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1.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 98(4): 115148, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920452

RESUMEN

Infection with the virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) stimulates an immune response which can serve as a marker for current or past exposure to this pathogen, and possibly for resistance to re-infection. This response to COVID-19 can be monitored based on the production of antibodies, and thus, serologic tests have become available for diagnostic purposes. Despite progress in this area, concerns have been raised that too many of the commercially available serologic detection systems are not completely reliable. To address this issue, Western blots should be considered for confirming a positive or borderline-positive result from a screening test, such as an ELISA. An additional benefit of Western blots would be to identify antigens that could form the basis for developing a vaccine. Little is known about the cell-mediated immune response against COVID-19. One way to address this would be to use skin testing to measure the delayed-type hypersensitivity response in patients recovering from COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Western Blotting/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Pruebas Cutáneas/métodos , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/diagnóstico , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Pruebas Serológicas/métodos
2.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(4)2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621682

RESUMEN

A striking dermatitis referred to by its colloquial designation of sabra dermatitis is associated with glochidia inoculation from the Opuntia cactus commonly known as the prickly pear. We report a 45-year-old woman who had an unexpected encounter with a cactus plant during a trip to Texas. She brushed up against the plant and was aware that she had been inoculated with several spines of the plant. Five days later she developed erythematous papules on the digits accompanied by swelling. The biopsy showed a very striking granulomatous reaction pattern within the dermis. There was a linear pattern of necrobiosis, likely representing a tract of inoculation injury palisaded by histiocytes including multinucleated forms. This necrobiotic tract demonstrated retained glochidia, each measuring roughly 40 to 70 microns in diameter. The nature of the inflammatory response is one that combines features of classic delayed hypersensitivity and an innate foreign body response. The glochidia are capable of eliciting a T cell mediated immune response; it is reasonable to assume that a Th1 cytokine signal is responsible for the unique pattern of inflammation including the secondary influx of neutrophils and relative lack of tissue eosinophilia.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis/etiología , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/etiología , Opuntia/efectos adversos , Dermatitis/inmunología , Dermatitis/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/patología , Persona de Mediana Edad
4.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 48(3): 251-258, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-192027

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Allergy to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) is a peculiar form of food allergy generally manifesting as an anaphylactic reaction hours after mammalian meat consumption, due to the presence of specific IgE against this oligosaccharide. In addition, immediate anaphylaxis may develop after exposure to other sources of alpha-gal, such as monoclonal antibody cetuximab, vaccines, plasma expanders or anti-snake venoms. Sensitization to alpha-gal has also been implicated in the rapid degeneration of biological valve implants, and recognized as a cause of occupational disease in cattle raisers. The implication of tick bites in this type of sensitization has been accepted by all the research groups dedicated to this disease. PATIENTS AND METHOD: The present study describes the clinical and sensitization characteristics of 39 patients diagnosed with alpha-gal allergy in the hospitals of our province (Lugo, Monforte de Lemos and Burela, Spain). RESULTS: Most patients were middle-age males. Of note, is the fact that the series includes the first pediatric patient reported in Spain to date. The predominant clinical manifestations were urticaria or delayed anaphylaxis after consumption of mammalian meat. Seventy-four percent of the patients reported having suffered a previous tick bite, and the clinical presentation of anaphylaxis was significantly more prevalent in those with a persistent local reaction following the bite than in those with no such reaction (p = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: A review is also made of the disorder which, due to its variable clinical expression, is referred to as alpha-gal syndrome. The study concludes that a diagnosis of alpha-gal allergy should be considered in patients with urticaria-anaphylaxis of uncertain origin or manifesting after the administration of vaccines or products of bovine/porcine origin


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Galactosa/inmunología , Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos/inmunología , Alérgenos/inmunología , Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos/diagnóstico , Galactosa/efectos adversos , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/inmunología , España , Inmunoglobulina E/inmunología , Anafilaxia/inmunología , Pruebas Cutáneas , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/inmunología
6.
Contact Dermatitis ; 83(2): 108-114, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452036

