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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800440

RESUMEN

To control the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), Saudi Arabia's government imposed a strict lockdown during March-July 2020. As a result, the public was confined to indoors, and most of their daily activities were happening in their indoor places, which might have resulted in lower indoor environment quality. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in household dust (n = 40) collected from different residential districts of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during the lockdown period. PAHs' levels were two folds higher than the previously reported PAHs in indoor dust from this region. We detected low molecular weight (LMW) with two to four aromatic ring PAHs in all the samples with a significant contribution from Phenanthrene (Phe), present at an average concentration of 1590 ng/g of dust. Although high molecular weight (HMW) (5-6 aromatic ring) PAHs were detected at lower concentrations than LMW PAHs, however, they contributed >90% in the carcinogenic index of PAHs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of specific PAHs was above the reference dose (RfD) for young children in high-end exposure and the calculated Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) was >1.00 × 10-4 for both Saudi adults and young children. The study highlighted that indoor pollution has increased significantly during lockdown due to the increased indoor activities and inversely affect human health. This study also warrants to conduct more studies involving different chemicals to understand the indoor environment quality during strict lockdown conditions.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Coronavirus , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Niño , Preescolar , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Polvo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Pandemias , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806616

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess the association of exposure to particle-bound (PM2.5) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with potential genotoxicity and cancer risk among children living near the petrochemical industry and comparative populations in Malaysia. PM2.5 samples were collected using a low-volume sampler for 24 h at three primary schools located within 5 km of the industrial area and three comparative schools more than 20 km away from any industrial activity. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometer was used to determine the analysis of 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority PAHs. A total of 205 children were randomly selected to assess the DNA damage in buccal cells, employing the comet assay. Total PAHs measured in exposed and comparative schools varied, respectively, from 61.60 to 64.64 ng m-3 and from 5.93 to 35.06 ng m-3. The PAH emission in exposed schools was contributed mainly by traffic and industrial emissions, dependent on the source apportionment. The 95th percentiles of the incremental lifetime cancer risk estimated using Monte Carlo simulation revealed that the inhalation risk for the exposed children and comparative populations was 2.22 × 10-6 and 2.95 × 10-7, respectively. The degree of DNA injury was substantially more severe among the exposed children relative to the comparative community. This study reveals that higher exposure to PAHs increases the risk of genotoxic effects and cancer among children.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Neoplasias , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Niño , Daño del ADN , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Malasia , Mucosa Bucal , Neoplasias/inducido químicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidad , Medición de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Estaciones del Año
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809422

RESUMEN

Firefighters' uniforms become contaminated with a wide range of chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Laundering practices do not completely remove PAHs, OPFRs, and PBDEs from firefighting uniforms. This residual contamination of firefighting ensembles may be an ongoing source of exposure to firefighters. Firefighters are known to occasionally store firefighting ensembles in private vehicles. This study aimed to assess whether a firefighting uniform in a vehicle could act as a source for PAHs, OPFRs, and PBDEs to vehicle users. The shell layers of four laundered firefighting uniforms were sampled non-destructively. Three of these uniforms were heated in a laboratory oven (40, 60, and 80 °C) while the fourth was placed in a private vehicle on a summer day and off-gassing samples were collected from the uniforms. The off-gassing results for PAHs and OPFRs were relatively consistent between laboratory oven and the in-vehicle sample with ∑13 PAHs in off-gas ranging from 7800-23,000 ng uniform-1 day-1, while the ∑6 OPFRs off-gassed was an order of magnitude lower at 620-1600 ng uniform-1 day-1. The off-gassing results for PBDEs were much lower and less consistent between the experiments, which may reflect differences in uniform history. Currently, there is limited understanding of how PAHs, OPFRs, and PBDEs off-gassed from firefighting uniforms influence firefighter exposure to these chemicals. These findings suggest that firefighting ensembles off-gassing in private vehicles could be a relevant source of PAHs, OPFRs, and PBDEs that contributes to firefighters' exposure and that this warrants further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Bomberos , Retardadores de Llama , Exposición Profesional , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Vestuario , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Retardadores de Llama/análisis , Éteres Difenilos Halogenados/análisis , Humanos , Exposición Profesional/análisis , Proyectos Piloto , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803562

