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1.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 99(5): 80-86, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034182

RESUMEN

THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Was to study the dental status, control individual hygiene and assess the quality of life of patients with jaw defects in combination with medical osteonecrosis at the stages of orthopedic rehabilitation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 38 patients were examined, divided into two groups of 19 people aged 49 to 74 years (average age - 61.5±4.25 years). The main group was comprised of patients after resection of the jaws for malignant neoplasms. The comparison group consisted of patients with partial tooth loss who do not have a history of cancer. All participants used individual hygiene products in the form of parodontax Complete protection toothpaste and parodontax Extra 0.2% mouthwash, along with dental prosthetics, according to a certain scheme. The analysis was performed at the beginning of the study, after 7, 14 days and 2 months. The results of prosthetics and the quality of life of patients in both groups were evaluated using a questionnaire developed by us, which allows us to evaluate various parameters (pain, functions, sensations, social activity). RESULTS: The dynamics of the values of the hygiene index, bleeding gums and qualitative analysis of mixed saliva confirm the positive effect of regular use of recommended hygiene products on the oral tissue. There was an increase in the number of buccal epithelial cells with a low degree of destruction, which indicates the restoration of the barrier properties of the epithelial layer. The orthopedic rehabilitation performed against the background of the use of personal hygiene products showed a positive dynamics of all the studied parameters. After applying prosthetics, patients in the control group noted the restoration of chewing and speech, improved appearance and mood. CONCLUSION: Orthopedic treatment of patients after jaw resection in combination with the complex use of PO and OP allows to solve the issue of their functional, cosmetic and social rehabilitation.


Asunto(s)
Osteonecrosis , Calidad de Vida , Anciano , Humanos , Higiene , Persona de Mediana Edad , Habla , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 58(229): 690-695, 2020 Sep 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068093

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 infection is caused by a new strain of SARS CoV-2 virus, which transmits directly from person-to-person and has become a pandemic. To counteract this, actions related to mass quarantines or stay-at-home orders have been used termed as lockdown. This study aims to study lifestyle, behaviour, perception and practice of people regarding during the lockdown. METHODS: An online survey was conducted with structured questionnaire in Google forms after ethical approval from Nepal Health Research Council (Ref-2631). The attributes of knowledge, attitude and practices were explored using multiple-choice questions and results were statistically analysed using Microsoft excel. RESULTS: Five hundred fifty-five respondents completed the survey with 280 (50.5%) males and 275 (49.5%) female. The knowledge regarding viral pandemic was increased in 496 (89.3%) respondents. 424 (76.4%) people developed stress due to pandemic. Three hundred fifty three (63.6%) were adversely affected by professional works or suffered economic loss in business. More than 42% participants are using their time for study in personal development, online classes etc. Conclusions: The knowledge of viral pandemic as well as personal hygiene habits have improved in majority of people but many also developed stress. They were convinced that lockdown lowered transmission of infection which in turn affected lifestyle behaviour and practices. Practicing social distancing becomes too difficult for the poor in the absence of proper social security system and government support. E-Learning has become more acceptable due to lockdown. Further studies with in-person interviews are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estatus Económico , Educación a Distancia , Empleo , Femenino , Guantes Protectores , Higiene de las Manos , Desinfectantes para las Manos , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Máscaras , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nepal , Cuarentena , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto Joven
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 682, 2020 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942989

