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1.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt B): 114046, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775338

RESUMEN

This paper reviews the new progress, challenges and barriers on production of pyrolysis oil from the plastic waste. Among the different processes thermal and catalytic are the potential methods to produce oil. Since the global plastic production increased over years the accumulation of plastic waste increases. Thus, converting the waste plastics into useful energy is very essential to avoid the environmental concerns. Initially the thermal pyrolysis process and its advantage on production of pyrolysis oil were discussed. During the thermal decomposition the waste plastic had been converted into the products such as gas, crude oil and solid residues. Secondly, the catalytic process and its recent trends were discussed. In addition, the factors affecting the catalytic pyrolysis process had been evaluated. Furthermore, the optimized concentration of catalyst subjected to the higher yield of fuel with low hydrocarbon content was found. The pyrolysis oil produced from the catalytic process has higher heating values, lower density and lower viscosity compared to thermal process. In addition, the application of pyrolysis oil on the diesel engines had been discussed. The effects of pyrolysis oil on combustion and emission characteristics were observed. This review summarizes the potential advantages and barriers of both thermal and catalytic process. Further, the optimized solutions and applications of pyrolysis oil are suggested for sustainability of the process. Besides the introduction of the pyrolysis oil were viable without making major modification to the existing engine design.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Pirólisis , Catálisis , Hidrocarburos
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt B): 126305, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752892

RESUMEN

Organic contaminants in water are a growing environmental threat to sustainable development, with detrimental effects on the biosphere. In recent years, researchers have increasingly focused their attention on the area of bioremediation as an important tool to eliminate harmful pollutants from the environment. This review examines the application of bioremediation technologies to the removal of organic pollutants, with an emphasis on hydrocarbons and textile dyes. It applies a descriptive bibliometric analysis to study statistical practicality-vs-applicability of bioremediation of emerging organic pollutants. The paper identifies efficient pathways for bioremediation of different types of organic pollutants and outlines the potential for an eco-friendly and economical approach for the biological remediation of micropollutants by microalgae. Facts and figures on various hazardous pollutants, constraints in their current removal from water at an industrial level, and promising future solutions are carefully presented here.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Microalgas , Biodegradación Ambiental , Hidrocarburos , Aguas Residuales
3.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113863, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610558

RESUMEN

This study presents the thermo-chemical conversion by means of pyrolysis as a route to valorise end of life tyres (ELTs) in a sustainable manner whilst targeting produced pyrolysis oil (pyro-oil) to replace conventional fossil fuels. The work presented here compares the results of pyro-oil extracted from the pyrolysis of three tyre grades, namely fresh (new) tyres, car and lorry truck ELTs; and investigates the pyro-oil extracted for fuel properties and common fuel hydrocarbon range. A fixed bed reactor system was used to conduct the experimental runs between 500 and 800 °C. The results show that fresh tyres and car ELTs yield some 45% of pyro-oil at an average reactor bed temperature equal to 600 °C which promotes evolution of liquid hydrocarbons via primary route of tyres cracking, hence pyro-oil production to a maximum. Furthermore, and at a similar operating temperature; the diesel range hydrocarbons (C10-C19) were around 66% of the total fuel like chromatograph studied for the pyrolysis oils. The work in this study and based on properties of fuel investigated point towards blending the oil extracted with conventional fuels that could result in lowering dependency on fossil based ones. Further upgrading is also possible whereby desulphurisation could lead to renewable and sustainable fuel source utilising a solid waste feedstock such as ELTs.


Asunto(s)
Aceites , Pirólisis , Calor , Hidrocarburos , Residuos Sólidos , Temperatura
4.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113849, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619586

