Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29.597
Filtrar
1.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 160(2-3): 97-101, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134499

RESUMEN

The aim of this study is to prove that at the beginning of the 1st millennium BC at the latest an independent gynaecological tradition was formed within the Greek art of healing, from which the later Classical Graeco-Roman medicine drew inspiration. In this paper, the archaeological (especially the terracotta figurines and models and scenes painted on vases) and literary (the economic records and poetry excerpts) sources for the development of gynaecology from the advanced phases of the 2nd millennium until 500 BC are presented. The preserved sources clearly indicate that the Greek medicine reached some positive achievements already before 500 BC. Already in that period it put emphasis on the gynaecological issues. The described sources well illustrate also the development of the religious and mythological ideas related to the gynaecological, or the gynaecological-obstetrical aspect of healing, represented by Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth, which was worshiped in the Greek world already since the Bronze Age. The Ancient Greek medicine has got the important place in the history of the European and world medical science. In the frame of medicine of the period in question, it is possible to trace back to the beginning of the 1st millennium BC the specific healing-gynaecological tradition, with an emphasis on the obstetrics. In this tradition, a combination of rational, empirical and religious aspects was used. The terracotta models from the 9th-8th centuries BC point on the widely used practice of midwifery, too. Unfortunately, it is not possible to clearly discern if the midwifes existed already before 500 BC as a specific and independent medical occupation.


Asunto(s)
Ginecología , Grecia , Mundo Griego , Historia Antigua , Humanos
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3324, 2021 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083540

RESUMEN

Elucidating the timescale of the evolution of Alphaproteobacteria, one of the most prevalent microbial lineages in marine and terrestrial ecosystems, is key to testing hypotheses on their co-evolution with eukaryotic hosts and Earth's systems, which, however, is largely limited by the scarcity of bacterial fossils. Here, we incorporate eukaryotic fossils to date the divergence times of Alphaproteobacteria, based on the mitochondrial endosymbiosis that mitochondria evolved from an alphaproteobacterial lineage. We estimate that Alphaproteobacteria arose ~1900 million years (Ma) ago, followed by rapid divergence of their major clades. We show that the origin of Rickettsiales, an order of obligate intracellular bacteria whose hosts are mostly animals, predates the emergence of animals for ~700 Ma but coincides with that of eukaryotes. This, together with reconstruction of ancestral hosts, strongly suggests that early Rickettsiales lineages had established previously underappreciated interactions with unicellular eukaryotes. Moreover, the mitochondria-based approach displays higher robustness to uncertainties in calibrations compared with the traditional strategy using cyanobacterial fossils. Further, our analyses imply the potential of dating the (bacterial) tree of life based on endosymbiosis events, and suggest that previous applications using divergence times of the modern hosts of symbiotic bacteria to date bacterial evolution might need to be revisited.


Asunto(s)
Alphaproteobacteria/clasificación , Alphaproteobacteria/genética , Eucariontes/clasificación , Eucariontes/genética , Evolución Molecular , Fósiles , Animales , Cianobacterias/clasificación , Cianobacterias/genética , Fósiles/historia , Fósiles/microbiología , Genoma Bacteriano , Genoma Mitocondrial , Historia Antigua , Mitocondrias/genética , Mitocondrias/microbiología , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , Rickettsiales/clasificación , Rickettsiales/genética , Simbiosis/genética , Factores de Tiempo
3.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(1): 5-8, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972052

RESUMEN

Pandemics have ravished the globe periodically, often associated with war, at times commencing as fever and rash, beginning in recorded history in the crowded walled city of Athens during the Peloponnesian War as described in great detail by the Athenian historian and military general Thucydides in 430 BCE. As the world now faces the first major pandemic of the 21st century, we focus on the "plague" commencing in Athens in 430 BCE and the 2 pandemics of the more recent century, which killed more than one million, the Spanish flu of 1918 and the Asian flu of 1957. The latter linked with successful vaccine development thanks to the heroic efforts of microbiologist Maurice Hilleman. We now look back and then forward to the viral infection coronavirus disease 2019 now devastating the world.