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As a result of the COVID-19 outbreak, hygiene regulations have been revised and hand sanitation has been intensified. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the onset of hand eczema during the COVID-19 pandemic in healthcare workers (HCWs) directly involved in intensive care of COVID-19 patients and HCWs without direct contact with COVID-19 patients. Hereby, we aim at increasing awareness about occupational hand eczema and preventive measures that can be adopted. METHOD: A survey was distributed amongst 114 HCWs at a single surgical centre and at a COVID-19 intensive care unit of the university hospital Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Germany. Participants were questioned about the daily frequency of hand hygiene prior to and during the pandemic. Participants self-reported the onset of hand eczema and associated symptoms. RESULTS: Our study revealed a significant increase in hand washing, disinfection, and use of hand cream across all participants (P-value <.001), regardless of having direct contact with COVID-19 patients. A high prevalence of symptoms associated with acute hand dermatitis of 90.4% was found across all HCWs, whereas hand eczema itself was underreported (14.9%). CONCLUSION: The increase in hand sanitation during the COVID-19 pandemic impairs the skin of the hands across all HCWs, independent of direct intensive care of affected patients.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Dermatitis Profesional/epidemiología , Eccema/epidemiología , Dermatosis de la Mano/epidemiología , Desinfección de las Manos/tendencias , Desinfectantes para las Manos/uso terapéutico , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Crema para la Piel/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Asma/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Dermatitis Atópica/epidemiología , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/epidemiología , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/estadística & datos numéricos , Médicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Prevalencia , Rinitis Alérgica/epidemiología
7.
J Mycol Med ; 30(3): 100969, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334947

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Trichophyton verrucosum is a slow growing dermatophyte responsible for a number of skin diseases such as ringworm, and is characterized by patches of hair loss and thick crusts on the host skin in domestic animals. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of crude extract of Trichophyton verrucosum (TV)cytoplasm in a mouse model. METHODS: The TV variate was cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and the mycelium was grinded by mechanical force. The purified protein was obtained from crude extract of the fungus, and protein concentration was measured by BradFord assay. Six to eight week-female BALB/c mice were divided into three groups: test group, receiving cytoplasmic crude extract plus defibrinated sheep blood; control group, receiving defibrinated sheep blood; and normal group, receiving normal saline. Injections were performed on days 0, 3, 5, 7 and 9 and the mice were sacrificed four days after the last injection. T lymphocyte metabolic activity was examined by methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and also interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: MTT assay showed that the TV extract stimulated lymphocyte metabolic activity. ELISA results showed that despite increase in the level of IFNγ, no changes were observed in IL-4 level. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that crude extract of TV cytoplasm may probably act as an immune modulator, which affects Th1 responses. The TV crude extract may be an appropriate agent to induce cellular immunity for combating dermatophytosis infection in animals; and therefore, TV extract may have some potential applications in vaccine/adjuvant technology.


Asunto(s)
Extractos Celulares/farmacología , Citoplasma/química , Inmunidad Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Trichophyton/química , Animales , Extractos Celulares/química , Células Cultivadas , Femenino , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/inducido químicamente , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/inmunología , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/patología , Inmunidad Celular/fisiología , Interferón gamma/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Linfocitos/citología , Linfocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Linfocitos/inmunología , Linfocitos/metabolismo , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C
8.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 181(6): 456-461, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316004