RESUMEN

Engine oil consists of hazardous substances that adversely affect the environment and soil quality. Bioremediation (employing organisms) is an appropriate technique to mitigate engine oil pollution. In the present study, the earthworm species, Drawida modesta (epigeic) and Lampito mauritii (anecic) were used to restore the soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from used engine oil. Four treatments were set up in addition to positive and negative controls. A maximum of 68.6% PAHs and 34.3% TPHs removal in the treatment with soil (1 kg), cow dung (50 g), used engine oil (7.5 mL) and earthworms was recorded after 60 days. Undoubtedly, earthworms effectively removed PAHs and TPHs from the oil-contaminated soil. PAHs were more strongly accumulated in D. modesta (16.25 mg kg-1) than in L. mauritii (13.25 mg kg-1). Further, histological analysis revealed the epidermal surface irregularity, cellular disintegration, and cellular debris in earthworms. The pH (6.3%), electrical conductivity (12.7%), and total organic carbon (35.4%) were significantly (at P < 0.05) decreased after 60 days; while, total nitrogen (62%), total potassium (76.2%), and total phosphorus (19.2%) were substantially increased at the end of the experiment. The seed germination assay with fenugreek indicates that germination percentage (95%), and germination index (179), were dramatically increased in earthworm inoculated treatments when compared to the negative control (without earthworms). The results reveal that there is a great scope for utilizing the earthworms, D. modesta and L. mauritii for the bioremediation of soils contaminated with PAHs and TPHs.


Asunto(s)
Oligoquetos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Animales , Biodegradación Ambiental , Bovinos , Femenino , Hidrocarburos , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
5.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113826, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626942

RESUMEN

The continuous growth of waste is generating worldwide more and more increasing related environmental concerns. Anything that is not recycled or recuperated from waste represents a loss of raw materials and other production factors used in the manufacture, transport and consumer phases of the product. This research explored the potential of three waste namely Construction and Demolition (CD) waste, Fly Ash (FA), and Jet Grouting (JG) waste as fillers in comparison to the traditional limestone one for making hot asphalt mastics for road pavement, through a rheological analysis and environmental compatibility tests towards the release of potentially toxic elements. A total of eight asphalt mastics were prepared by using two filler-to-binder weight ratios (f/b) of 0.5 and 1 for blending each filler with a neat bitumen 50/70 penetration grade. The Frequency Sweep test and the Multiple Stress Creep and Recovery (MSCR) test were carried out to investigate the rheological properties of the asphalt mastics. Asphalt mastics containing FA and JG fillers were found to be more mechanically and environmentally efficient than traditional limestone mastic in particular by adopting an f/b equal to 1 where it was observed higher complex shear modulus values, G*, (on average 50% compared to the traditional asphalt mastic) and lower non-recoverable creep compliance values, Jnr, (on average 35% compared to the traditional asphalt mastic) at all test temperatures investigated. Based on the suggested ranking methodology, CD emerged as the filler performing in the same way of the traditional one. All the waste containing mastics, showed up noticeable environmental compatibility, being the potentially toxic elements completely immobilized into the mastics' structure e practically not releasable into acidic water, highlighting the waste recycling for road pavements as primary strategy to immobilize hazardous wastes.


Asunto(s)
Materiales de Construcción , Reciclaje , Ceniza del Carbón , Hidrocarburos
6.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118271, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627963

RESUMEN

Despite the economic benefits of the oil and gas industry in Northern Alberta, significant concerns exist regarding the impacts of increased oil production on the environment and human health. Several studies have highlighted increases in the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and other hydrocarbons in the atmosphere, water, soil and sediments, plants, wildlife and fish in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) as a result of oil sands industrial activity. Sediment cores can provide information on the temporal trends of contaminants to the environment and provide important baseline information when monitoring data are absent. Here we combined analytical chemistry and a mammalian cell-based bioassay in dated lake sediment cores to assess paleotoxicity in freshwater systems in the AOSR. Sediment intervals were radiometrically dated and subsequently analysed for PACs. PAC extracts from select dated intervals were used in cell-based bioassays to evaluate their endocrine disrupting properties. We demonstrated spatial and temporal variability in the PAC composition of sediment cores around the AOSR with some of the highest concentrations of PACs detected near oil sands industrial activity north of Fort McMurray (AB) in La Saline Natural Area. Recent sediment had positive enrichment factors across most PAC analytes at this site with heavier pyrogenic compounds such as benz(a)anthracene/chrysene and benzofluoranthene/benzopyrene dominating. Our study is the first to link chemical analysis of sediment cores with biological effect assessments of endocrine activity showing feasibility of extending the usefulness of sediment cores in monitoring programs interested in complex mixture assessments. While we observed no spatial or temporal differences in ERα mediated signaling, AhR CALUX results mirrored those of the chemical analysis, demonstrating the utility of coupling biological effects assessments to historical reconstructions of contaminant inputs to the natural environment.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Alberta , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Hidrocarburos , Yacimiento de Petróleo y Gas , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidad , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 343: 126127, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653626