RESUMEN

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of important organic pollutants widely emitted from anthropogenic activities, with a general distribution in the gas and particulate phases. Some PAHs are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. Inhalation exposure to PAHs is correlated with adverse health outcomes in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Thus, it is significant to determine the exposure level of the general population. This study summarizes the evaluation methods for PAH exposure, focusing on different exposure parameters. External exposure can be determined via the collection of the environmental pollution concentration through active samplers or passive samplers during environmental monitoring or personal sampling. Time-activity patterns give critical exposure information that captures the exposure period, origin, and behaviors. Modeling is a labor-less approach for human exposure estimation, and microenvironmental exposure requires specific research. It is important to select appropriate methods to quantify the exposure level to provide accurate data to establish the exposure-risk relationship and make scientific suggestions for the protection of public health.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Exposición por Inhalación/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidad , Medición de Riesgo
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804117

RESUMEN

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected in the summer and winter of 2015 and 2017 in Xinxiang, China. Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) in PM2.5 were detected via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The PAHs concentration in summer and winter decreased from 6.37 ± 1.30 ng/m3 and 96.9 ± 69.9 ng/m3 to 4.89 ± 2.67 ng/m3 and 49.8 ± 43.4 ng/m3 from 2015 to 2017. NPAHs decreased in winter (from 1707 ± 708 pg/m3 to 1192 ± 1113 pg/m3), but increased in summer from 2015 (336 ± 77.2 pg/m3) to 2017 (456 ± 312 pg/m3). Diagnostic ratios of PAHs indicated that petroleum combustion was the main emission source in summer, and pollutants originating from the combustion of petroleum, coal and biomass dominated in winter. The 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFR)/2-nitropyrene (2-NP) ratio in this study demonstrated that the OH radical pathway was the main pathway for the formation of 2-NP and 2-NFR. The mean total benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) values decreased from 2013 to 2017. The high value of total BaPeq in the winter of 2017 in Xinxiang revealed that a high-risk of cancer remained for residents. The results of this study demonstrate that the decreases in PAHs and NPAHS concentrations from 2015 to 2017. Combined with reducing gaseous pollutants concentration, the reduction in this study might be attributable to emissions reductions by implementing the air pollution control regulations in Xinxiang city in 2016.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , China , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año
6.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(16): 1149-1153, 2021 Apr 27.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902245

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the major component of atmospheric pollutant particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) and its possible mechanisms. Methods: Thirty-five (24 males and 11 females) patients with IMN confirmed by renal biopsy pathology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from June to September 2020 were selected as the research group, with an age of (47.3±12.9) years. Meanwhile, patients with secondary membranous nephropathy (SMN, n=10) and minimal-change disease (MCD, n=10) were selected as control group. Blood samples were collected to detect PAHs and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and the relationship of PAHs with clinical indicators and oxidative stress indicator HO-1 was analyzed. Results: Compared with SMN and MCD groups [(2.6±1.7) mg/L and (2.8±1.0) mg/L], the concentration of PAHs in IMN group [(4.1±1.9) mg/L] increased (both P<0.05). The concentration of PAHs was positively correlated with the levels of ß2 microglobulin, total cholesterol and 24-hour urine total protein (r=0.509, 0.336, and 0.653, respectively, all P<0.05), but was negatively correlated with the levels of total protein and albumin (r=-0.499,-0.530, respectively, both P<0.05). Additionally, the concentration of PAHs was negatively correlated with the level of HO-1 (r=-0.358, P=0.017). Linear regression analysis showed that the concentration of HO-1 decreased by 1.737 µg/L when the concentration of PAHs increased by 1 mg/L (P=0.035). Conclusion: PAHs have a high level in IMN patients, and may be involved in the occurrence and development of IMN through oxidative stress.


Asunto(s)
Glomerulonefritis Membranosa , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estrés Oxidativo , Material Particulado , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 291, 2021 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891179

RESUMEN

Fifteen native luminescent bacteria were isolated from the Gulf of Thailand, and their sensitivity for the detection of toxicity of crude oil and its aromatic components was investigated. Of these isolates, Vibrio campbellii strain FS5 was one of the two most highly inhibited bacteria at all crude oil concentrations. This bacterium showed a decrease in luminescence intensity of between 10.7 and 80.2% after a 15-min exposure to 0.0001-10 mg/L of crude oil. The degree of bioluminescence inhibition increased with increasing concentrations of crude oil. The presence of crude oil at all concentrations had negative effects on the log bioluminescence per log number of viable cells after 15- to 105-min exposure. About 10 to 100 times, lower half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values were observed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) than those for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX). In the presence of each individual BTEX and PAH, the bioluminescence inhibition increased with increasing exposure time (1-32 h). This indigenous bacterium can be used as a simple and general indicator of oil contamination and its impact on coastal waters as well as for assessing potential toxicity during oil bioremediation.


