Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 47.293
Filtrar
1.
Infectio ; 25(4): 293-295, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286725

RESUMEN

Resumen La trombosis venosa cerebral (TVC) es una presentación clínica poco común del tromboembolismo venoso caracterizada por cefalea, crisis convulsivas, déficits neurológicos focales y papiledema. El diagnóstico es confirmado con Tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) de cráneo y Resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral. La TVC tiene una relación importante con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), ya que los pacientes VIH positivos cursan con hiperviscosidad san guínea, alteraciones de factores anticoagulantes endógenos y riesgo de sobreinfección, entre otros; que predisponen a estados protrombóticos y lesión vascular como lo es la TVC. El tratamiento de la TVC es terapia anticoagulante, por lo general se utiliza heparina no fraccionada o heparina de bajo peso molecular para la fase aguda y anticoagulantes orales como la warfarina para el mantenimiento posterior. Reportamos el primer caso documentado de TVC en un paciente VIH positivo en Colombia.


Abstract Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare clinical presentation of venous thromboembolism characterized by headache, seizures, neurological deficits and papi lledema. The diagnosis is confirmed using computed tomography scan (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. CVT has an important relationship with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) given that HIV-positive patients may present with blood hyperviscosity, irregular levels of endogenous anticoagulation factors and risk of sepsis among others, that predispose to prothrombotic states and vascular injury such as CVT. The treatment of CVT is anticoagulant therapy, generally unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin for the early phase and oral anticoagulants such as warfarin for the late phase. This case reports the first documented case of CVT in an HIV positive patient in Colombia.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Tromboembolia Venosa , Cráneo , Encéfalo , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , VIH , Cefalea , Hepatitis B
2.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(36): 6025-6038, 2021 Sep 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629817

RESUMEN

Elimination of viral hepatitis in sub-Saharan Africa by 2030 is an ambitious feat. However, as stated by the World Health Organization, there are unprecedented opportunities to act and make significant contributions to the elimination target. With 60 million people chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) of whom 38800 are at risk of developing highly fatal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) every year, sub-Saharan Africa faces one of the greatest battles towards elimination of viral hepatitis. There is a need to examine progress in controlling the disproportionate burden of HBV-associated HCC in sub-Saharan Africa within the context of this elimination target. By scaling-up coverage of hepatitis B birth dose and early childhood vaccination, we can significantly reduce new cases of HCC by as much as 50% within the next three to five decades. Given the substantial reservoir of chronic HBV carriers however, projections show that HCC incidence and mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa will double by 2040. This warrants urgent public health attention. The trends in the burden of HCC over the next two decades, will be determined to a large extent by progress in achieving early diagnosis and appropriate linkage to care for high-risk chronic HBV infected persons.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis Viral Humana , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiología , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevención & control , Preescolar , Hepatitis B/diagnóstico , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Virus de la Hepatitis B , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevención & control
3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(36): 6053-6063, 2021 Sep 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629819

RESUMEN

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most children acquire the infection perinatally or during early childhood and develop a chronic hepatitis characterized by a high viral replication and a low-inflammation phase of infection, with normal or only slightly raised aminotransferases. Although a conservative approach in children is usually recommended, different therapies exist and different therapeutic approaches are possible. The main goals of antiviral treatment for children with chronic HBV infection are to suppress viral replication and to warn the disease progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, although these complications are rare in children. Both United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) have approved interferon alfa-2b for children aged 1 year and older, pegylated interferon alfa-2a and lamivudine for children aged 3 years and older, entecavir for use in children aged 2 years and older, and adefovir for use in those 12 years of age and older. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is approved by EMA for children aged 2 years and older and by US-FDA for treatment in children aged 12 years and older. Finally, EMA has approved the use of tenofovir alafenamide for treatment of children aged 12 years and older or for children weighing more than 35 kg independent of age. This narrative review will provide the framework for summarizing indications to antiviral therapy in the management of chronic HBV infection in children and adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B Crónica , Hepatitis B , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Adolescente , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Niño , Preescolar , Hepatitis B/tratamiento farmacológico , Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Hepatitis B Crónica/diagnóstico , Hepatitis B Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
4.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 772-777, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622591