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The etiology of ulcerative colitis (UC) remains elusive even though many genetic and environmental pathogenic factors have been reported. Aberrant inflammatory responses mediated by specific subsets of T cells have been observed in ulcerative lesions of UC patients. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the involvement of a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in UC, we focused on dental metal hypersensitivity, a T cell-mediated, delayed-type allergic reaction that causes oral contact mucositis and systemic cutaneous inflammation. METHOD: We recruited 65 Japanese UC patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) and used the in vitro lymphocyte stimulation test to quantify their sensitivity to zinc, gold, nickel, and palladium - the metals that have been widely used in dentistry. All subjects were users of metallic dental implants and/or prostheses containing zinc, gold, nickel, and/or palladium as major constituents. RESULTS: Sixty percent of the UC patients were hypersensitive to at least one metal species, whereas 32% of the HC were hypersensitive to only a single metal species. The overall incidence of metal hypersensitivity was significantly higher for UC patients than for HC. Furthermore, a significantly greater proportion of UC patients were hypersensitive to nickel or palladium. The severity of the sensitivity to nickel and palladium was also significantly greater for UC patients than for HC. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates that UC patients have a significantly higher incidence of hypersensitivity to nickel and palladium, suggesting the possible involvement of dental metal hypersensitivity in UC pathogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Colitis Ulcerosa/inmunología , Materiales Dentales/efectos adversos , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/complicaciones , Níquel/inmunología , Paladio/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Femenino , Oro/efectos adversos , Oro/inmunología , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/inducido químicamente , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/epidemiología , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Níquel/efectos adversos , Paladio/efectos adversos , Proyectos Piloto , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven , Zinc/efectos adversos , Zinc/inmunología
10.
J Vet Med Sci ; 82(3): 360-372, 2020 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983703

RESUMEN

Neonicotinoid pesticides (NNs) act as agonists on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects, and there have been concerns about the effects of NNs on the health of mammals. Since nAChRs are expressed in immune cells, it is possible that NNs disturb the immune system. However, few reports have examined the immunotoxicity of clothianidin (CLO), a widely-used NN. Here, we report the effects of CLO on immune organs and type IV allergic reactions in ear auricles. We orally administered CLO at 0, 30 and 300 mg/kg/day (CLO-0, 30 and 300) to Sprague-Dawley rats for 28 days. The effects were evaluated by organ and body weights, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry (TCRαß, CD4, CD8, CD11b, CD68, CD103). In addition, some cecal contents were subjected to preliminary gut microbiota analysis, because microbiota contribute to host homeostasis, including the immunity. Our results showed loose stool, suppression of body weight gain, significant changes in organ weights (thymus: decreased; liver: increased) and changes of the gut microbiota in the CLO-300 group. There were no obvious histopathological changes in immune organs. Granulomas of the ear auricles were found in one rat of each of the CLO-30 and 300 groups, but CLO had no apparent effect on the thickness or immunohistochemistry in the ear auricles. We present new evidence that CLO affects the thymus and intestine, and might enhance the local inflammatory response. These findings should contribute to the appropriate evaluation of the safety of NNs in the future.


Asunto(s)
Guanidinas/toxicidad , Sistema Inmunológico/efectos de los fármacos , Insecticidas/toxicidad , Neonicotinoides/toxicidad , Tiazoles/toxicidad , Administración Oral , Animales , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Granuloma/inducido químicamente , Guanidinas/administración & dosificación , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/inducido químicamente , Inmunohistoquímica , Insecticidas/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Neonicotinoides/administración & dosificación , Agonistas Nicotínicos , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Tiazoles/administración & dosificación , Timo/efectos de los fármacos
11.
J Immunol ; 204(4): 810-818, 2020 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907283

RESUMEN

T cells chronically stimulated with the same peptide tend to express exhaustion markers such as PD-1 or LAG-3. Deficiencies in the PD-1 and LAG-3 pathways have been linked to the development of autoimmune diseases. IMP761 is a LAG-3-specific humanized agonist Ab with immunosuppressive properties both in vitro and in vivo in an Ag-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) model in the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis). IMP761 inhibits TCR-mediated NFAT activation and Ag-induced human T cell proliferation and activation. In the DTH model, assessment of T cell infiltration and gene expression profile at the DTH biopsy site corresponds to immunosuppression of an Ag-induced T cell response. IMP761 is the first LAG-3-specific agonist product candidate, acting upstream on activated T cells, the root cause of self-Ag-specific T cell-induced autoimmune diseases.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/farmacología , Antígenos CD/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades Autoinmunes/inmunología , Inmunosupresores/farmacología , Linfocitos T/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antígenos CD/inmunología , Autoinmunidad/efectos de los fármacos , Autoinmunidad/inmunología , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/inmunología , Activación de Linfocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Linfocitos T/inmunología
12.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 124(5): 494-499, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923549