Asunto(s)
Petróleo , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Petróleo/análisis , Petróleo/toxicidad , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidad , Tailandia , Vibrio
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 253, 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834313

RESUMEN

Pine tree (Pinus pinea) components have been used as passive air samples for determining atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. Our results indicated that pine needles and branches were found to be statistically successful in describing the ambient air. Monthly pine needles, branches (1- and 2-year-old) and ambient air samples were collected for 1 year to identify molecular distributions and temporal concentrations of PAHs in a suburban-industrial area. Annual average Σ14PAH concentrations for pine needles, 1- and 2-year-old branches, and ambient air were 756 ± 232 ng/g DW, 685 ± 350 ng/g DW, 587 ± 361 ng/g DW, and 28.29 ± 32.33 ng/m3, respectively. The order of average Σ14PAH concentrations in the pine tree components was determined as needle > 1-year-old branch > 2-year-old branch. In general, concentrations increased with the rise in the surface area of tree components. In the samples, 3- and 4-ring PAHs were dominant compounds in the ambient air, pine needles, and branches. The annual total fraction of 3- and 4-ring PAHs in the air was 98.5%, while the fraction of 5- and 6-ring PAHs was 1.5%. On the other hand, 3- and 4-ring PAHs in pine needles and branches were 30% or more. The fraction and level of PAHs change with the season. Although needle samples did not show any seasonal trend, PAH levels in other tree components changed with the air temperature. Generally, lower values were observed in warmer seasons in the branch samples. Similarly, ambient air PAH concentrations were higher in the winter season due to heating and adverse meteorological conditions.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Pinus , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura
9.
Environ Pollut ; 278: 116855, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706244

RESUMEN

The impact of oil exploration and production activities on the environment of sub-saharan African countries is not well studied. This study aimed at determining concentrations, sources, and bioaccumulation of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and fish from the White Nile near Melut oil fields, South Sudan. The study also assessed the ecological and human health risk associated with PAHs in this aquatic system. Total (∑13) PAH concentrations ranged from 566 to 674 ng g-1dry weight (dw) in sediments, while those in fish were 191-1143 ng g-1 wet weight (ww). ∑13PAH concentrations were significantly higher in C. gariepinus than in other fish species. Low molecular weight PAHs (LPAHs) dominated the profile of PAHs in sediments (constituted 95% of ∑13PAHs) and fish (97% of ∑13PAHs). Compared to Sediment Quality Guidelines of the United States Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the levels of LPAHs in this study were all above the threshold effect limits, but below the probable effect level, while those of high molecular weight PAHs (HPAHs) were all below the lowest effect levels. The carcinogenic potency equivalent concentrations of PAHs in L. niloticus and C. gariepinus were above the US EPA screening level; suggesting consumption of these species could adversely affect human health. Biota-sediment accumulation factor values (range: 0.006-3.816 g OC g-1 lipid) for PAHs showed high bioaccumulation of LPAHs in fish muscle, and that bioaccumulation decreased with increase in hydrophobicity of the compounds. This is possibly because LPAHs have higher aqueous solubilities which increases their bioavailability through water-gill transfers compared to HPAHs. Profiles of PAHs in the White Nile environment indicate predominant contribution from petrogenic sources, which could be attributed to presence of crude oil reservoirs and oil production operations. More research into the levels of other environmental pollutants in the oil-rich area is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , África Oriental , Animales , Bioacumulación , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
10.
Environ Pollut ; 278: 116842, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711626

RESUMEN

Associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and respiratory diseases have been widely studied, but the effects of PAH on liver toxicity in adolescents are unclear. Here, 3194 adolescents with NHANES data from 2003 to 2016 were selected. PAH exposure was assessed by measuring PAH metabolites in urine. The outcome variables were the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). The association between PAH exposure and liver function was evaluated by the weighted quantile sum (WQS) and logistic regression, and the associations between PAHs and inflammation and blood lipids were evaluated by linear regression. Covariates were adjusted for age, ethnicity, BMI, physical activity, family income, cotinine, and urinary creatinine. The results showed that for females, mixed PAH exposure was related to an increased ALT level (OR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.15, 4.72), and 2-fluorene contributed the most (38.6%). Urinary 2-fluorene was positively associated with an elevated ALT level (OR = 2.19 95% 1.12, 4.27, p for trend = 0.004). Mechanistically, 2-fluorene can cause a 3.56% increase in the white blood cell count, a 6.99% increase in the triglyceride level, and 1.70% increase in the total cholesterol level. PAHs may have toxic effects, possibly mediated by inflammation and blood lipids, on the adolescent female liver. Additional confirmatory studies are needed.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Adolescente , Aspartato Aminotransferasas , Biomarcadores , Femenino , Humanos , Hígado , Encuestas Nutricionales
11.
Environ Pollut ; 278: 116857, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711627