RESUMEN

The influence of Pseudomonas putida 7525 strain on the pretreatment of petroleum refinery sludge was optimized at different dosages to maximize solubilization for improved biodegradability. Laccase-producing P. putida strain at a dosage of 108 CFU/mL resulted in 249% and 121.57% increments in soluble chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acids production respectively as compared to untreated within 6 days of incubation. 1L biochemical methane potential test conducted for optimization of different inoculum and pretreated substrate ratios (0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0) revealed maximum methane augmentation (62%) and volatile solids degradation (66.7%) at ratio 0.5. Scaled-up study (20L) for ratio 0.5 resulted in 57.07% total petroleum hydrocarbon, 62.98% oil and grease and 91.9% phenol removal within 50 days of digestion of pretreated PS. Kinetic modelling of cumulative methane yield indicated that modified Gompertz model showed the best fit thereby, evincing the potency of bacterial species for bioremediation of PS.


Asunto(s)
Petróleo , Pseudomonas putida , Anaerobiosis , Hidrocarburos , Metano , Aguas del Alcantarillado
8.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118343, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662593

RESUMEN

The biodegradation of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbons has recently received a lot of attention because of its many possible applications. Bacillus marsiflavi strain was isolated from oil contaminated soil of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Initial sequencing was done by 16s rRNA sequencing technique. Bac 144 had shown 78% emulsification index and 72% hydrophobicity content. Further, the strain displayed production of 15.5 mg/L phosphate sloubilization and 30.25 µg/ml indole acetic acid (IAA) in vitro assay. The strain showed 65% biodegradation of crude oil within 5 days by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Whole Genome analysis of Bac 144 was performed by PacBio sequencing and results indicated that Bacillus marsiflavi Bac144 strain consisted of size of 4,417,505bp with closest neighbor Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. The number of the coding sequence was 4662 and number of RNAs was 141. The GC content comprised 48.1%. Various genes were detected in genome responsible for hydrocarbon degradation and plant defense mechanism. The toxic effect of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and its mitigation with Bac 144 was tested by soil experiment with three levels of oil contamination (5%, 10% and 15%). Soil enzymatic activity such as dehydrogenase and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) increased up to 49% and 40% with inoculation of Bac 144, which was considered to be correlated with hydrocarbon degradation recorded as 46%. An increase of 20%, 14% and 9% in shoot length of plant at 5%, 10% and 15% level of oil was recorded treated with Bac 144 as compared to untreated plants. A percent increase of 14.89%, 16.85%, and 13.87% in chlorophyll, carotenoid, and proline content of plant was observed by inoculation with Bac 144 under oil stress. Significant reduction of 14% and 18%, 21% was recorded in the malondialdehyde content of plant due to inoculation of Bac 144. A considerable increase of 21.33%, 19.5%, and 24.5% in super oxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase dismutase activity was also observed in plants inoculated with strain Bac 144. These findings suggested that Bac-144 can be considered as efficient candidate for bioremediation of hydrocarbons.


Asunto(s)
Bacillus , Petróleo , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Bacillus/genética , Biodegradación Ambiental , Hidrocarburos , Petróleo/análisis , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
9.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113933, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731951