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Enterobacter cloacae species is responsible for nosocomial outbreaks in vulnerable patients in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The environment can constitute the reservoir and source of infection in NICUs. Herein we report the impact of preventive measures implemented after an Enterobacter cloacae outbreak inside a NICU. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in one level 3 NICU in Lyon, France, over a 6 year-period (2012-2018). After an outbreak of Enterobacter cloacae infections in hospitalized neonates in 2013, several measures were implemented including intensive biocleaning and education of medical staff. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of infected patients and evolution of colonization/infection with Enterobacter spp. in this NICU were retrieved. Moreover, whole genome sequencing was performed on 6 outbreak strains. RESULTS: Enterobacter spp. was isolated in 469 patients and 30 patients developed an infection including 2 meningitis and 12 fatal cases. Preventive measures and education of medical staff were not associated with a significant decrease in patient colonisation but led to a persistent decreased use of cephalosporin in the NICU. Infection strains were genetically diverse, supporting the hypothesis of multiple hygiene defects rather than the diffusion of a single clone. CONCLUSIONS: Grouped cases of infections inside one setting are not necessarily related to a single-clone outbreak and could reveal other environmental and organisational problematics. The fight against implementation and transmission of Enterobacter spp. in NICUs remains a major challenge.


Asunto(s)
Enterobacter cloacae/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/prevención & control , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Enterobacter cloacae/genética , Enterobacter cloacae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiología , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Francia , Humanos , Higiene , Recién Nacido , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Sepsis Neonatal/epidemiología , Sepsis Neonatal/microbiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
4.
Medwave ; 20(8): e8012, 2020 Sep 07.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956343

RESUMEN

Objective: To generate recommendations on the management of radiotherapeutic treatments during the pandemic, adapted to a country with limited health resources. Methods: We did a rapid review of the literature, searching for papers that describe any measures to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection, as well as management guidelines to reduce the workload, in radiotherapy units. The following conditions were included in the scope of this review: gynecological tumors, breast cancer, gastrointestinal tumors, genitourinary tumors, head and neck tumors, skin cancer, tumors of the central nervous system, and lymphomas. An expert group discussed online the extracted data and drafted the recommendations. Using a modified Delphi method, the consensus was reached among 14 certificated radio-oncologists. The quality of the evidence that supported the recommendations on treatment schedules was assessed. Results: A total of 57 documents were included. Of these, 25 provided strategies to reduce the risk of infection. Recommendations for each condiction were extracted from the remaining documents. The recommendations aim to establish specific parameters where treatments can be omitted, deferred, prioritized, and shortened. Treatment schemes are recommended for each condition, prioritizing hypo-fractionated schemes whenever possible. Conclusions: We propose strategies for the management of radiotherapy services to guarantee the continuity of high-quality treatments despite the health crisis caused by COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Consenso , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Oncología por Radiación/estadística & datos numéricos , Carga de Trabajo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Técnica Delfos , Desinfección/métodos , Física Sanitaria , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Enfermedades Profesionales/veterinaria , Cuidados Paliativos/organización & administración , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Oncología por Radiación/organización & administración , Distancia Social , Triaje/organización & administración
5.
Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat ; 29(3): 115-122, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975297

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This questionnaire study evaluates dermatological complaints that may arise due to hygiene measures and anxiety among healthcare professionals (HCPs) during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A total of 526 volunteers, consisting of doctors and nurses, participated. Demographic features, personal hygiene behavior, personal protective equipment (PPE) use, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety (HADS-A) parameters, and symptoms of various dermatological diseases (xerosis, eczema, acne, hair loss, palmar hyperhidrosis, xeromycteria, urticaria, aphthous stomatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis) were investigated. RESULTS: Although the frequency and severity of many dermatological complaints increased during the pandemic period, the most frequent increase was observed in the frequency of complaints suggesting xerosis and eczema. We found that complaints suggesting xerosis and eczema were seen on the hands 2.44 and 3.57 times, respectively, as a result of washing hands 10 times/day, and that handwashing times of 10 seconds or more significantly increased the risk of eczema (5.44 times). Another remarkable result was a fivefold increase in acne complaints among those using any mask. The severity of all complaints except hair loss and seborrheic dermatitis correlated significantly with HADS-A. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the frequency and severity of some dermatological complaints increased in HCPs.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Eccema/epidemiología , Dermatosis de la Mano/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuerpo Médico de Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Femenino , Guantes Protectores/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Turquia
6.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 223-229, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910673

