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2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 43-47, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915334

RESUMEN

Hypertension is a major public health challenge to population in socio-economic and epidemiological transition. It is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality which accounts for 20-50 per cent of all deaths. Hypertension has been recognized among young adults more frequently in recent years. Data regarding hypertension in Bangladesh is often insufficient. The purpose of the study was to find out the risk factors of hypertension in young adults of Bangladesh. The study was conducted among 322 purposively selected young adults aged 20 to 49 years attending in the outpatient department of one public and five private hospitals of Mymensingh and Dhaka division of Bangladesh during the period of January 2018 to December 2018. More than half (54.4%) of the patients were at or below the age of 40 years. Mean age of the patients was 38.7±7.8 years and 58.7% were male. Maximum patients (87.6%) were married and with variable educational and occupational status. More than three fourth of the patients (76.7%) were from urban area whereas 14.3% from rural and 9.0% were from sub-urban area. Family history of hypertension was positive in 86.6% of patients. Blood pressure was categorized according to JNC 7. About half (49.4%) of the patients were stage I hypertensive; 22.4% were stage II hypertensive and 28.3% were pre-hypertensive. The major risk factor was tobacco smoking (46.0%), obesity (29.2%), dyslipidaemia (25.2%), high salt intake 21.8% and use of chewable tobacco (13.7%). Serum creatinine was found raised in 11.5%, cardiomegaly in 2.2% and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy in 18.6% of patients. In 38.5% patients hypertension was complicated affecting heart (27.0%) and kidney (11.5%). Common comorbidities were ischaemic heart diseases (20.5%) and diabetes mellitus (13.4%). Tobacco use, obesity, dyslipidaemia and high salt intake are the major modifiable risk factors found in hypertensive young adults. In addition to medication these factors should be addressed for prevention and effective control of hypertension.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Cardiopatías/epidemiología , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Isquemia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Clase Social , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(12): 1299-1304, 2019 Dec 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795590

RESUMEN

The national health industry standard (WS/T 610-2018), 'the reference of screening for elevated blood pressure among children and adolescents aged 7-to 18-years-old', plays a significant role in the standardization of the blood pressure evaluation, the early detection of high blood pressure, and the early intervention of hypertension and other chronic non-communicable diseases among Chinese children and adolescents. This standard gives screening thresholds for blood pressure assessment of children and adolescents in different genders, ages, and heights. Given the complexity of applying this standard, it is error-prone and less efficient to evaluate blood pressure one by one or program this procedure. Therefore, this study provides a SPSS package based on the standard for researchers to download and use, combined with specific cases to guide the use of this package to evaluate the blood pressure of children and adolescents step by step, which could empower researchers to accurately and efficiently conduct blood pressure screening for children and adolescents in China.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/estadística & datos numéricos , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea , Niño , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18100, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852069

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Pulse wave analysis is an emerging approach that analyzes parameters comprising strong predictors of cardiovascular (CV) events and all-cause mortality, especially in patients with high CV risk based on established risk factors. This study used the oscillometric method, provided by the Mobil-o-Graph (PWA-EMI GmbH, Stolberg, Germany) device, to compare data regarding the pulse wave analysis parameters in hypertensive nondiabetic and diabetic patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 276 individuals were examined in the academic hypertension outpatient care unit of the Federal University of the Triângulo, in Mineiro, Brazil, from January to December 2016. The pulse wave analysis was performed by oscillometry, and its parameters were acquired from all patients. RESULTS: Of the 276 patients, 99 were diabetic and 177 nondiabetic. The mean systolic and pulse central blood pressure were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in nondiabetic patients (P = .008 and.0003, respectively). The mean peripheral systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were also significantly higher in the diabetic group (P = .001 and P < .0001, respectively). The average pulse wave velocity (PWV, m/s) was 9.4 ±â€Š1.6 and 8.8 ±â€Š1.6 in the diabetic and nondiabetic groups, respectively (P = .003). CONCLUSION: The group of hypertensive diabetic patients had significantly higher central blood pressure, peripheral blood pressure, and PWV than the hypertensive nondiabetic patients. The patients with overlapping established CV risk factors presented values of the pulse wave analysis parameters consistent with higher central pressure and greater arterial stiffness.