RESUMEN

Contaminated land burdens the economy of many countries and must be dealt with. Researchers have published thousands of documents studying and developing soil and sediment remediation treatments. Amongst the targeted pollutants are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), described as a class of persistent organic compounds, potentially harmful to ecosystems and living organisms. The present paper reviews and discusses three scientific trends that are leading current PAH-contaminated soil/sediment remediation studies and management. First, the choice of compounds that are being studied and targeted in the scientific literature is discussed, and we suggest that the classical 16 US-EPA PAH compounds might no longer be sufficient to meet current environmental challenges. Second, we discuss the choice of experimental material in remediation studies. Using bibliometric measures, we show the lack of PAH remediation trials based on co-contaminated or aged-contaminated material. Finally, the systematic use of the recently validated bioavailability measurement protocol (ISO/TS 16751) in remediation trials is discussed, and we suggest it should be implemented as a tool to improve remediation processes and management strategies.


Asunto(s)
Restauración y Remediación Ambiental , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Ecosistema , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
12.
Environ Pollut ; 278: 116838, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714059

RESUMEN

Knowledge of the toxic potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has increased over time. Much of this knowledge is about the 16 United States - Environmental Protection Agency (US - EPA) priority PAHs; however, there are other US - EPA non-priority PAHs in the environment, whose toxic potential is underestimated. We conducted a systematic review of in vitro, in vivo, and in silico studies to assess the genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of 13 US - EPA non-priority parental PAHs present in the environment. Electronic databases, such as Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science, were used to search for research with selected terms without time restrictions. After analysis, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol, 249 articles, published between 1946 and 2020, were selected and the quality assessment of these studies was performed. The results showed that 5-methylchrysene (5-MC), 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (7,12-DMBA), cyclopenta[cd]pyrene (CPP), and dibenzo[al]pyrene (Db[al]P) were the most studied PAHs. Moreover, 5-MC, 7,12-DMBA, benz[j]aceanthrylene (B[j]A), CPP, anthanthrene (ANT), dibenzo[ae]pyrene (Db[ae]P), and Db[al]P have been reported to cause mutagenic effects and have been being associated with a risk of carcinogenicity. Retene (RET) and benzo[c]fluorene (B[c]F), the least studied compounds, showed evidence of a strong influence on the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity endpoints. Overall, this systematic review provided evidence of the genotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic endpoints of US - EPA non-priority PAHs. However, further studies are needed to improve the future protocols of environmental analysis and risk assessment in severely exposed populations.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Carcinógenos/toxicidad , Daño del ADN , Mutágenos/toxicidad , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidad , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
13.
Environ Pollut ; 278: 116916, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744784

RESUMEN

Cold condensation is an important pathway for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) depositing at remote alpine lakes after long-range atmospheric transportation. However, in the context of global warming, the obvious temperature rise in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) might have an impact on the air deposition of PAHs by controlling the extent of cold condensation. To investigate the influence of rising temperatures on the atmospheric deposition of PAHs, two dated sedimentary cores from Pumoyum Co Lake (PC) and Selin Co Lake (SC) were collected, respectively and concentrations of 16 individual PAHs were measured. In both PC and SC, the total concentration of 16 PAHs presented relatively lower levels in four historical periods of "hot anomaly" including 1973-1975, 1988-1989, 1998-1999, and 2006-2007. This indicated that the hot temperatures might restrict the atmospheric deposition of PAHs. Besides, the results of the principal component analysis did discriminate those "hot anomalies". As the temperature kept increasing in TP, for low molecular weight PAHs and high molecular weight PAHs, the influence of rising temperatures on the cold condensation was different. Therefore, it was identified that the effect of global warming on the environmental fate of POPs cannot be neglected, especially in alpine regions like TP.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Calentamiento Global , Lagos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Tibet
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(6): 3582-3592, 2021 03 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646755