RESUMEN

With the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk of a possible lack of care for the elderly in nursing homes became evident. We summarize the experience of a multidisciplinary team with volunteer professionals from different specialties who carried out support for healthcare professionals in nursing homes. This team was implemented from both Primary and Specialty Care managements. Its work paradigm was proposed by our home hospitalization team, which included direct care of the most complex patients and general counselling on isolation, hygiene and preventive measures within the nursing homes. Thanks to this support, the elderly population placed there, with suspected or diagnosed COVID-19, received adequate care from an interdisciplinary team, which led part of the pressure to be released from their professional workers, and many family members were aware that there was no neglect of the elderly. Commitment from various levels of care in a coordinated effort has prevented a vulnerable population from being left unattended during the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Casas de Salud/ética , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Anciano , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Higiene , Control de Infecciones , Comunicación Interdisciplinaria , Cuidados Paliativos/ética , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/prevención & control , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Transferencia de Pacientes/ética , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Relaciones Profesional-Familia , Calidad de Vida , Evaluación de Síntomas , Poblaciones Vulnerables
8.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 24(5): 358-364, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886632

RESUMEN

When using ventilators in the management of the coronavirus disease 2019 patient, dense and abundant mucous secretions are formed, obstructing the endotracheal tube and making its aspiration difficult. This situation is worsened if in order to minimize the risk of infection of the medical personnel, the humidifier is disconnected. This circumstance forces the tube to be removed, cleaned, or changed, increasing the workload of the intensive care unit staff. Other therapies tested until now, like mesna, acetylcysteine, or hypertonic saline solution, are valid alternatives, although they have not shown great efficacy for this specific procedure in the past. The sanitary emergency forced the collaboration between a pharmacist and an otorhinolaryngologist to develop the cocamidopropyl betaine surfactant formula, after several tests with different concentrations of the surfactant. The objective of this compounding formula was to resolve a mechanical problem and avoid reintubation due to obstruction of the ventilator tube. The cocamidopropyl betaine surfactant solution 0.075% in saline 0.9% (physiological serum) solution demonstrated to be a well-tolerated formula, using inexpensive materials, was simple to prepare, and was easy to use in clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Betaína/análogos & derivados , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Contaminación de Equipos/prevención & control , Intubación Intratraqueal , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Tensoactivos/farmacología , Betacoronavirus , Betaína/farmacología , Humanos , Higiene , Pandemias , Ventiladores Mecánicos
9.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 32-35, 2020 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877496

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The impact of the new coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) and its worldwide clinical manifestations (COVID-19) imposed specific regional recommendations for populations in need of specialized care, such as children and adolescents with kidney diseases, particularly in renal replacement therapies (RRT). We present the recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology regarding the treatment of pediatric patients with kidney diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Articles and documents from medical societies and government agencies on specific recommendations for children on RRT in relation to COVID-19 as well as those focused on epidemiological aspects of this condition in Brazil Were evaluated and analyzed. RESULTS: We present recommendations on outpatient care, transportation to dialysis centers, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and kidney transplantation in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. DISCUSSION: Despite initial observations of higher mortality rates in specific age groups (the elderly) and with comorbidities (obese, diabetics, and those with cardiovascular diseases), patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on RRT are particularly prone to develop COVID-19. Specific measures must be taken to reduce the risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 and developing COVID-19, especially during transport to dialysis facilities, as well as on arrival and in contact with other patients.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Enfermedades Renales/terapia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Terapia de Reemplazo Renal/normas , Adolescente , Atención Ambulatoria , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Trasplante de Riñón , Máscaras , Nefrología/normas , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Pediatría , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Terapia de Reemplazo Renal/métodos , Sociedades Médicas , Evaluación de Síntomas , Transporte de Pacientes
10.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 76(2): 119-129, 2020.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877396