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the behavioral factors influencing of new hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in diabetic patients, so as to provide evidence for reducing the risk of new HBV infection in diabetic patients. Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted to follow up and observe 4 586 diabetic patients. The 114 diabetic patients who newly developed HBV infection during the follow-up period were selected as the case group, and 228 diabetic patients who did not develop HBV infection in the same period were selected as the control group from the cohort population at a matching ratio of 1∶2 according to the age ±2 years. Questionnaire surveys and laboratory examinations were conducted in the cohort. The contents of the questionnaire included family history of hepatitis B, history of trauma, history of receiving/donating blood, individual-related behavioral characteristics, diabetes severity, and behavior related to diabetes treatment and management. In addition, the blood samples of the cohort were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The conditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the related behavioral factors affecting new HBV infection in diabetic patients. Results: The median ages of the HBV group and the control group were 64 years old and 66 years old, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the composition of sex, age, ethnicity, occupation and amount of formal education between the two groups ( P>0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that diabetic patients with a family history of hepatitis B ( OR=13.052, 95% CI: 3.799 to 44.847) had a higher risk of new HBV infection, while diabetic patients who used blood collection/injection devices in a standardized way ( OR=0.189, 95% CI: 0.082 to 0.436), safety locking blood glucose needles ( OR=0.142, 95% CI: 0.073 to 0.276) and venous blood collection needles ( OR=0.019, 95% CI: 0.001 to 0.262) and self-testing of blood sugar at home ( OR=0.466, 95% CI: 0.222 to 0.980) had a lower risk of new HBV infection. Conclusion: Family history of hepatitis B is an independent factor that increases the risk for new HBV infection in diabetic patients. During the process of long-term blood glucose management of diabetic patients, standardized use of blood collection/injection devices, use of safer types of blood sampling lancet, and self-testing of blood glucose help can reduce the risk of HBV infection.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Hepatitis B , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/complicaciones , Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1028, 2021 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592961

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tanzania ranks as the fourth country in the world with respect to the number of sickle cell disease (SCD) births; it is also endemic to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the hepatitis B virus (HBV). This study was done to determine the prevalence of HIV and HBV infections among SCD patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: A multicenter hospital-based descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among participants aged ≥ 16 years with a proven diagnosis of SCD. Socio-demographic and clinical data were recorded. Blood samples were drawn for HIV and HBV diagnosis. All categorical variables were summarized into frequencies. RESULTS: There were 185/325 (56.9 %) females. The mean age (SD) was 23.0 ± 7.5 years. The prevalence of HIV was 1.8 %; the prevalence of HBV was 1.2 %. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of both HIV and HBV in SCD patients is no greater than in the general population of Dar es Salaam or Tanzania. For associations, a large study would be needed. From a detailed blood transfusion history of SCD patients we found no evidence that HIV or HBV infection was transmitted through blood transfusion.


Asunto(s)
Anemia de Células Falciformes , Infecciones por VIH , Hepatitis B , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia de Células Falciformes/complicaciones , Anemia de Células Falciformes/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Virus de la Hepatitis B , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
6.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(4): 897-902, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605453