RESUMEN

China is the largest emitter of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the world. Because of their negative influences on human health, the characteristics and potential driving forces of PAH emissions should be evaluated to establish effective mitigation strategies for different economic sectors. This study is the first to quantify the embodied and enabled PAH emissions of 108 sectors in China in 2002, 2007, 2012, and 2017. The results show that the total sectoral emissions increased by 92% (from 28.0 to 53.7 kt) from 2002 to 2012 and decreased to 53.0 kt in 2017. The eight aggregated sectors had different characteristics according to their production-, consumption-, and income-based emissions. Both the embodied and enabled emission flows increased (from 13.8 to 29.2 kt and from 11.3 to 20.5 kt, respectively) with time. The influences of the major final demands and primary inputs reversed from increasing to decreasing emissions over time. In particular, the primary input structure had a stronger impact on decreasing emissions than the final demand structure. The results revealed that different mitigation policies should be applied to different sectors and that adjusting primary input behaviors might be a relatively efficient method to reduce PAH emissions.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(6): 3727-3735, 2021 03 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651588

RESUMEN

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are photoactive environmental pollutants that can contaminate aquatic environments. Aqueous-phase interactions between PAHs and TiO2-NPs are of interest due to their emerging environmental relevance, particularly with the deliberate application of TiO2-NPs to remediate pollution events (e.g., oil spills). Our objective was to investigate anthracene (ANT) and phenanthrene (PHE) photoproduct formation and transformation following ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation in the presence and absence of TiO2-NPs. ANT and PHE solutions were prepared alone or in combination with TiO2-NPs, UVA-irradiated, and either exposed to larval zebrafish or collected for chemical analyses of diverse hydroxylated PAHs (OHPAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs). The expression profiles of genes encoding for enzymes involved in PAH metabolism showed PAH-specific and time-dependent inductions that demonstrated changes in PAH and photoproduct bioavailability in the presence of TiO2-NPs. Chemical analyses of PAH/NP solutions in the absence of zebrafish larvae identified diverse photoproducts of differing size and ring arrangements, which suggested photodissociation, recombination, and ring re-arrangements of PAHs occurred either during or following UVA irradiation. Both ANT and PHE solutions showed heightened oxidative potential following irradiation, but TiO2-NP-related increases in oxidative potential were PAH-specific. The exploitation of multiple analytical methods provided novel insights into distinct PAH photoactivity, TiO2-NP influence on photoproduct formation in a PAH-specific manner, and the significant role time plays in photochemical processes.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas , Fenantrenos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animales , Antracenos , Titanio , Pez Cebra
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668855

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to assess the soil pollution on an industrial wasteland, where coal-tar was processed in the period between 1880 and 1997, and subsequent to assess the decline in the content of phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during enhanced natural attenuation. The soil of the investigated area was formed from a layer of uncompacted fill. Twelve sampling points were established in the investigated area for collecting soil samples. A study conducted in 2015 did not reveal any increase in the content of heavy metals, monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX), and cyanides. However, the content of PAHs and phenols was higher than the content permitted by Polish norms in force until 2016. In the case of PAHs, it was observed for individual compounds and their total contents. Among the various methods, enhanced natural attenuation was chosen for the remediation of investigated area. Repeated analyses of the contents of phenols and PAHs were conducted in 2020. The results of the analyses showed that enhanced natural attenuation has led to efficient degradation of the simplest substances-phenol and naphthalene. The content of these compounds in 2020 was not elevated compared to the standards for industrial wastelands. The three- and four-ring hydrocarbons were degraded at a lower intensity. Based on the mean decrease in content after 5-year enhanced natural attenuation, the compounds can be arranged in the following order: phenols > naphthalene > phenanthrene > fluoranthene > benzo(a)anthracene > chrysene > anthracene.


Asunto(s)
Alquitrán , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Carbón Mineral , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental , Fenol , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672189

RESUMEN

Particulate matter (PM) is a major factor contributing to air quality deterioration that enters the atmosphere as a consequence of various natural and anthropogenic activities. In PM, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a class of organic chemicals with at least two aromatic rings that are mainly directly emitted via the incomplete combustion of various organic materials. Numerous toxicological and epidemiological studies have proven adverse links between exposure to particulate matter-bound (PM-bound) PAHs and human health due to their carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Among human exposure routes, inhalation is the main pathway regarding PM-bound PAHs in the atmosphere. Moreover, the concentrations of PM-bound PAHs differ among people, microenvironments and areas. Hence, understanding the behaviour of PM-bound PAHs in the atmosphere is crucial. However, because current techniques hardly monitor PAHs in real-time, timely feedback on PAHs including the characteristics of their concentration and composition, is not obtained via real-time analysis methods. Therefore, in this review, we summarize personal exposure, and indoor and outdoor PM-bound PAH concentrations for different participants, spaces, and cities worldwide in recent years. The main aims are to clarify the characteristics of PM-bound PAHs under different exposure conditions, in addition to the health effects and assessment methods of PAHs.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Compuestos Orgánicos , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidad
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1642: 462023, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714081