RESUMEN

The Authors present the results of an experience carried out in a University General Hospital, for the assessment of the sanitation of surfaces and instruments in the context of hospital refection. A specific procedure has been quarterly implemented in order to verify the correct execution of the sanitization procedures. In the time-period September 2016 - March 2020 Petri dishes and tampons were used in order to determine the following microbiological parameters and indicators: total bacterial load at 30 degrees C, Coliforms, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and mycetic load. Only 7 out of 82 sanitized surfaces (8.5% of the total) were found to be not complying, only for total bacterial load at 30 degrees C, mycetic load and Coliforms. The systematic application of this procedure and the results of the survey conducted, comforting as a whole, confirm the attention reserved to the hygienic level of surfaces, tools, equipment and utensils, in the context of the centralized catering service of the hospital, in which the Health Department, sharing with the UOC Hospital Hygiene the specific hygienic procedure, has always been at the forefront of the proposal of interventions, considering the increased susceptibility and vulnerability of the hospitalized patients.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Universitarios/normas , Higiene/normas , Saneamiento/normas , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes
11.
Rev Prat ; 70(3): 305-309, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877066

RESUMEN

Complications related to tattoo practice. Tattooing can result in a wide variety of complications, whose prevalence and incidence remain still unclear. Hypersensitivity reactions (or allergies) to tattoo pigments are currently the most common complication on a tattoo, however are not predictable. Infections are nowadays directly related to the lack of asepsis and hygiene during the tattooing procedure or during the healing phase. Patients with a known cutaneous disease should be warned of a potential risk of localization of their disease to the tattoo. Patients with chronic conditions and/or impaired immunity should discuss with their physician about the possibility and when to have a tattoo. Laser removal is the gold standard for tattoo removal and include Q-switched, picoseconds and CO2 lasers. However, a complete disappearance of the tattoo is not always possible.


Asunto(s)
Hipersensibilidad , Enfermedades de la Piel , Tatuaje , Humanos , Higiene , Tatuaje/efectos adversos
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013057, 2020 09 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926406

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), sometimes referred to as chronic otitis media (COM), is a chronic inflammation and often polymicrobial infection (involving more than one micro-organism) of the middle ear and mastoid cavity, characterised by ear discharge (otorrhoea) through a perforated tympanic membrane. The predominant symptoms of CSOM are ear discharge and hearing loss. Aural toileting is a term describing a number of processes for manually cleaning the ear. Techniques used may include dry mopping (with cotton wool or tissue paper), suction clearance (typically under a microscope) or irrigation (using manual or automated syringing). Dry mopping may be effective in removing mucopurulent discharge. Compared to irrigation or microsuction it is less effective in removing epithelial debris or thick pus. Aural toileting can be used alone or in addition to other treatments for CSOM, such as antibiotics or topical antiseptics. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of aural toilet procedures for people with CSOM. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL via the Cochrane Register of Studies); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 16 March 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with at least a one-week follow-up involving people (adults and children) who had chronic ear discharge of unknown cause or CSOM, where the ear discharge had continued for more than two weeks. We included any aural toileting method as the intervention, at any frequency and for any duration. The comparisons were aural toileting compared with a) placebo or no intervention, and b) any other aural toileting method. We analysed trials in which background treatments were used in both arms (e.g. topical antiseptics or topical antibiotics) separately. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard Cochrane methodological procedures. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. Our primary outcomes were: resolution of ear discharge or 'dry ear' (whether otoscopically confirmed or not), measured at between one week and up to two weeks, two weeks to up to four weeks, and after four weeks; health-related quality of life using a validated instrument; and ear pain (otalgia) or discomfort or local irritation. Secondary outcomes were hearing, serious complications, and the adverse events of ear bleeding and dizziness/vertigo/balance problems. MAIN RESULTS: We included three studies with a total of 431 participants (465 ears), reporting on two comparisons. Two studies included only children with CSOM in the community (351 participants) and the other study (80 participants) included children and adults with chronic ear discharge for at least six weeks. None of the included studies reported the outcomes of health-related quality of life, ear pain or the adverse event of ear bleeding. Daily aural toileting (dry mopping) versus no treatment Two studies (351 children; 370 ears) compared daily dry mopping with no treatment. Neither study presented results for resolution of ear discharge at between one and up to two weeks or between two to four weeks. For resolution of ear discharge after four weeks, one study reported the results per person. We are very uncertain whether there is a difference at 16 weeks (risk ratio (RR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60 to 1.72; 1 study; 217 participants) because the certainty of the evidence is very low. No results were reported for the adverse events of dizziness, vertigo or balance problems. Only one study reported serious complications, but it was not clear which group these patients were from, or whether the complications occurred pre- or post-treatment. One study reported hearing, but the results were presented by treatment outcome rather than by treatment group so it is not possible to determine whether there is a difference between the two groups. Daily aural toileting versus single aural toileting on top of topical ciprofloxacin One study (80 participants; 95 ears) compared daily aural toileting (suction) with administration of topical antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) ear drops in a clinic, to a single aural toileting (suction) episode followed by daily self-administered topical antibiotic drops, in participants of all ages. We are unsure whether there is a difference in resolution of ear discharge at between one and up to two weeks (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.30; 1 study; 80 participants) because the certainty of the evidence is very low. There were no results reported for resolution of ear discharge at between two to four weeks. The results for resolution of ear discharge after four weeks were presented by ear, not person, and could not be adjusted to by person. One patient in the group with single aural toileting and self administration of topical antibiotic ear drops reported the adverse event of dizziness, which the authors attributed to the use of cold topical ciprofloxacin. It is very uncertain whether there is a difference between the groups (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.95; 1 study; 80 participants, very low-certainty). No results were reported for the other adverse events of vertigo or balance problems, or for serious complications. The authors only reported qualitatively that there was no difference between the two groups in hearing results (very low-certainty). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are very uncertain whether or not treatment with aural toileting is effective in resolving ear discharge in people with CSOM, due to a lack of data and the poor quality of the available evidence. We also remain uncertain about other outcomes, including adverse events, as these were not well reported. Similarly, we are very uncertain whether daily suction clearance, followed by antibiotic ear drops administered at a clinic, is better than a single episode of suction clearance followed by self-administration of topical antibiotic ear drops.