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Extending the drug provocation test (DPT) period is recommended for patients with suspected nonimmediate beta-lactam antibiotic (BLA) allergy and negative DPT. No consensus has been reached regarding the duration of prolonged provocation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the negative predictive value (NPV) of the 5-day extended DPT. METHODS: Parents of patients with suspected nonimmediate mild cutaneous reactions with BLAs who had been subjected to 5-day DPT with culprit drugs were questioned by telephone interview about reexposure to the tested drug. Patients with reported reaction during reexposure were reevaluated. Skin tests and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) analysis were not performed before first DPT. RESULTS: A total of 355 patients had negative results in 5-day DPT. The median age at DPT was 4.2 years, and 52.9% were male. The families of 255 patients (72%) could be contacted. Of these 255 patients, 179 (70%) had used the same drug, and reactions were reported for 6 (3.4%) of those patients, who were subsequently reevaluated. Five of the 6 patients had DPT with amoxicillin-clavulanate and 1 with cefixime. When detailed history was taken, 2 of the 5 patients with amoxicillin-clavulanate reaction were found to have used the drug unintentionally after their reaction to reexposure and did not have any symptoms. One of the patients underwent allergy workup and tested negative, and the other 2 refused the test. The patient with reported cefixime reaction underwent repeated allergy workup and tested negative. Therefore, the NPV of 5-day prolonged DPT was 98.9%. CONCLUSION: The 5-day prolonged DPT has high NPV and seems appropriate in duration for children with suspected nonimmediate-BLA allergy.


Asunto(s)
Combinación Amoxicilina-Clavulanato de Potasio/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Cefixima/uso terapéutico , Hipersensibilidad a las Drogas/diagnóstico , Inmunización/métodos , Factores de Tiempo , beta-Lactamas/uso terapéutico , Administración Oral , Alérgenos/inmunología , Combinación Amoxicilina-Clavulanato de Potasio/efectos adversos , Combinación Amoxicilina-Clavulanato de Potasio/inmunología , Antibacterianos/efectos adversos , Antibacterianos/inmunología , Cefixima/efectos adversos , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad Retardada , Inmunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Lactante , Masculino , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , beta-Lactamas/efectos adversos , beta-Lactamas/inmunología
13.
Asian J Androl ; 22(1): 112-117, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115365

RESUMEN

The aim of this work was to study effects of ketotifen fumarate (KF) on prevention of tissue damage in testes of rats with experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) and on the contralateral testis in a model of prolonged testicular cord torsion (TCT). Rats with EAO or TCT were injected intraperitoneally once daily with KF or saline solution (vehicle group). Incidence and severity of testicular damage were evaluated by histopathology using an EAO score or a Johnsen score. Mast cells (MC) were identified by histochemistry and quantified. In EAO model, KF significantly reduced severity of histopathological testicular damage compared to rats in the vehicle group. KF also reduced the number of testicular MC compared to vehicle group. Similarly, in TCT model, multifocal damage of the contralateral testis was observed 30 days after testicular torsion characterized by sloughing of the germinal epithelium, seminiferous tubule atrophy, and interstitial edema. Focal signs of inflammation and fibrosis of seminiferous tubular walls were also observed. In contrast, sections of contralateral testis of rats injected with KF and killed 30 days after surgery showed normal histological features. A significant decrease in the number of MC was observed in rats treated with KF compared to untreated animals. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with KF reduced testicular inflammatory process and MC infiltrates in both EAO and TCT models. The results suggest a promising treatment for infertile male patients with testicular pathologies associated with inflammation and germ cell loss.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Autoinmunes/patología , Epididimitis/patología , Antagonistas de los Receptores Histamínicos H1/farmacología , Cetotifen/farmacología , Mastocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Orquitis/patología , Torsión del Cordón Espermático/patología , Testículo/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Enfermedades Autoinmunes/inmunología , Recuento de Células , Epidídimo/efectos de los fármacos , Epidídimo/inmunología , Epidídimo/patología , Epididimitis/inmunología , Hipersensibilidad Retardada , Inmunidad Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Mastocitos/inmunología , Mastocitos/patología , Orquitis/inmunología , Ratas , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Torsión del Cordón Espermático/inmunología , Testículo/inmunología , Testículo/patología , Vacunación
16.
J Invest Dermatol ; 140(1): 21-28, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101475