RESUMEN

The long-alkanes biodegradation rate was generally found slow during widely used pre-oxidation combined with biodegradation for oil contamination treatment, resulting in long and unsustainable removal. In this study, different chitosan content was used to produce iron catalysts for pre-oxidation, and nutrients were added for the long-alkanes biodegradation experiment. Mechanism of Fenton pre-oxidation and improvement in the biodegradation rate of long-alkanes were studied by analyzing the change in organic matter and bacterial community structure, the amount and activity of bacteria in the biological stage, and the degradation amount long-alkanes hydrocarbon before and after pre-oxidation. Results showed that the destruction of bacteria greatly reduced when hydroxyl radical intensity decreased to 4.40 a.u.. Also, the proportion of humic acid-like was high (40.88%), and the community structure was slightly changed with the pre-oxidation for the fast biodegradation (FB) group. In the subsequent biodegradation, it was found that the degradation rate of each long-alkanes in the FB group increased significantly (C30: 4.18-8.32 mg/(kg·d)) with the increase of the degradation of long-alkanes (10-50%). Further studies showed that the high nutrient dynamics (6.05 mg/(kg·d)) of the FB group resulted in high bacteria performance rate (0.53 mol CO2 × log CFU/(104 g2 d)), which further accelerated the substrate transformation(41%). Therefore, the biodegradation rate of long-alkanes was increased (43.8 mg/(kg·d)) with the removal rate of long-alkanes of 76%. The half-life of long-alkanes for the FB group (64 d) was 33 d shorter than the slow biodegradation group (99 d). These results exhibited that pre-oxidation regulation can shorten the bioremediation cycle by improving the biodegradation rate of long-alkanes. This research has good engineering application value.


Asunto(s)
Alcanos , Petróleo , Bacterias , Biodegradación Ambiental , Hidrocarburos
10.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118454, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737024

RESUMEN

Measurements of vertical distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have attracted wide attentions, which could help to understand atmospheric oxidation mechanism and provide implications for VOC control. This study measured the non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) simultaneously for the first time at three different heights, namely ground, 118 m and 488 m, in the Canton Tower located in the urban core of the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The results show that NMHCs decreased while some OVOC species such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde increased with increasing height. It was mainly attributed to the dilution and chemical loss of NMHCs but secondary production of OVOCs during vertical transport. Ratio analysis and receptor modeling indicate that vehicle exhausts (47%) and fuel evaporation (39%) were major sources of the total NMHCs. Interestingly, industry contributed much more at 118 m, probably affected by organic gas discharge from the high chimney of industrial factories. The chemical reactivities in terms of OH radical loss rate (LOH), ozone formation potential (OFP) and secondary organic aerosol potential (SOAP) were lowest at 118 m, smaller than those influenced by high fresh NMHC emissions at ground and strong formation of secondary species (e.g. OVOCs) at 488 m. OH exposure estimated by isoprene and m,p-xylene/ethylbenzene was different depending on their time scale of vertical turbulent mixing and chemical loss. OVOC species measured at different heights were positively correlated with Ox (R = 0.48-0.87), indicating that OVOCs were largely contributed by secondary formation in photochemical process. The tower measurements of NMHCs and OVOCs provided a unique opportunity to investigate the VOC distribution and chemical behaviors, which could give important information for understanding O3 and PM2.5 pollution mechanism in the PRD region with fast developing urban setting and substantially changing air quality.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Ozono , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Hidrocarburos/análisis , Metano , Ozono/análisis , Ríos , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis
11.
Environ Pollut ; 296: 118709, 2022 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942290

RESUMEN

We reviewed 20 years of levels, sources, and environmental risks related to the main petroleum hydrocarbons in the northeast region of Brazil. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to serve as a comprehensive baseline for future monitoring programmes related to the oil spill disaster in 2019/2020. Most contamination levels of both PAHs and AHs were classified as low, except those in specific areas influenced by human activities, such as ports, highly urbanised mangroves, or rivers of medium-sized cities with inadequate liquid and solid waste treatment. Most hydrocarbons were linked to natural sources and burning processes, except in regions of extraction activities and petrochemical facilities as well as highly urbanised areas, where degraded petroleum and oil hydrocarbons predominated. Only 2.5% of the samples exceeded threshold effect levels for ∑16-PAHs and no samples exceeded probable effect levels. When regional threshold levels were used, however, the probable effect for the ∑16-PAHs measured was high, ranging from 5.8 to 6.1%. The few studies reporting biological responses showed that hydrocarbons from anthropogenic sources can induce adverse effects on marine organisms even at low to moderate levels. As the region has recently received a considerable quantity of crude oil, studies should be prioritised for a more precise assessment of the impact of this oil spill.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación por Petróleo , Petróleo , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Brasil , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Hidrocarburos/análisis , Petróleo/análisis , Contaminación por Petróleo/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
12.
J Environ Manage ; 304: 114313, 2022 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942548