RESUMEN

Hepatitis B virus infection is an important cause of liver disease. Hepatitis B Virus may present with varying degree of severity. In older children, 5-10% cases leading to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This descriptive cross sectional study was done to assess the prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus infection among hospitalized children with liver disease in pediatric department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh from December 2015 to October 2016. All the children of both sexes having age between six months to twelve years admitted in the pediatric ward with acute or chronic liver disease were included in this study by purposive sampling. A written consent was obtained from legal guardian of children before inclusion. Ethical clearance was obtained from competent authority. A detailed history was taken from parents in each case according to pre-designed questionnaire about demography of the patients and the risk factors of the liver disease. A thorough clinical examination and available relevant investigations like serological testing for HBV infection was done in all patients. We had figure out the seropositivity of HBV among patients having liver disease by doing HBsAg and Anti-HBc IgM. Progress of the patient was monitored by daily clinical examinations and by investigating HBsAg and Anti-HBc IgM. Finally data analysis was done by SPSS version 21.0. Among total 100 patients most (44%) patients were in 7-10 years old and most (62%) of the participants were male. Acute liver disease was 58% cases and chronic liver disease was 42% cases. HBsAg was positive in 1 case among acute liver disease and 5 cases among chronic cases. Total 6 (six) patients were found positive for HBsAg. Anti HBc IgM was positive in 4 patients among acute liver disease. Among these Anti HBc IgM positive (4) patients only one had both HBsAg and Anti HBc IgM positive. So, four patients were confirming suffered from acute viral hepatitis because they had anti HBc IgM positive. On the contrary 5 patients suffered from chronic hepatitis by hepatitis B because they were only HBsAg positive. So, in this study 9 patients (9%) were confirming suffered from HBV infection. Possible transmission factors of hepatitis B were history of (H/O) blood transfusion/trauma/parenteral injection, H/O umbilical sepsis, H/O maternal illness/infection during pregnancy. HBV still is a major cause of morbidity. All the children with liver disease should be routinely tested for HBV.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatitis B , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Virus de la Hepatitis B , Hospitales , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Embarazo , Prevalencia
7.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(30): 5088-5099, 2021 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497437

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As a country with a high burden of hepatitis B, China has about 86 million cases of hepatitis B virus infection, ranking the first in the world. Currently, there are about 390000 deaths due to hepatitis B-related complications such as liver cirrhosis and liver cancer every year. Consequently, how to control portal hypertension, improve liver functional reserve, and reduce the incidence of hepatic failure and liver cancer in such patients is the focus of current clinical attention. Previous clinical study in our center suggested that at 24 mo after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), the liver functional reserve of patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis was better than that of patients with alcohol-induced and immune cirrhosis, which may be related to the effective etiological treatment. AIM: To investigate the clinical efficacy of three first-line antiviral drugs recommended by the guidelines of prevention and treatment for chronic hepatitis B in China (2019) in the treatment of patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis who had received a TIPS. METHODS: The clinical data of 137 patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis with portal hypertension after receiving TIPS at our centre between March 2016 and December 2020 were analysed retrospectively. According to different anti-viral drugs, the patients were divided into entecavir (ETV) (n = 70), tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) (n = 32), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) (n = 35) groups. The cumulative incidence of hepatic encephalopathy and hepatocellular carcinoma, survival, and changes in hepatic reserve function and glomerular filtration rate in patients treated with different antiviral drugs within 24 mo after surgery were investigated. RESULTS: At 24 mo after surgery, the Child-Pugh score in the TAF group (6.97 ± 0.86) was lower than that in the TDF (7.49 ± 0.82; t = -2.52, P = 0.014) and ETV groups (7.64 ± 1.17; t = -2.92, P = 0.004). The model for end-stage liver disease score in the TAF group at 24 mo after surgery was 9.72 ± 1.5, which was lower than that in the TDF (10.74 ± 2.33; t = -2.09, P = 0.040) and ETV groups (10.97 ± 2.17; t = -2.93, P = 0.004). At 24 mo after surgery, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the TAF group (104.41 ± 12.54) was higher than that in the TDF (93.54 ± 8.97) and ETV groups (89.96 ± 9.86) (F = 21.57, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: At 24 mo after surgery, compared with TDF and ETV, TAF has significant advantages in the improvement of liver functional reserve and eGFR.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Hepática en Estado Terminal , Hepatitis B , Derivación Portosistémica Intrahepática Transyugular , Antivirales/efectos adversos , Enfermedad Hepática en Estado Terminal/tratamiento farmacológico , Hepatitis B/complicaciones , Hepatitis B/tratamiento farmacológico , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Humanos , Cirrosis Hepática/tratamiento farmacológico , Cirrosis Hepática/epidemiología , Derivación Portosistémica Intrahepática Transyugular/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Resultado del Tratamiento
8.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(8): 725-731, 2021 Aug 20.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517450

