STH was 23.5% (578/2462) (95% confidence interval (CI) = 21.8%-25.2%). As caris lumbricoides was the most prevalent (18.6%), followed by Trichuris trichiura (9.2%), and hookworms (3.1%). Of the total, 7.4% PSAC were infected with two STH species. Most of the positive cases with STH showed low infection intensities, while 15.1% ascariasis cases showed moderate infection intensities. The study found that 68.7% of PSAC were treated with albendazole. Also, household's level data showed that 39.4% used water from hand-dug well; 52.5% need to travel ≥30 minutes to collect water; 77.5% did not treat water, and 48.9% had no hand washing facility. In addition, almost 93% care givers achieved less than the mean knowledge and practice score (≤5) on STH prevention. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that significant proportions of pre-school aged children are suffering from STH infections despite preventive chemotherapy exist at the study area. Also, gaps in the interventions against STH were highlighted. Thus, a call for action is demanding to eliminate STH among PSAC in Ethiopia by 2030.


Asunto(s)
Ascariasis/transmisión , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Suelo/parasitología , Tricuriasis/transmisión , Adolescente , Anciano , Ancylostomatoidea/patogenicidad , Animales , Ascariasis/epidemiología , Ascariasis/parasitología , Ascariasis/prevención & control , Ascaris lumbricoides/patogenicidad , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintiasis/patología , Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Helmintos/patogenicidad , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Tricuriasis/epidemiología , Tricuriasis/parasitología , Tricuriasis/prevención & control , Trichuris/patogenicidad
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008938, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326420

RESUMEN

Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are endemic and widespread across Sub-Saharan Africa. A community wide soil-transmitted helminth (STH) prevalence survey was performed on the island of Bubaque in Guinea-Bissau using both Kato-katz microscopy and qPCR methodology. Predictors of infection and morbidity indicators were identified using multivariable logistic regression, and diagnostic methods were compared using k statistics. Among 396 participants, prevalence of STH by microscopy was 23.2%, hookworm was the only species identified by this method and the mean infection intensity was 312 eggs per gram. qPCR analysis revealed an overall prevalence of any STH infection of 47.3%, with the majority A. duodenale (32.3%), followed by N. americanus (15.01%) and S. stercoralis (13.2%). A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura infections were negligible, with a prevalence of 0.25% each. Agreement between diagnostic tests was k = 0.22, interpreted as fair agreement, and infection intensity measured by both methods was only minimally correlated (Rs = -0.03). STH infection overall was more common in females and adults aged 31-40. STH infection was associated with open defaecation, low socio-economic status and further distance to a water-source. The prevalence of anaemia (defined as a binary outcome by the WHO standards for age and sex) was 69.1%, and 44.2% of children were malnourished according to WHO child growth standards. Hookworm infection intensity by faecal egg count showed no statistically significant association with age (Rs 0.06) but S. Stercoralis infection intensity by qPCR cycle threshold was higher in pre-school aged children (Rs = 0.30, p-value 0.03) There was no statistically significant association between STH infection and anaemia (OR 1.0 p = 0.8), stunting (OR 1.9, p-value 0.5) and wasting (OR 2.0, p-value 0.2) in children. This study reveals a persistent reservoir of STH infection across the community, with high rates of anaemia and malnutrition, despite high-coverage of mebendazole mass-drug administration in pre-school children. This reflects the need for a new strategy to soil-transmitted helminth control, to reduce infections and ultimately eliminate transmission.


Asunto(s)
Antinematodos/uso terapéutico , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Mebendazol/uso terapéutico , Suelo/parasitología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Guinea Bissau/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Administración Masiva de Medicamentos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
15.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(5): 542-547, 2020 May 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185072

RESUMEN

Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of membrane intrinsic proteins in medical helminthes that specifically mediate the transmembrane transport of water or other solute molecules. Previous studies have demonstrated that AQPs play a critical role in promoting the transmembrane transport of water, osmoregulation, uptake of nutrients, release of toxic metabolic products and transport of antiparasitic drugs, which may serve as promising vaccine candidates and drug targets for parasitic diseases. This review describes the structural characteristics of AQPs in medical helminthes, and discusses the feasibility of these AQPs as antihelminth vaccine candidates and drug targets, so as to provide insights into the development of novel vaccines and drugs against parasitic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Acuaporinas , Helmintiasis , Helmintos , Animales , Acuaporinas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Helmintos/fisiología , Humanos , Proteínas de la Membrana/metabolismo , Investigación/tendencias , Agua/metabolismo
16.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3675-3690, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001253

RESUMEN

In 2018, extensive field studies of diversity and prevalence of helminth infection in synanthropic rodents and non-rodent small mammals from public parks and citified areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan were conducted. Rattus rattus complex was the dominant small mammal in public parks. Of the 197 animals, 147 individuals were infected with one or more species of helminths, yielding an infection prevalence of 74.6%. Twenty-five species of helminths were recovered during necropsy. Pterygodermatites tani was the most prevalent (36.2%); other encountered species included Raillietina celebensis, Hydatigera taeniaformis (metacestode in liver tissue), Gongylonema neoplasticum and Hymenolepis diminuta. Different helminth assemblages infected three different host taxa, i.e. synanthropic Rattus spp., Tupaia belangeri (Northern treeshrew) and Suncus murinus (Asian house shrew). Nine species of possible zoonotic helminths were identified. The focus on synanthropic rats influenced the findings of helminth diversity by either host intrinsic or extrinsic factors. A significant positive correlation was found between host body mass and helminth species richness. Greater helminth species richness was found in rats from public parks compared with animals from citified areas (e.g. inside buildings or offices). Also, helminth species richness was negatively correlated with the proportion of post-flooding/rain-fed land. These results provide essential information for assessing the incidence of potential zoonotic health threats in Bangkok and updating research in parasite ecology.