RESUMEN

Environmental pollution mitigation measure involving bioremediation technology is a sustainable intervention for a greener ecosystem biorecovery, especially the obnoxious hydrocarbons, xenobiotics, and other environmental pollutants induced by anthropogenic stressors. Several successful case studies have provided evidence to this paradigm including the putative adoption that the technology is eco-friendly, cost-effective, and shows a high tendency for total contaminants mineralization into innocuous bye-products. The present review reports advances in bioremediation, types, and strategies conventionally adopted in contaminant clean-up. It identified that natural attenuation and biostimulation are faced with notable limitations including the poor remedial outcome under the natural attenuation system and the residual contamination occasion following a biostimulation operation. It remarks that the use of genetically engineered microorganisms shows a potentially promising insight as a prudent remedial approach but is currently challenged by few ethical restrictions and the rural unavailability of the technology. It underscores that bioaugmentation, particularly the use of high cell density assemblages referred to as microbial consortia possess promising remedial prospects thus offers a more sustainable environmental security. The authors, therefore, recommend bioaugmentation for large scale contaminated sites in regions where environmental degradation is commonplace.


Asunto(s)
Restauración y Remediación Ambiental , Petróleo , Contaminantes del Suelo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Ecosistema , Hidrocarburos , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Tecnología
13.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 112: 210-217, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955205

RESUMEN

High loads of ground-level ozone have occurred with the implementation of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan. However, the long temporal variation in precursor nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) has rarely been studied. In this study, we examined the evolution of NMHCs in Beijing based on ambient measurements from 2000 to 2019. The results indicated that the annual variation of ambient NMHCs during 2000 and 2019 could be divided into two stages. The mixing ratios of NMHCs rapidly rose during 2000 and 2009 (1.76 ppbv/year) but exhibited a downward trend from 2009 to 2019 at rate of 0.80 ppbv/yr. Moreover, the notable decrease in alkenes and aromatics after 2009 led to a sharp decrease in the propylene-equivalent concentration (PEC) (-0.80 ppbv/year). Implementation of emission reduction measures in Beijing have effectively reduced the contribution of vehicle-related sources, but the contribution of solvent usage and fuel consumption increased, which will become the focus of VOC control in Beijing in the future.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Ozono , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Beijing , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Hidrocarburos/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis
14.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111965, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453900

RESUMEN

In the present work, the surface of montmorillonite K10 was successfully modified by hexadecylamine surfactant (Mt-HDA) and its intercalation and characteristics were assessed by XRD, FTIR, SEM, EDX and BET methods. Also, its adsorption performance was systematically examined in the removal of Tartrazine (TZ), as a sulfonated azo dye model, from aqueous phase. Our results showed that the HDA modification remarkably improved the adsorption ability of montmorillonite toward TZ molecules. The highest adsorption efficiency was achieved >98% at the pH range of 4-6 within a fast process (less than 30 min). The maximum adsorption capacity Mt-HDA toward TZ molecules was found to be ~59 mg/g at 45 °C. The kinetic study indicated that the adsorption kinetic follows pseudo-second-order model, which shows the chemisorption process between Mt-HDA and TZ molecules. Besides, the adsorption isotherm showed the monolayer coverage of Mt-HDA surface adsorption sites, which was fitted with the Langmuir isotherm model in an exothermic process. The adsorption mechanism was studied.