RESUMEN

China has the highest disease burden of viral hepatitis. After understanding the epidemic characteristics of viral hepatitis in China and putting forward scientific prevention and control strategies, the Chinese government has been effectively practicing the policy of "prevention first with combination of prevention and control". Over the past 40 years, China has taken effective measures to promote vaccination, strengthen blood screening, standardize diagnosis and treatment services and strengthen supervision, and achieved remarkable success. The incidence of hepatitis A decreased from 52.6 per 100,000 in 1990 to 1.38 per 100,000 in 2019, the HBsAg prevalence among children under 5 years of age decreased from 9.67% in 1992 to 0.32% in 2014, and the cure rate of chronic hepatitis C patients has reached more than 95%. The incidence of hepatitis E is also on the decline. However, in 2019, the estimated diagnosis rate for hepatitis B patients is 25% and treatment rate is 17%; hepatitis C diagnosed rate is 30% and only 9% of the diagnosed were treated. This still falls far from the target of 90% diagnosis rate and 80% treatment rate by 2030. Relevant policies should be implemented as soon as possible, health promotion should be carried out, and screening and diagnosis and treatment services should be strengthened to promote timely treatment for more chronically infected people.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis Viral Humana , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B , Vacunas contra Hepatitis B , Hepatitis Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Hepatitis Viral Humana/epidemiología , Hepatitis Viral Humana/prevención & control , Humanos
9.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(236): 336-341, 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508536

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Occult hepatitis B infection is defined as the presence of the hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid in liver tissues and/or serum in the absence of serum hepatitis B Virus surface antigen. The prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection in end-stage renal disease patients is largely unknown. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection in the hemodialysis population starting maintenance hemodialysis. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of Internal Medicine of a tertiary care hospital. Convenience sampling method was used; 50 consecutive end-stage renal disease patients, who started maintenance hemodialysis from March 2019 to March 2020, were enrolled in the study. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Committee of the hospital (reference number: 351/2019). Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 26.0 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 50.34±12.65 years, and 42 (84%) were male. About 4 (8%) patients were diagnosed having occult hepatitis B infection, 3 (6%) of them were seropositive and 1 (2%) seronegative. About 41 (82%) patients had no history of hepatitis B vaccination series before starting hemodialysis; 36 (72%) had anti-hepatitis B surface antibody titre <10 mIU/ml. About 44 (88%) patients received a blood transfusion during their hemodialysis sessions and 14 (28%) patients had a history of receiving hemodialysis at other centres. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among end-stage renal disease patients starting hemodialysis.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B , Fallo Renal Crónico , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , ADN Viral , Hepatitis B/complicaciones , Hepatitis B/diagnóstico , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B , Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Humanos , Fallo Renal Crónico/epidemiología , Fallo Renal Crónico/terapia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Diálisis Renal , Centros de Atención Terciaria
10.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(5): 5194-5220, 2021 06 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517484

RESUMEN

Considering the environmental factors and uncertainties, we propose, in this paper, a higher-order stochastically perturbed delay differential model for the dynamics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with immune system. Existence and uniqueness of an ergodic stationary distribution of positive solution to the system are investigated, where the solution fluctuates around the endemic equilibrium of the deterministic model and leads to the stochastic persistence of the disease. Under some conditions, infection-free can be obtained in which the disease dies out exponentially with probability one. Some numerical simulations, by using Milstein's scheme, are carried out to show the effectiveness of the obtained results. The intensity of white noise plays an important role in the treatment of infectious diseases.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Humanos , Inmunidad , Probabilidad , Procesos Estocásticos
12.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(3): 344-348, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479290

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The measurement of viral load (VL) of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses is essential in the follow-up of patients with antiviral therapy. The most widely used methodology for this determination is COBAS®-TaqMan®. Recently, the Xpert® technology was developed and needs to be evaluated. AIM: To compare the measurement of the VL of HBV and HCV by Xpert® methodology with COBAS®-TaqMan® as a reference method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 39 serum samples from patients with HBV and 39 with HCV, previously quantified by COBAS®-TaqMan®, were analyzed using Xpert® and the results were compared using Deming regression and Bland-Altman plot. RESULTS: There was a high correlation between Xpert® and COBAS®-TaqMan®. For HBV, the Deming equation was XpertHBV = 0.44 + 0.99xCOBASTaqManHBV, with a correlation coefficient of 0.94 and a difference between means of -0.401 log (95% CI: -1.985 to 1.183). For HCV, the Deming equation was XpertHCV = 0.36 + 0.87x COBASTaqManHCV, with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 and a difference between means of0.328 log10 (95% CI: -0.449 to 1.105). CONCLUSION: The new Xpert® system shows a good correlation with COBAS®-TaqMan® for the measurement of the VL of HBV and HCV, being a good alternative for the follow-up of patients under treatment.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatitis B/diagnóstico , Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Humanos , ARN Viral , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Carga Viral
13.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 38(3): 401-409, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479298