Asunto(s)
Atención Ambulatoria , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Oscilometría/métodos , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso/métodos , Rigidez Vascular/fisiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Riesgo , Sístole
6.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(5): 545-556, 2019 May.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859886

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: There is little evidence in Latin America about the impact of the ACC/AHA 2017 guideline. Taking as reference the JNC 7 guideline, the objective of our study is to estimate changes in the prevalence of arterial hypertension (HBP) according to socio-demographic characteristics and geographic regions, applying the criteria of the new ACC / AHA guide 2017. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of the Demographic and Family Health Survey conducted in Peru in 2017. Standardized weighted hypertension prevalence's were estimated for the WHO population according to both guidelines, and absolute differences with 95% CI. RESULTS: We included 30,682 people aged 18 years and over, with an average age of 42.3 years, 51.1% women. The standardized prevalence of HBP for 2017 according to JNC 7 was 14.4% (95% CI: 13.8-15.1) and according to ACC / AHA 2017 it was 32.9% (95% CI: 32.0-33.7), so the prevalence increase is 18.5 percentage points, being higher in males than females (24.2 vs 12.9 respectively). In people with obesity and / or who consume tobacco, the increases were higher (24.3 and 24.1 percentage points respectively). In the regions of Tacna, Ica and Metropolitan Lima, the increase, in comparison with the JNC 7 guidelines, overcome the national average (22.4, 20.7 and 20.4, percentage points, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the context of a Latin American country and knowing the epidemiology of hypertension in Peru, the potential adoption of the ACC/AHA 2017 guidelines for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of hypertension should be accompanied by an evaluation of the impact at the individual, system and social level.


Asunto(s)
Guías como Asunto , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , American Heart Association , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/terapia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Estándares de Referencia , Distribución por Sexo , Fumar/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
7.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 551-558, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853180

RESUMEN

Introduction: As hypertension is a chronic cardiovascular disease that contributes to a high proportion of morbidity and mortality worldwide, favorable knowledge is crucial to control it. Objective: The objective of this study was thus to assess knowledge and associated factors of blood pressure control among hypertensive patients at the chronic illness follow-up Clinic of the University of Gondar comprehensive-specialized hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2018. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select participants. Bi-variable and multivariable logistic regressions were done to assess the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was used to determine the presence and strength of association between covariates and the outcome variable. Results: A total of 404 participants took part in the study with a response rate of 97.3%. The overall good knowledge about blood pressure control was 51.7% (95% CI=46.3-56.8). Females were 3.79 (AOR= 3.79, 95% CI: (1.55, 9.28)) more knowledgeable about blood pressure control than males. In the multivariable analysis, the odds of being knowledgeable were 2.80 (AOR= 2.80, 95% CI (1.44, 5.46)), 8.05 (AOR=8.05, 95% CI (2.93, 22.10)), and 7.53 (AOR=7.53, 95% CI (2.52, 22.49)) for can read and write, secondary, preparatory and above education, respectively, compared to cannot read and write. Occupation was significantly associated with the knowledge of plod pressure control. For example, merchants 7.66 (AOR=7.66, 95% CI (3.01, 19.47)), government employee 6.33 (AOR=6.33, 95% CI (1.90, 22.07)), and self-employed 4.58 (AOR=4.58, 95% CI (1.80, 11.70)) times more likely to be knowledgeable than farmers, respectively. Participants with family history of hypertension were 2.36 (AOR=2.36, 95% CI (1.42, 3.92)) times more knowledgeable than their counterparts. Conclusion: In this study, knowledge of blood pressure control was lower compared to the finding of a study done at Bishoftu hospital, Ethiopia. But it is higher than studies in other African countries. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological awareness is vital for blood pressure control.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Hospitales Universitarios , Hipertensión/terapia , Servicio Ambulatorio en Hospital , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Etiopía , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Hipertensión/psicología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ocupaciones , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
8.
Presse Med ; 48(12): 1445-1455, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761607

RESUMEN

The Hormonal assessment of Arterial Hypertension (HTA) is an important part of the balance of resistant hypertension. This assessment - going well beyond the search for primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA) - requires a rigorous methodology and a robust experience of the nursing team within a dedicated unit: the HTA Day Hospital. If all the conditions are met and the assessment carried out well, it will allow a significant profitability since in this resistant hypertensive population it will detect a particular mechanism or secondary hypertension in 70% of patients. Since the diagnosis of PHA is essentially biological, the proper execution of the various stages of the assessment is essential to its documentation.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endocrino , Hormonas/análisis , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Aldosterona/análisis , Aldosterona/sangre , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Análisis Químico de la Sangre/métodos , Análisis Químico de la Sangre/normas , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endocrino/normas , Resistencia a Medicamentos/efectos de los fármacos , Hormonas/sangre , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/sangre , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/etiología , Renina/análisis , Renina/sangre
10.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 38(8): 547-555, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708247