RESUMEN

Mass spectrometry is now in widespread use for the detection of the analytes separated by chromatography. Electron ionization is the most frequently used method in mass spectrometry. However, this ionization technique sometimes suffers from extensive fragmentation of analytes, which makes identification difficult. A photoionization technique has been developed for suppressing this fragmentation and for subsequently observing a molecular ion. A variety of lasers have been employed for the sensitive and selective ionization of organic compounds. A femtosecond laser has a high peak power and is preferential for efficient ionization as well as for suppressing fragmentation, providing valuable information concerning molecular weight and chemical structure as well. In this review, we report on applications of femtosecond ionization mass spectrometry combined with gas chromatography.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía/métodos , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Espectrometría Raman , Termodinámica
19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1642: 462032, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714769

RESUMEN

Liquid-liquid extraction is one of the most widely used and simplest sample preparation techniques. However, consumption of large volumes of organic solvent and manual handling are two major drawbacks of this technique. A multifunction autosampler syringe is introduced which permits automated liquid-liquid extraction in an enclosed operating environment, with low consumption of organic solvents. The device described herein features a micromixer function in addition to common autosampler syringe features like accurate and precise aspirating and dispensing. To test the functionality of the micromixer syringe, manual extraction of caffeine from a tea infusion and semi-automated extraction of dichloroethane from water were carried out. Excellent recoveries of caffeine from a tea infusion (89% recovery with 1.3% RSD) and dichloroethane from water (107% recovery with 10% RSD) were obtained. Two automated workflows were tested using the micromixer syringe mounted in a laboratory autosampler. Standalone automated micro liquid-liquid extraction was performed for sample preparation of selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners prior to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - electron capture detection analysis. Extraction of PCBs using the described approach used substantially less solvent than a validated solid-phase extraction approach whilst delivering equivalent results for samples with high-level PCBs. Finally, fully automated extraction and GC-MS analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water samples was performed. Mean recoveries of extraction for PCB and PAH analysis were > 70% using 4 min automated liquid-liquid extractions.


Asunto(s)
Extracción Líquido-Líquido/instrumentación , Extracción Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Compuestos Orgánicos/aislamiento & purificación , Agua/química , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Compuestos Orgánicos/análisis , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Bifenilos Policlorados/aislamiento & purificación , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/aislamiento & purificación , Solventes , Jeringas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
20.
Biodegradation ; 32(2): 193-215, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725325

RESUMEN

Soil microorganisms play an important role in the degradation of PAHs and use various metabolic pathways for this process. The effect of soil pH, different soil amendments and the co-cultivation of fungi on the degradation of PAHs in soil and on the activity of ligninolytic enzymes was evaluated. For that purpose, three fungi were studied: Trichoderma viride, Penicillium chrysogenum and Agrocybe aegerita. Biodegradation assays with a mixture of 200 ppm PAHs (fluorene, pyrene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene-50 ppm each) were set up at room temperature for 8 weeks. The maximum laccase activity by solid state fermentation-SSF (7.43 U/g) was obtained by A. aegerita on kiwi peels with 2 weeks and the highest manganese peroxidase activity (7.21 U/g) was reached in 4 weeks, both at pH 7. Fluorene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene achieved higher degradation rates in soil at pH 5, while chrysene was more degradable at pH 7. About 85-90% of the PAHs were degraded by fungal remediation. The highest degradation of fluorene was achieved by co-cultivation of A. aegerita and P. chrysogenum, remaining 14% undegradable. Around 13% of pyrene stay undegradable by A. aegerita and T. viride and by A. aegerita and P. chrysogenum, both systems supported in kiwi peels, while 11% of chrysene remained in soil by the co-cultivation of these fungi, supported by peanut shells. Regarding benzo[a]pyrene, 13% remained in soil after treatment with A. aegerita. Despite the increase in degradation of some PAHs with co-cultivation, higher enzyme production during degradation was observed when fungi were cultivated alone.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Agrocybe , Biodegradación Ambiental , Hongos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Hypocreales , Suelo
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