Asunto(s)
Influenza Pandémica, 1918-1919/historia , Gripe Humana/historia , Pandemias/historia , Conflictos Armados/historia , Asia , Grecia , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/virología
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2796, 2021 05 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990610

RESUMEN

The Triassic (252-201 Ma) marks a major punctuation in Earth history, when ecosystems rebuilt themselves following the devastating Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Herbivory evolved independently several times as ecosystems comprising diverse assemblages of therapsids, parareptiles and archosauromorphs rose and fell, leading to a world dominated by dinosaurs. It was assumed that dinosaurs prevailed either through long-term competitive replacement of the incumbent clades or rapidly and opportunistically following one or more extinction events. Here we use functional morphology and ecology to explore herbivore morphospace through the Triassic and Early Jurassic. We identify five main herbivore guilds (ingestion generalists, prehension specialists, durophagous specialists, shearing pulpers, and heavy oral processors), and find that herbivore clades generally avoided competition by almost exclusively occupying different guilds. Major ecosystem remodelling was triggered multiple times by external environmental challenges, and previously dominant herbivores were marginalised by newly emerging forms. Dinosaur dominance was a mix of opportunity following disaster, combined with competitive advantage in their new world.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Ecosistema , Herbivoria , Animales , Biodiversidad , Análisis por Conglomerados , Dieta , Dinosaurios/anatomía & histología , Dinosaurios/fisiología , Extinción Biológica , Cadena Alimentaria , Fósiles , Historia Antigua , Filogenia
5.
Nature ; 593(7857): 95-100, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953416

RESUMEN

The origin and evolution of hominin mortuary practices are topics of intense interest and debate1-3. Human burials dated to the Middle Stone Age (MSA) are exceedingly rare in Africa and unknown in East Africa1-6. Here we describe the partial skeleton of a roughly 2.5- to 3.0-year-old child dating to 78.3 ± 4.1 thousand years ago, which was recovered in the MSA layers of Panga ya Saidi (PYS), a cave site in the tropical upland coast of Kenya7,8. Recent excavations have revealed a pit feature containing a child in a flexed position. Geochemical, granulometric and micromorphological analyses of the burial pit content and encasing archaeological layers indicate that the pit was deliberately excavated. Taphonomical evidence, such as the strict articulation or good anatomical association of the skeletal elements and histological evidence of putrefaction, support the in-place decomposition of the fresh body. The presence of little or no displacement of the unstable joints during decomposition points to an interment in a filled space (grave earth), making the PYS finding the oldest known human burial in Africa. The morphological assessment of the partial skeleton is consistent with its assignment to Homo sapiens, although the preservation of some primitive features in the dentition supports increasing evidence for non-gradual assembly of modern traits during the emergence of our species. The PYS burial sheds light on how MSA populations interacted with the dead.


Asunto(s)
Entierro/historia , Fósiles , Esqueleto/anatomía & histología , Animales , Huesos/anatomía & histología , Preescolar , Evolución Cultural/historia , Dentición , Historia Antigua , Hominidae/anatomía & histología , Hominidae/clasificación , Humanos , Kenia
6.
An Bras Dermatol ; 96(3): 332-345, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814211

RESUMEN

The study of skin, the science of dermatology, has undergone significant transformations throughout the centuries. From the first descriptions of skin diseases in Egyptian papyri and in Hippocratic writings to the first treatises on dermatology, important individuals and discoveries have marked the specialty. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the specialty consolidated itself as a field of medical study based on the first classifications of dermatoses, diagnostic methods, and drug treatments. In the 20th century, the scientific and technological revolution transformed dermatological practice, incorporating new therapeutic resources, as well as surgical and aesthetic procedures. In the face of such a vigorous process, it is important to provide a historical synthesis for the medical community to recognize and understand the origins that supported one of the most relevant specialties in the current medical scenario.