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of death and disability worldwide, and hypertension is responsible for at least 45% of all deaths due to heart disease and 51% of deaths due to stroke. This study aimed to estimate and describe the distribution of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in the Portuguese population in 2015. METHODS: A national survey using a representative sample of 4911 individuals residing in Portugal and aged between 25 and 74 years was implemented. Trained nurses performed a health interview and a physical examination, including blood pressure measurement (right arm, three measurements at 1-min intervals). The prevalence of hypertension was stratified by gender, age group, marital status, education, occupation and type of residential area. Associations between hypertension prevalence and sociodemographic factors were assessed using bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression. RESULTS: The overall hypertension prevalence was 36.0%. The highest rates were observed in males (39.6%), in individuals aged between 65 and 74 years (71.3%), and in those with low levels of education (62.6%) and with no formal occupation (64.5%). Among hypertensive individuals, 69.8% were aware of their condition and 69.4% were under treatment, of whom 71.3% were controlled. Rates of awareness and medical treatment were significantly higher among women and older individuals. CONCLUSIONS: A large majority of the adult Portuguese population are likely to reach blood pressure levels defined as hypertension in adulthood. Significant differences in hypertension prevalence were found according to gender, age and socioeconomic status, which highlights the importance of population strategies in public health policies.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Portugal/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Tasa de Supervivencia/tendencias
11.
Presse Med ; 48(11 Pt 1): 1265-1268, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732366

RESUMEN

The two main non-iatrogenic causes of secondary hypertension in women of childbearing age are primary aldosteronism and renal fibromuscular dysplasia. It is recommended to look for a secondary hypertension in women who remain hypertensive three months after pregnancy, in patients under 40 years of age or in patients with a grade 3 HTN (BP≥180/110mm Hg) (Professional agreement). It is suggested that the initial assessment of a secondary HTN in women is performed by a HTN specialist; it will include an assessment of renin and aldosterone concentrations and an angio-CT of the renal arteries (or angio-MRI if contraindicated) (Grade C - Class 2).


Asunto(s)
Displasia Fibromuscular/complicaciones , Hiperaldosteronismo/complicaciones , Hipertensión/etiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Aldosterona/sangre , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada , Femenino , Displasia Fibromuscular/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/sangre , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Periodo Posparto , Arteria Renal/diagnóstico por imagen , Renina/sangre , Factores Sexuales
12.
Presse Med ; 48(11 Pt 1): 1319-1328, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732365

RESUMEN

Since 2016, the French Society of Hypertension has warned about the decline in the management of high blood pressure in France: stagnation, or even decreased number of people who know their blood pressure level, take a treatment and are controlled. These results are lower than those observed in many other countries. Blood pressure is measured with an old method in the doctor's office. Accepted, simple and cost-effective, this method is currently unavoidable for reasons of feasibility and social habit. It has been used in observational and intervention studies that are the basis of the medical reasoning for screening, treatment and drug control of hypertension. In practice, it is too often poorly applied and unpredictable. It is now necessary to measure blood pressure in mmHg using a validated oscillometric automatic device coupled to a specific upper arm cuff adapted to the arm circumferences for the diagnosis and monitoring of high blood pressure in the doctor's office and at home. The auscultatoric measurement is only recommended if any doubt about the reliability of the electronic measurement. Blood pressure measurement is basically performed on both arms to detect asymmetry and then on the arm with the highest blood pressure. It is performed in sitting or lying position after a few minutes of rest without speaking and without having smoked and then in standing position to diagnose orthostatic hypotension, especially in elderly, diabetic and multi-medicated subjects. The blood pressure measurement during the consultation must be repeated and include at least 3 consecutive measurements at one minute intervals. The average of the last 2 measurements determines the blood pressure level. It is recommended to perform BP measurements outside the medical environment for the diagnosis and monitoring of hypertension; Home BP measurement is preferred to ambulatory blood pressure measurement for practical reasons unless otherwise specified. The home blood pressure measurement should include three measurements in the morning at breakfast and three measurements in the evening before bedtime at one minute intervals for at least three days. Prior training must be provided. In treated hypertensive patients, a masked hypertension should be considered as an uncontrolled hypertension and antihypertensive therapy adapted accordingly. The measurement of central BP pressure (aorta) should be limited to clinical research.


Asunto(s)
Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/normas , Consenso , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/instrumentación , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial , Francia , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Presse Med ; 48(11 Pt 1): 1288-1294, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727484

RESUMEN

Menopause is associated with a significant increase in arterial and metabolic risk. Systolic hypertension is common in post-menopausal women. Measurement of blood pressure should be repeated systematically at each visit. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements should be encouraged, especially to detect nocturnal hypertension and to prevent more efficiently women at risk. Self-testing of hypertension by home blood pressure should be encouraged at menopause. Antihypertensive treatment should be initiated after ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in association with reinforced lifestyle. Furthermore, global level of cardiovascular risk should take into account before starting antihypertensive treatment. There are no women specificities in the choice of the initial treatment except thiazide diuretics which should be preferred in osteoporotic women. In hypertensive women and with disabling climacteric symptoms under 60 and within 10 years after the onset of menopause, post-menopausal hormone therapy can be offered in absence of arterial or venous contraindications. A preliminary discussion between gynecologist, cardiologist and general practionner is necessary before deciding to treat a post-menopausal women for her climacteric symptoms. A clear information on the benefit-risk balance of post-menopausal hormone therapy should be given to the women. The information should be recorded in the medical file. Cooperation between cardiologists, gynecologists and general practionners should be promoted in France, to optimize the care pathways in these women at risk and to improve medical practices.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión , Posmenopausia , Factores de Edad , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Cardiología , Femenino , Ginecología , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/prevención & control , Hipertensión/terapia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Medicina de Precisión , Autocuidado , Factores de Tiempo
14.
Presse Med ; 48(11 Pt 1): 1301-1305, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727486