RESUMEN

The role of the innate immune system in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) has traditionally been confined to the initial antigen sensitization phase. However, more recent findings have shown the role of innate immunity in additional aspects of ACD, including the effector phase of the classic type IV hypersensitivity reaction. As a result, the precise immunologic mechanisms mediating ACD are more complex than previously believed. The aim of this review is to provide insight into recent advances in understanding the role of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis of ACD, including novel mechanistic roles for macrophages, innate lymphoid cells, natural killer cells, innate γδ T cells, and other signaling molecules. These insights provide new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in ACD.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis Alérgica por Contacto/inmunología , Células Asesinas Naturales/inmunología , Linfocitos/inmunología , Macrófagos/inmunología , Linfocitos T/inmunología , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad Retardada , Inmunidad Innata , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfocitos T gamma-delta/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal
17.
Immunology ; 159(2): 205-220, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642515

RESUMEN

Regulatory T (Treg) cells induce immunologic tolerance by suppressing effector functions of conventional lymphocytes in the periphery. On the other hand, immune silencing is mediated by recognition of phosphatidylserine (PS) on apoptotic cells by phagocytes. Here we describe expression of the PS-binding protein Annexin V (ANXA5) in CD4+  CD25hi Treg cells at the mRNA and protein levels. CD4+  ANXA5+ T cells constitute about 0·1%-0·6% of peripheral blood CD3+ T cells, exhibit co-expression of several Treg markers, such as Forkhead box P3, programmed cell death protein-1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 and CD38. In vitro, ANXA5+ Treg cells showed enhanced adhesion to PS+ endothelial cells. Stimulated by anti-CD3 and PS+ syngeneic antigen-presenting cells CD4+  ANXA5+ T cells expanded in the absence of exogenous interleukin-2. CD4+  ANXA5+ T cells suppressed CD4+  ANXA5- T-cell proliferation and mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation, partially dependent on cell contact. CD4+  ANXA5+ T-cell-mediated suppression was allo-specific and accompanied by an increased production of anti-inflammatory mediators. In vivo, using a model of delayed type hypersensitivity, murine CD4+  ANXA5+ T cells inhibited T helper type 1 responses. In conclusion, we report for the first time expression of ANXA5 on a subset of Treg cells that might bridge classical regulatory Treg function with immune silencing.


Asunto(s)
Anexina A5/metabolismo , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/inmunología , Activación de Linfocitos , Linfocitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Animales , Anexina A5/genética , Anexina A5/inmunología , Adhesión Celular , Proliferación Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/inmunología , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Células Endoteliales/inmunología , Células Endoteliales/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/genética , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Fenotipo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Fosforilación , Transducción de Señal , Linfocitos T Reguladores/inmunología , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo , Células TH1/inmunología , Células TH1/metabolismo
18.
Mol Immunol ; 117: 160-167, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801102

RESUMEN

The naturally occurring polysaccharide, ß-1,3-glucans, a well-known immunostimulant, has been highly valued for many years for their health-promoting and anti-aging properties, but its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, we first showed that oral administration of ß-1,3-glucans did not affect the general condition and physiology of male mice throughout the trial period. We then showed that dietary intake of ß-1,3-glucans induced a significant increase in T helper cells (CD4+) in young, middle-aged and aged male mice. We also showed that ß-1,3-glucans supplementation considerably increased the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, a T cell-mediated immune response, in young and aged mice. In addition, we found that ß-1,3-glucans supplementation remarkably promoted the production of total anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) immunoglobulin G (IgG), anti-KLH IgG1, and anti-KLH IgG2a in young and aged mice without disturbing immune homeostasis. These data together indicate that oral administration of ß-1,3-glucans enhanced the adaptive immune responses of aged mice without disturbing their general condition and physiology, supporting the idea that ß-1,3-glucans are capable of counteracting the immunosenescence in mice. They also suggest that ß-1,3-glucans can be clinically useful to help the elderly generate an improved response to vaccine with stronger humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.