Asunto(s)
Higiene , Otitis Media Supurativa/terapia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Sesgo , Niño , Enfermedad Crónica , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Succión/métodos , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Gastroenterol. hepatol. (Ed. impr.) ; 43(7): 408-413, ago.-sept. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-191020

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was described in China in late 2019. There are currently more than three million diagnosed cases, constituting a pandemic which has caused a worldwide crisis. The devastating effects of this infection are due to its highly contagious nature and although mild forms predominate, in absolute values, the rates for severe forms and mortality are very high. The information on the characteristics of the infection in inflammatory bowel disease is of special interest, as these patients have higher attendance at health centres, which may increase their risk of infection. Furthermore, the treatments used to control the inflammatory activity may modify the disease course of COVID-19. The Spanish Working Group on Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis and the Spanish Nurses Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease have prepared this document as a practical response to some common questions about the treatment of these patients


La COVID-19 es un síndrome respiratorio agudo grave producido por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 que se describió en China a finales de 2019. Actualmente hay más de tres millones de casos diagnosticados, constituyendo una situación de pandemia que ha ocasionado una crisis a nivel mundial. El efecto devastador de esta infección se debe a su alta contagiosidad y, aunque predominan las formas leves, los casos graves y la mortalidad en valores absolutos son muy elevados. La información sobre las características de la infección en la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal tiene especial interés, y esto es debido a que estos pacientes tienen una mayor frecuentación de centros sanitarios, lo que puede incrementar el riesgo de contagio. Además, los tratamientos que se administran para el control de la actividad inflamatoria podrían modificar la evolución de la COVID-19. El Grupo Español de Trabajo en Enfermedad de Crohn y Colitis Ulcerosa, en colaboración con el Grupo Enfermero de Trabajo en EII, ha elaborado este documento que tiene como objetivo responder de forma práctica algunas dudas frecuentes en el tratamiento de estos pacientes