Asunto(s)
Bentonita , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adsorción , Aminas , Hidrocarburos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Cinética , Tartrazina , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
15.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111924, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487695

RESUMEN

This study assessed the ability of phosphorus (P) fertilizer to remediate the rhizosphere of three wild plant species (Banksia seminuda, a tree; Chloris truncata, a grass; and Hakea prostrata, a shrub) growing in a soil contaminated with total (aliphatic) petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). Plant growth, photosynthesis (via chlorophyll fluorescence), soil microbial activity, alkane hydroxylase AlkB (aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading) gene abundance, and TPH removal were evaluated 120 days after planting. Overall, although TPH served as an additional carbon source for soil microorganisms, the presence of TPH in soil resulted in decreased plant growth and photosynthesis. However, growth, photosynthesis, microbial activities, and AlkB gene abundance were enhanced by the application of P fertilizer, thereby increasing TPH removal rates, although the extent and optimum P dosage varied among the plant species. The highest TPH removal (64.66%) was observed in soil planted with the Poaceae species, C. truncata, and amended with 100 mg P kg-1 soil, while H. prostrata showed higher TPH removal compared to the plant belonging to the same Proteaceae family, B. seminuda. The presence of plants resulted in higher AlkB gene abundance and TPH removal relative to the unplanted control. The removal of TPH was associated directly with AlkB gene abundance (R2 > 0.9, p < 0.001), which was affected by plant identity and P levels. The results indicated that an integrated approach involving wild plant species and optimum P amendment, which was determined through experimentation using different plant species, was an efficient way to remediate soil contaminated with TPH.


Asunto(s)
Petróleo , Contaminantes del Suelo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Citocromo P-450 CYP4A/genética , Hidrocarburos , Fósforo , Rizosfera , Suelo , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad
16.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 113: 132-140, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963523

RESUMEN

The concentration variation of C3-C11 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) collected in several types of commercial flexible bags and adsorption tubes was systematically investigated using a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) system. The percentage loss of each NMHC in the polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) bags was less than 5% during a 7-hr storage period; significant NMHCs loss was detected in aluminum foil composite film and fluorinated ethylene propylene bags. The thermal desorption efficiency of NMHCs for adsorption tubes filled Carbopack B and Carboxen1000 sorbents was greater than 95% at 300℃, and the loss of NMHCs in the adsorption tubes during 20-days storage at 4℃ was less than 8%. The thermal desorption efficiency for C11 NMHCs in the adsorption tube filled with Carbograph 1 and Carbosieve SⅢ absorbents was less than 40% at 300℃, and pyrolysis of the absorbents at 330℃ interfered significantly with the measurements of some alkenes. The loss of alkenes was significant when NMHCs were sampled by cryo-enrichment at -90℃ in the presence of O3 for the online NMHC measurements, and negligible for enrichment using adsorption tubes at 25℃. Although O3 scrubbers have been widely used to eliminate the influence of O3 on NMHC measurements, the loss of NMHCs with carbon numbers greater than 8 was more than 10%. Therefore, PVF bags and adsorption tubes filled Carbopack B and Carboxen1000 sorbents were recommended for the sampling of atmospheric NMHCs.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Metano , Adsorción , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Carbono , Cromatografía de Gases , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Hidrocarburos/análisis
17.
Chemosphere ; 290: 133337, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933030

RESUMEN

Microbial remediation has proven to be an effective technique for the cleanup of crude-oil contaminated sites. However, limited information exists on the dynamics involved in defined co-cultures of biosurfactant-producing bacteria and fungi in bioremediation processes. In this study, a fungal strain (Scedosporium sp. ZYY) capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons was isolated and co-cultured with biosurfactant-producing bacteria (Acinetobacter sp. Y2) to investigate their combined effect on crude-oil degradation. Results showed that the surface tension of the co-culture decreased from 63.12 to 47.58 mN m-1, indicating the secretion of biosurfactants in the culture. Meanwhile, the degradation rate of total petroleum hydrocarbon increased from 23.36% to 58.61% at the end of the 7-d incubation period. In addition, gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis showed a significant (P < 0.05) degradation from 3789.27 mg/L to 940.33 mg/L for n-alkanes and 1667.33 µg/L to 661.5 µg/L for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Moreover, RT-qPCR results revealed the high expression of alkB and CYP52 genes by Acinetobacter sp. Y2 and Scedosporium sp. ZYY respectively in the co-culture, which corelated positively (P < 0.01) with n-alkane removal. Finally, microbial growth assay which corresponded with Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis activity, highlighted the synergistic behavior of both strains in tackling the crude oil. Findings in this study suggest that the combination of fungal strain and biosurfactant-producing bacteria effectively enhances the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, which could shed new light on the improvement of bioremediation strategies.