RESUMEN

Half of cases of hepatitis B around the world are produced from vertical transmission; and 90% of them can evolve to chronic hepatitis and their long term complications. Postpartum immunoprophylaxis (immunoglobulin and vaccine) is the most effective preventive measure. However, despite this prophylaxis, vertical transmission is possible if the mother presents a high viral load or e-antigen. This risk can be reduced only if screening during pregnancy and treatment if needed, are incorporated. In 2019, vaccination for hepatitis B in newborn was incorporated in Chile, but not yet prenatal screening, unlike developed countries. Chile has experienced a growth in immigration from Latin America and Caribbean, some countries with high endemicity included. Prenatal screening in Chile should be promptly incorporated.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Chile , Femenino , Hepatitis B/diagnóstico , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B , Vacunas contra Hepatitis B , Virus de la Hepatitis B , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/tratamiento farmacológico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 138, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527154

RESUMEN

Introduction: hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the commonest causes of acute and chronic liver diseases worldwide. HBV can be transmitted by exposure to infected blood and human secretions through sharp injuries and splashes. Health workers are among the most high-risk groups because they regularly interact with patients. A seroprevalence survey conducted in Uganda in 2014 found a higher prevalence of HBV in Gulu Municipality compared to the rest of Uganda. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted among health workers in Gulu Regional Hospital. A stratified random sampling was used. Knowledge ratings and Likert scale were used to score knowledge, attitudes and risks of HBV infections in a qualitative assessment. Ethical approval was obtained and SPSS was used for data analysis. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: one hundred and twenty-six (126) respondents participated; 65 (51.6%) were male, 80 (63.5%) were aged 20-29 years, 74 (58.7%) were not married, 86 (68.3%) had a work experience of 0-9 years, 64 (50.8%) had good knowledge, 90(71.4%) had positive attitude, 114 (90.5%) had high to very high pre-exposure risks, and 75 (59.5%) had moderate to high exposure and post-exposure risks. There was no significant difference in knowledge (X 2= 13.895; p = 0.178) and work experience (X 2= 21.196; p = 0.097) among the health workers. Conclusion: there is a high pre-exposure, exposure and post-exposure risks of HBV infection among health workers in Gulu Hospital. There is need to augment awareness on HBV infection and design strategies to strengthen and implement infection control measures including HBV vaccination among health workers.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hepatitis B/transmisión , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Prevalencia , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Uganda/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(38): e27231, 2021 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559118

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B cirrhosis with hyperalphafetoproteinemia is the intermediate stage of liver cirrhosis progressing to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), there is no effective way to treat precancerous lesions of liver in modern medicine. In recent decades, clinical and experimental evidence shows that Chinese medicine (CM) has a certain beneficial effect on Hepatitis B Cirrhosis. Therefore, this trial aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a CM erzhu jiedu recipe (EZJDR) for the treatment of Hepatitis B Cirrhosis with Hyperalphafetoproteinemia. METHODS: We designed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 72 patients of Hepatitis B Cirrhosis with hyperalphafetoproteinemia were randomized in 2 parallel groups. Patients in the control group received placebo granules similar to the EZJDR. In the EZJDR group, patients received EZJDR twice a day, after meals, for 48 weeks. The primary efficacy measures were changes in serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and alpha-fetoprotein alloplasm (AFP-L3); The secondary indicators of efficacy are changes in liver function indicators, HBV-DNA level; Liver stiffness measurement (LSM); Hepatic portal vein diameter; T lymphocyte subgroup indexes during treatment. All data will be recorded in case report forms and analyzed by Statistical Analysis System software. Adverse events will also be evaluated. RESULTS: The results showed that EZJDR can significantly inhibit the levels of AFP and AFP-L3 in patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis and hyperalphafetoproteinemia and have good security. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Shuguang Hospital, affiliated with University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai (NO.2018-579-08-01). TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered on Chinese Clinical Trial Center (NO.ChiCTR1800017165).