Asunto(s)
Biota , Helmintiasis Animal/parasitología , Helmintos/clasificación , Enfermedades de los Roedores/parasitología , Roedores/parasitología , Animales , Ciudades , Inundaciones , Helmintiasis Animal/epidemiología , Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Prevalencia , Ratas , Enfermedades de los Roedores/epidemiología , Musarañas/parasitología , Tailandia/epidemiología
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e003920, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027422

RESUMEN

The Neotropic cormorant Nannopterum (Phalacrocorax) brasilianus (Suliformes: Phalacrocoracidae) is widely distributed in Central and South America. In Chile, information about parasites for this species is limited to helminths and nematodes, and little is known about other parasite groups. This study documents the parasitic fauna present in 80 Neotropic cormorants' carcasses collected from 2001 to 2008 in Antofagasta, Biobío, and Ñuble regions. Birds were externally inspected for ectoparasites and necropsies were performed to examine digestive and respiratory organs in search of endoparasites. Ectoparasites collected were cleared and mounted for identification under a microscope. Fecal samples were also evaluated to determine the presence of protozoan parasites employing a flotation technique. A total of 44 (42.5%) of birds were infested with at least one ectoparasite species, while 77 (96.25%) were carrying endoparasites. No protozoan forms were found after examination. Most prevalent endoparasite species found were Contracaecum rudolphii s. l. (72/80, 90%), followed by Pectinopygus gyroceras (33/80, 41.25%), and Profilicollis altmani (26/80, 32.5%). This is the first report of P. altmani, Baruscapillaria carbonis, Avioserpens sp., Cyathostoma (Cyathostoma) phenisci, and Eidmaniella pelucida in the Neotropic cormorant. These findings also expand the distributional range of Andracantha phalacrocoracis, Paradilepis caballeroi, Hysteromorpha triloba, and P. gyroceras to Chile.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves , Aves , Parásitos , Animales , Enfermedades de las Aves/parasitología , Aves/parasitología , Chile , Helmintos , Parásitos/clasificación , Parásitos/fisiología
18.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(3): 339-346, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128517

RESUMEN

In Peru, only 12.7% (n=207) of fish species have had some record as parasitic metazoan hosts. The objective of this investigation was to determine the community of helminth parasites in black cusk-eel Genypterus maculatus (Tschudi, 1846) of north Peru. Fifty specimens of G. maculatus from Puerto Pimentel, province of Chiclayo, department of Lambayeque, Peru were evaluated. For the analysis of the parasitic community, the parasitological ecological indexes of prevalence (P), mean abundance (MA), mean intensity (MI) of infection, the dispersion indices, the correlation between total length (TL) and sex of fish vs parasitological ecological indexes, were calculated. The component community of the parasitic helminths in the evaluated fish was dominated by the presence of endoparasitic flatworms and absence of ectoparasites. The parasitic fauna of G. maculatus included eight endoparasitic species, four trematodes, two cestodes, one acanthocephalan and one nematode species. The species with the highest prevalence and abundance were Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819), Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 and Corynosoma australe Johnston, 1937. The prevalence of infection of C. australe was found positively related to the total length of G. maculatus. The sex of G. maculatus was not found associated with the P, MA and MI of any of the helminth parasites. This is the first study of ecological aspect in the parasitic fauna of G. maculatus made in Peru.


Asunto(s)
Helmintiasis Animal , Helmintos , Parásitos , Trematodos , Animales , Peces , Helmintiasis Animal/epidemiología , Perú/epidemiología
19.
Zootaxa ; 4861(1): zootaxa.4861.1.9, 2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055874

RESUMEN

Actus hagiangensis sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Vietnam. Females of the new species are characterized by medium body size (L = 1.1-1.4 mm), barrel shaped buccal cavity of medium size (26-31 x 13-15 µm) with dorsal tooth apex located 75-81% of buccal cavity length from base and two longitudinal subventral rows, each with four rasp-like denticles; reproductive system didelphic-amphidelphic, vagina short with distinct par refringens vaginae, sclerotized pieces globular in optical section; tail elongate-conoid, slightly ventrally arcuate, with three caudal glands and prominent spinneret. Male with spicules 46 µm in length, and slender, slightly curved gubernaculum, 12 µm long, without accessory piece. This is the first report of a male specimen of the genus Actus. The new species is close to A. salvadoricus but differs by the larger buccal cavity, more anterior position of the dorsal tooth apex and more rounded vaginal sclerotized pieces.


Asunto(s)
Helmintos , Nematodos , Animales , Tamaño Corporal , Femenino , Genitales , Masculino , Vietnam
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...