RESUMEN

Menopause requires the implementation of organized screening and dedicated care pathways in collaboration with the attending physician, the gynaecologist-obstetrician and the cardiovascular physician. It will be necessary to take into account the hormonal specificities of the cardiovascular risk, in order to know-how to properly prescribe hormonal treatments.


Asunto(s)
Vías Clínicas/organización & administración , Hipertensión/terapia , Menopausia , Cardiología , Femenino , Francia , Ginecología , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obstetricia , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/organización & administración
15.
Kardiologiia ; 59(10): 88-96, 2019 Oct 15.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615391

RESUMEN

In 2017 the Endocrine Society issued the Scientific Statement "Screening for Endocrine Hypertension" This document was developed by experts from different medical institutions of USA, Europe and Australia. Herein we present the main provisions of this Statement in the form of brief algorithm for the clinicians' actions for timely detection of secondary endocrine hypertension and rational referral of the patient for confirmational testing.The full text of the Scientific Statement in English is contained in the article. Young WF Jr., Calhoun DA, Lenders JW, Stowasser M, Textor SC. Screening for Endocrine Hypertension: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement. Endocrine Reviews. 2017; 38 (2):103-122.URL: https://academic.oup.com/edrv/article/38/2/103/3104343.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades del Sistema Endocrino , Hipertensión , Enfermedades del Sistema Endocrino/complicaciones , Enfermedades del Sistema Endocrino/diagnóstico , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/etiología
17.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 26(5): 361-373, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650516

RESUMEN

High blood pressure (BP) is becoming a growing health issue even in children and adolescents. Moreover, BP elevation in youth frequently translates into children and adult hypertension contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease. The detection of early markers of vascular damage, potentially leading to overt cardiovascular disease, is important for clinical decisions about if and how to treat hypertension and can be useful in monitoring the effectiveness of the treatment. The purpose of this review is to summarize the actual knowledge about subclinical organ damage (SOD) in hypertensive children and adolescents and its association with cardiovascular disease in children and young adults. Our focus is especially put on left ventricular mass, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and microalbuminuria. We also want to address the scientific evidence about possible regression of SOD and cardiovascular risk with the use of behavioural and specific anti-hypertensive therapy. Indications from current guidelines are critically discussed.


Asunto(s)
Albuminuria/epidemiología , Presión Sanguínea , Cardiopatías/epidemiología , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Enfermedades Renales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Vasculares/epidemiología , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Albuminuria/diagnóstico , Albuminuria/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Asintomáticas , Niño , Femenino , Cardiopatías/diagnóstico , Cardiopatías/fisiopatología , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Renales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Renales/fisiopatología , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedades Vasculares/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Vasculares/fisiopatología , Remodelación Vascular , Rigidez Vascular
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17297, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574853

RESUMEN

As a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, presence of hypertension (HT) necessitates the awareness of asymptomatic organ damage (AOD). The aim of this study was to measure plasma micro RNA-21 (miR-21) and the parameters that reflect AOD such as carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), microalbuminuria (MAU) in hypertensive patients compared with healthy controls. In addition, the aim of this study was to evaluate plasma miR-21 levels in HT patients with AOD.This study was designed as a cross-sectional observational study. The study includes 2 groups: 32 patients with HT and 32 healthy controls. First, we compared these 2 groups. Then, to underline the relationship between plasma miR-21 and HT, hypertensive patients were divided into 2 groups: with AOD and without AOD.Sixteen patients with HT had AOD. MiR-21 levels significantly correlated with clinical systolic and diastolic blood pressure, MAU, C-reactive protein, and CIMT. CIMT, miR-21, and MAU levels were significantly higher in patients with AOD.Our study showed increased miR-21 levels in HT patients with AOD.


Asunto(s)
Albuminuria , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Hipertensión , MicroARNs/sangre , Adulto , Albuminuria/diagnóstico , Albuminuria/etiología , Enfermedades Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Grosor Intima-Media Carotídeo , MicroARN Circulante/análisis , Correlación de Datos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/genética , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Turquia/epidemiología
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