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Transferencia de Ésteres de Colesterol/deficiencia , Errores Innatos del Metabolismo Lipídico/tratamiento farmacológico , Errores Innatos del Metabolismo Lipídico/etiología , Medicina China Tradicional/normas , Distribución de Chi-Cuadrado , Método Doble Ciego , Fibrosis/complicaciones , Fibrosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Hepatitis B/complicaciones , Hepatitis B/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Medicina China Tradicional/métodos , Medicina China Tradicional/estadística & datos numéricos , Placebos
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 174, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584600

RESUMEN

Introduction: sub-Saharan Africa bears a high prevalence for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This analysis aims at elucidating the exposure to HBV across different age groups in Mbeya Region in Tanzania and determines prevalences of hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis delta antigen (HDV) infections. Methods: plasma samples from children and adults with defined HIV status were analysed for HBV, HCV and HDV markers.\. Results: hepatitis B (HBs)-antigen positivity was 8.3% (3/36) in the 0 to 5 years age group, 13.3% (8/60) in the 6 to 7 years, 17.2% (10/58) in the 8 to 14 years and 13.3% (8/60) in the 15 to 18 years age groups. In adults 5.0% of samples were HBs-antigen positive. Overall, 17.1% were HIV-1 positive. Adults infected with HIV-1 were significantly more often HBs-antigen positive (7.5%) than HIV-1 negative adults (4.5%; p<0.05). A serological sub-study including 174 adults showed that both total anti-HBs and total anti-HBc positivity increased with age in HBs-antigen negative participants. Across all age groups, HCV antibodies were found in 9 individuals, HDV antibodies in 3 individuals. Conclusion: children presented a high prevalence of HBs-antigen carriers, with lower levels in the younger children. Among adults, the overall prevalence of HBs-antigen was lower than in children, either corresponding to clearance of HBV over time or due to a die-off effect. HBs-antigen positive adults had higher frequencies of anti-HBc- and anti-HBe-antibodies, indicating better immunological control of HBV infection than children. This supports claims that HBV infections in Africa are mostly acquired in childhood and to a large extent cleared again by adulthood. One in 20 adults remains chronically infected, emphasising the importance of HBV vaccination strategies.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Hepatitis D/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Anticuerpos contra la Hepatitis B/sangre , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/sangre , Anticuerpos contra la Hepatitis C/sangre , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 175, 2021.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584601

RESUMEN

Introduction: viral infection caused by hepatitis B virus is the most frequent transfusion-transmitted viral infection. Although the search for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in blood banks has significantly reduced the risk for transfusion-transmitted virus infection, there is still a residual transfusion risk of transmission from donors with occult hepatitis B. Blood bags containing aHBc with or without aHBs and viral DNA can cause infections and represent a threat to transfusion safety when aHBc levels are undetectable. The purpose of this study is to determine the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B virus at the Central Hospital of Yaoundé (CHY) as well as at the St Martin de Porres's Catholic Hospital (SMPCH) in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study among blood donors at the Central Hospital of Yaoundé (CHY) and the St Martin de Porres's Catholic Hospital. In these subjects the search for aHBc and/or the aHBs was conducted by immunochromatography. HBV DNA test was performed on blood samples tested positive for aHBc and/or aHBs by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique using specific primers. Results: out of a total of 193 blood donors negative for HIV, HBV (HBsAg), HCV serological markers and treponema infections, the overall seroprevalence of aHBc and/or aHBs was 9,84% (19/193). Out of a total of 19 potentially infected donors, HBV DNA was detected in 03 individuals, including 02 aHBc carriers and 01 carrier of both aHBc and aHBs, reflecting a prevalence of occult hepatitis B of 15,79% (3/19) [IC 95% =3,38%-39,58%] and a residual risk for transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B virus of 1,55% (3/193) [IC 95% =0,32%-4,48%]. Conclusion: this study shows that the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B virus is low. However, it is recommended to screan blood donors for aHBc and/or aHBs.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre , Selección de Donante/métodos , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/sangre , Hepatitis B/transmisión , Adolescente , Adulto , Seguridad de la Sangre/métodos , Transfusión Sanguínea/normas , Camerún , Estudios Transversales , ADN Viral/sangre , Femenino , Hepatitis B/sangre , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Adulto Joven
18.
Ann Surg ; 274(4): 556-564, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506310