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Consenso , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/terapia , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Comorbilidad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Factores de Riesgo , Higiene/normas , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/complicaciones , Pronóstico , Tiempo de Internación , Personal de Salud/normas , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/epidemiología , Gastroenterología/normas , Betacoronavirus
14.
Can Bull Med Hist ; 37(2): 395-426, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822552

RESUMEN

The Association des médecins de langue française d'Amérique du Nord (AMLFAN) was founded in Québec at the turn of the twentieth century. The physicians who convened at the Association between 1902 and 1910 shared a concern for the degeneration of the French-Canadian "race" under the effects of alcoholism, tuberculosis, and syphilis. For hygienists such as Arthur Rousseau and Charles-Narcisse Valin, this state of degeneration called for hygienic measures that would help regenerate and improve the French-Canadian race. While their suggestion that marriages be matched scientifically in order to prevent the transmission of hereditary and acquired defects from parent to offspring may be reminiscent of eugenics, French-Canadian physicians seemed to have no knowledge of Sir Francis Galton - eugenics' "founding father" - and his work on the topic. This article compares French-Canadian eugenic discourses with Galtonian eugenics in order to shed light on the particularities of the French-Canadian case.


Asunto(s)
Eugenesia/historia , Higiene/historia , Sociedades Médicas/historia , Congresos como Asunto/historia , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Masculino , Quebec
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0233325, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756562

RESUMEN

Antibiotics discovery was a significant breakthrough in the field of therapeutic medicines, but the over (mis)use of such antibiotics (in parallel) caused the increasing number of resistant bacterial species at an ever-higher rate. This study was thus devised to assess the multi-drug resistant bacteria present in sanitation-related facilities in human workplaces. In this regard, samples were collected from different gender, location, and source-based facilities, and subsequent antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed on isolated bacterial strains. Four classes of the most commonly used antibiotics i.e., ß-lactam, Aminoglycosides, Macrolides, and Sulphonamides, were evaluated against the isolated bacteria. The antibiotic resistance profile of different (70) bacterial strains showed that the antibiotic resistance-based clusters also followed the grouping based on their isolation sources, mainly the gender. Twenty-three bacterial strains were further selected for their 16s rRNA gene based molecular identification and for phylogenetic analysis to evaluate the taxonomic evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB). Moreover, the bacterial resistance to Sulphonamides and beta lactam was observed to be the most and to Aminoglycosides and macrolides as the least. Plasmid curing was also performed for multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains, which significantly abolished the resistance potential of bacterial strains for different antibiotics. These curing results suggested that the antibiotic resistance determinants in these purified bacterial strains are present on respective plasmids. Altogether, the data suggested that the human workplaces are the hotspot for the prevalence of MDR bacteria and thus may serve as the source of horizontal gene transfer and further transmission to other environments.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Cuartos de Baño , Lugar de Trabajo , Bacterias/genética , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Microbiología Ambiental , Femenino , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Exposición Profesional , Pakistán , Filogenia , Plásmidos , Prevalencia , Factores R , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Saneamiento
16.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-08-03. (OPAS/BRA/CDE/CE/COVID-19/20-0016).
No convencional en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52541

RESUMEN

A abordagem das normas básicas de saúde pública ambiental nos estabelecimentos de saúde é um componente essencial para a segurança do paciente, dos profissionais de saúde, dos acompanhantes e visitantes. RECOMENDAÇÕES GERAIS: • Garantir água, saneamento (esgoto) e higiene no estabelecimento de saúde é responsabilidade de todos: dos profissionais de saúde, gestores dos estabelecimentos, prestadores de serviços, pacientes, acompanhantes e visitantes. • Implementar medidas de inspeção e vigilância das condições da água, do saneamento (esgoto) e da higiene nos estabelecimentos de saúde. • Certificar-se de que todos os funcionários do estabelecimento estejam cientes das medidas sobre água, saneamento (esgoto) e higiene a serem implementadas, como, por exemplo, ações para armazenar a água com segurança e garantir sua qualidade, gerenciamento dos resíduos etc. • Garantir que o estabelecimento de saúde tenha instalações básicas de água, saneamento (esgoto) e higiene para seu funcionamento, conforme as normas nacionais. • Adequar os espaços ou edifícios para o atendimento hospitalar, garantindo as condições ideais para a prevenção de surtos de Legionella, em coordenação com os operadores de água e instituições responsáveis pela saúde pública ambiental.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Medio Ambiente y Salud Pública , Higiene , Saneamiento de Hospitales , Servicios de Salud
17.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926596, 2020 Aug 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810081