Asunto(s)
Inmunidad Adaptativa/inmunología , Envejecimiento/inmunología , Linfocitos T CD4-Positivos/inmunología , Suplementos Dietéticos , beta-Glucanos/inmunología , Animales , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/inmunología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos ICR
19.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2758, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827473

RESUMEN

Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions are considered infrequent complications in arthroplasty, but have been recognized to be associated with devastating morbidity and substantial decrease in quality of life of affected patients. Chronic inflammation of artificial joints and associated loss of peri-implant bone often require revision surgery. Methods for the diagnosis of implant-related DTH are available but infrequently considered to the full extent. Sequential diagnostics based on exclusion of septic complications, local and systemic metal level determination, lymphocyte transformation testing (LTT), and local T cell subset analysis are required for an unequivocal DTH diagnosis. Here, we report on a patient with a history of chronic rheumatoid arthritis and an unfavorable outcome of unilateral knee arthroplasty. This case illustrates pitfalls and difficulties in the course of recurrent inflammation following joint replacement. In the early course, suspicion of low-grade bacterial infection led to three two-stage revisions. Afterwards, the joint was proven to be sterile. However, metal level quantification revealed release of especially cobalt and chromium from the joint, LTT indicated persisting cobalt and nickel sensitization and subset analysis of T cells from the synovium suggested DTH as a root cause for the inflammatory symptoms. This report aims to recommend the depicted diagnostic algorithm as an adequate tool for future DTH detection. Yet, systemic to local subset ratios for effector memory and regulatory T cells should be derived from sufficient patient numbers to establish it as a diagnostic marker. Moreover, future prospects regarding implant-related DTH diagnostics are discussed. Therapeutic options for the portrayed patient are proposed, considering pharmaceutical, cell-therapeutic and surgical aspects. Patients who experience peri-implant inflammation but do not have obvious mechanical or infectious problems remain a diagnostic challenge and are at high risk of being treated inadequately. Since potentially sensitizing materials are regularly used in arthroplasty, it is essential to detect cases of acute DTH-derived inflammation of an artificial joint at early postoperative stages. This would reduce the severity of inflammation-related long-term consequences for affected patients and may avoid unnecessary revision surgery.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Reumatoide/cirugía , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidad Retardada/inmunología , Metales/inmunología , Anciano , Artritis Reumatoide/inmunología , Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Rodilla/efectos adversos , Cromo/efectos adversos , Cromo/inmunología , Cobalto/efectos adversos , Cobalto/inmunología , Femenino , Humanos , Rodilla/cirugía , Prótesis de la Rodilla/efectos adversos , Metales/efectos adversos , Níquel/efectos adversos , Níquel/inmunología , Reoperación , Linfocitos T/inmunología
20.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 40(6): 470-473, 2019 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690397

RESUMEN

As the primary defense against pathogens, the immune system uses numerous strategies to ensure optimal protection for the host. When immune responses go awry, however, they can cause great damage. "Hypersensitivity" is a broad term used to describe an excessive and/or pathogenic immune response to either foreign or self antigens. Gell and Coombs were the first to categorize hypersensitivity reactions into 4 types according to pathophysiology, but more recent insights into the mechanisms of these disorders have since modified the original classification system. This review describes the immune mechanisms involved in each of the modern Gell-Coombs categories.


Asunto(s)
Hipersensibilidad/clasificación , Reacciones Antígeno-Anticuerpo , Hipersensibilidad a las Drogas , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad Retardada , Hipersensibilidad Inmediata , Inmunidad Celular
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