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the 1-year safety and effectiveness of HBV Nucleic Acid Test positive (HBV NAT+) allografts in seronegative kidney transplant (KT) and liver transplant (LT) recipients. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Despite an ongoing organ shortage, the utilization of HBV NAT+ allografts into seronegative recipients has not been investigated. METHODS: From January 2017 to October 2020, a prospective cohort study was conducted among consecutive KT and LT recipients at a single institution. Primary endpoints were post-transplant HBV viremia, graft and patient survival. RESULTS: With median follow-up of 1-year, there were no HBV-related complications in the 89 HBV NAT+ recipients. Only 9 of 56 KTs (16.1%) and 9 of 33 LTs (27.3%) experienced post-transplant HBV viremia at a median of 185 (KT) and 269 (LT) days postoperatively. Overall, viremic episodes resolved to undetected HBV DNA after a median of 80 days of entecavir therapy in 16 of 18 recipients. Presently, 100% of KT recipients and 93.9% of LT recipients are HBV NAT- with median follow-up of 13 months, whereas 0 KT and 8 LT (24.2%) recipients are HBV surface antigen positive indicating chronic infection. KT and LT patient and allograft survival were not different between HBV NAT+ and HBV NAT- recipients (P > 0.05), whereas HBV NAT+ KT recipients had decreased waitlist time and pretransplant duration on dialysis (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest series describing the transplantation of HBV NAT+ kidney and liver allografts into HBV seronegative recipients without chronic HBV viremia or decreased 1-year patient and graft survival. Increasing the utilization of HBV NAT+ organs in nonviremic recipients can play a role in decreasing the national organ shortage.


Asunto(s)
Selección de Donante , Enfermedad Hepática en Estado Terminal/cirugía , Hepatitis B/diagnóstico , Fallo Renal Crónico/cirugía , Trasplante de Riñón , Trasplante de Hígado , Adulto , Anciano , Aloinjertos/virología , Enfermedad Hepática en Estado Terminal/mortalidad , Enfermedad Hepática en Estado Terminal/virología , Femenino , Supervivencia de Injerto , Humanos , Fallo Renal Crónico/mortalidad , Fallo Renal Crónico/virología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tasa de Supervivencia , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e08072020, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495262

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem; therefore, we aimed to report HBV genotypes in Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 103 HBsAg-positive samples were subjected to HBV genotyping and subgenotyping. RESULTS: The following genetic compositions of samples were found: F-54% (F2-83.33%), A-40% (A1-65%), D-6%, C2-1%, E-1%, and G-1%. CONCLUSIONS: Some genotypes are only prevalent in certain parts of the world; however, the State of Ceará is a hub for migration and has one of the most important liver transplantation centers in Brazil, which can explain the prevalence of the F genotype.


Asunto(s)
Gastroenterología , Hepatitis B , Brasil/epidemiología , ADN Viral/genética , Genotipo , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B , Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Humanos , Prevalencia
20.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés, Español, Francés, Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48321

RESUMEN

Uma pesquisa recente conduzida pela Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde/Organização Mundial da Saúde (OPAS/OMS) indica que a pandemia de COVID-19 afetou o diagnóstico e o tratamento das infecções virais por hepatite B e C na América Latina e no Caribe, o que tem freado o avanço na meta de eliminar essas doenças infecciosas até 2030


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Interrupción de Servicios y de Abastecimiento , Hepatitis Viral Humana , América Latina , Región del Caribe , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...