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND COVID-19, the disease entity caused by the novel severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), continues to pose a major therapeutic challenge for clinicians. At present, an effective treatment regimen and vaccination has not been established. Many patients develop severe symptoms requiring endotracheal intubation and a prolonged stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). In early postmortem examinations of COVID-19 patients, profuse viscous secretions were observed throughout the respiratory tract. Thus, oxygen supplementation without aggressive pulmonary hygiene management may be suboptimal. In the present case series, pulmonary hygiene management encompassed mucolytics, bronchodilators, and tracheal suctioning. We report 3 severe cases of COVID-19 pneumonia in cruise ship employees who were admitted to the ICU and responded to supportive mechanical ventilation and pulmonary hygiene management. CASE REPORT Three cruise ship employees with COVID-19 underwent endotracheal intubation and were admitted to the ICU for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Initial chest X-rays suggested multifocal pneumonia with superimposed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A regimen of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and dexamethasone was initiated on admission in all cases. Additionally, medications used for pulmonary hygiene were administered through a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) in line with the ventilator circuit. Endotracheal suctioning was performed prior to medication administration. The duration from endotracheal intubation to extubation ranged from 9 to 24 days. All 3 patients reached 30-day survival. CONCLUSIONS The cases reported highlight the importance of the use of airway hygiene with mucolytics, bronchodilators, and tracheal suctioning for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ventilatory support.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Enfermedad Crítica/terapia , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Higiene , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Respiración Artificial/métodos , Navíos , Anciano , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión
20.
Ann Ig ; 32(5): 472-520, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744582

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The health emergency caused by the spread of SARS-COV-2 virus has required the adoption of passive measures against contagion, such as social distancing. The use of filtering masks, of the different types available on the market, such as surgical and facial filtering masks (FFP1, FFP2 and FFP3), is also recommended. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper, within the Italian and European regulatory reference framework, is to suggest a rational application of existing methodologies that enable to know and assess the features and/or make a face mask intended to be used by the community. In addition to this, the study aims to provide a correct regulatory framework and useful information for a correct use and disposal of face masks. Another purpose is the assessment of the hygienic, sanitary and regulatory aspects related to the use and disposal of face masks. METHODS: The analysis of filtering masks is based on the review of scientific literature, the state of art of technology and the filtering means/materials available. Reference is made to filtering mechanisms and devices, the testing methods, the technical, manufacturing and performance features, and to the Italian and European regulatory reference framework. Reference is also made to the hygienic, sanitary and regulatory aspects related to the use and disposal of face masks. RESULTS: Surgical masks or, alternatively, filtering masks with a filtration efficiency between 90% and 95% for 3-µm particles, are the most practicable choice with minor contraindications. The reusable type of mask is conceptually superior compared to single-use masks, but cleaning procedures to be followed are quite complex and not always described in a clear way. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of rigorous and repeatable tests on mask filtration capacity, breathability, wearability, duration of use, regeneration, as well as safe disposal methods, are the main way to provide users with correct selection and use criteria. The results must be disclosed and disseminated quickly.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Filtración/instrumentación , Higiene/normas , Máscaras/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Textiles/normas , Diseño de Equipo , Europa (Continente) , Francia , Humanos , Higiene/legislación & jurisprudencia , Italia , Máscaras/clasificación , Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios/legislación & jurisprudencia , Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios/métodos , Eliminación de Residuos Sanitarios/normas
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