Asunto(s)
Petróleo , Bacterias/genética , Biodegradación Ambiental , Técnicas de Cocultivo , Hongos , Hidrocarburos , Tensoactivos
18.
Chemosphere ; 290: 133392, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952012

RESUMEN

Identifying the cause of inconsistent landfarming efficacy is critical to designing optimal remedial strategies for petroleum-contaminated sites. We assessed contaminated soils collected from two former military bases in South Korea to better understand the role and influence of different factors. Landfarming remediation was simulated in the laboratory by applying comparable practices (such as tillage and bioaugmentation) and the relevant mechanism was examined. We then systematically examined potential factors affecting petroleum-removal efficacy, including the content of fine soil particles, the initial concentration and composition of petroleum contaminants, and the degree of soil-contaminant interaction. The distribution range of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and the size of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) found in gas chromatography data showed that petroleum composed of TPHs with lower carbon numbers and having smaller size of UCM could be treated more effectively by landfarming. Incorporating the evaluation of the distribution range and UCM properties of petroleum, rather than simply considering its total concentration, is a more accurate and efficient method for determining the site-specific suitability of landfarming as a remedial option, as well as for assessing the necessity of supplementary processes.


Asunto(s)
Petróleo , Contaminantes del Suelo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Hidrocarburos , Suelo , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
19.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131751, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399257

RESUMEN

Oil spills in Arctic marine environments are expected to increase concurrently with the expansion of shipping routes and petroleum exploitation into previously inaccessible ice-dominated regions. Most research on oil biodegradation focusses on the bulk oil, but the fate of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF), mainly composed of toxic aromatic compounds, is largely underexplored. To evaluate the bacterial degradation capacity of such dissolved aromatics in Greenlandic seawater, microcosms consisting of 0 °C seawater polluted with WAF were investigated over a 3-month period. With a half-life (t1/2) of 26 days, m-xylene was the fastest degraded compound, as measured by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Substantial slower degradation was observed for ethylbenzene, naphthalenes, phenanthrene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene and fluorenes with t1/2 of 40-105 days. Colwellia, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, was the main potential degrader of m-xylene. This genus occupied up to 47 % of the bacterial community until day 10 in the microcosms. Cycloclasticus and Zhongshania aliphaticivorans, potentially utilizing one-to three-ringed aromatics, replaced Colwellia between day 10 and 96 and occupied up to 6 % and 23 % of the community, respectively. Although most of the WAF can ultimately be eliminated in microcosms, our results suggest that the restoration of an oil-impacted Arctic environment may be slow as most analysed compounds had t1/2 of over 2-3 months and the detrimental effects of a spill towards the marine ecosystem likely persist during this time.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación por Petróleo , Petróleo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Regiones Árticas , Biodegradación Ambiental , Ecosistema , Gammaproteobacteria , Hidrocarburos , Contaminación por Petróleo/análisis , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Agua de Mar , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
20.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131752, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426136

RESUMEN

Over recent decades, hydrocarbon concentrations have been augmented in soil and water, mainly derived from accidents or operations that input crude oil and petroleum into the environment. Different techniques for remediation have been proposed and used to mitigate oil contamination. Among the available environmental recovery approaches, bioremediation stands out since these hydrocarbon compounds can be used as growth substrates for microorganisms. In turn, microorganisms can play an important role with significant contributions to the stabilization of impacted areas. In this review, we present the current knowledge about responses from natural microbial communities (using DNA barcoding, multiomics, and functional gene markers) and bioremediation experiments (microcosm and mesocosm) conducted in the presence of petroleum and chemical dispersants in different samples, including soil, sediment, and water. Additionally, we present metabolic mechanisms for aerobic/anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation and alternative pathways, as well as a summary of studies showing functional genes and other mechanisms involved in petroleum biodegradation processes.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Contaminación por Petróleo , Petróleo , Contaminantes del Suelo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Hidrocarburos , Contaminación por Petróleo/análisis , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
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