Asunto(s)
Dermatología , Enfermedades de la Piel , Egipto , Estética , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Piel , Enfermedades de la Piel/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de la Piel/terapia
7.
J Parasitol ; 107(2): 275-283, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844838

RESUMEN

Parasitism is inherent to life and observed in all species. Extinct animals have been studied to understand what they looked like, where and how they lived, what they fed on, and the reasons they became extinct. Paleoparasitology helps to clarify these questions based on the study of the parasites and microorganisms that infected those animals, using as a source material coprolites, fossils in rock, tissue, bone, mummy, and amber, analyses of ancient DNA, immunodiagnosis, and microscopy.


Asunto(s)
Extinción Biológica , Fósiles/parasitología , Sedimentos Geológicos/parasitología , Paleopatología , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/historia , Ámbar , Animales , Huesos/microbiología , Huesos/parasitología , Huesos/patología , Historia Antigua , Momias/parasitología
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2393, 2021 04 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896938

RESUMEN

Small populations are often exposed to high inbreeding and mutational load that can increase the risk of extinction. The Sumatran rhinoceros was widespread in Southeast Asia, but is now restricted to small and isolated populations on Sumatra and Borneo, and most likely extinct on the Malay Peninsula. Here, we analyse 5 historical and 16 modern genomes from these populations to investigate the genomic consequences of the recent decline, such as increased inbreeding and mutational load. We find that the Malay Peninsula population experienced increased inbreeding shortly before extirpation, which possibly was accompanied by purging. The populations on Sumatra and Borneo instead show low inbreeding, but high mutational load. The currently small population sizes may thus in the near future lead to inbreeding depression. Moreover, we find little evidence for differences in local adaptation among populations, suggesting that future inbreeding depression could potentially be mitigated by assisted gene flow among populations.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Perisodáctilos/genética , Animales , Borneo , Especies en Peligro de Extinción/historia , Femenino , Flujo Génico , Variación Genética , Genoma , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Endogamia , Indonesia , Mutación con Pérdida de Función , Masculino , Mutación , Densidad de Población , Selección Genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2227, 2021 04 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854053

RESUMEN

Honey and other bee products were likely a sought-after foodstuff for much of human history, with direct chemical evidence for beeswax identified in prehistoric ceramic vessels from Europe, the Near East and Mediterranean North Africa, from the 7th millennium BC. Historical and ethnographic literature from across Africa suggests bee products, honey and larvae, had considerable importance both as a food source and in the making of honey-based drinks. Here, to investigate this, we carry out lipid residue analysis of 458 prehistoric pottery vessels from the Nok culture, Nigeria, West Africa, an area where early farmers and foragers co-existed. We report complex lipid distributions, comprising n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids and fatty acyl wax esters, which provide direct chemical evidence of bee product exploitation and processing, likely including honey-collecting, in over one third of lipid-yielding Nok ceramic vessels. These findings highlight the probable importance of honey collecting in an early farming context, around 3500 years ago, in West Africa.


Asunto(s)
Miel/análisis , Miel/historia , África Occidental , Agricultura/historia , Animales , Arqueología , Abejas , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Lípidos/química , Nigeria
10.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 63, 2021 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741058

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cryptoendolithic communities are microbial ecosystems dwelling inside porous rocks that are able to persist at the edge of the biological potential for life in the ice-free areas of the Antarctic desert. These regions include the McMurdo Dry Valleys, often accounted as the closest terrestrial counterpart of the Martian environment and thought to be devoid of life until the discovery of these cryptic life-forms. Despite their interest as a model for the early colonization by living organisms of terrestrial ecosystems and for adaptation to extreme conditions of stress, little is known about the evolution, diversity, and genetic makeup of bacterial species that reside in these environments. Using the Illumina Novaseq platform, we generated the first metagenomes from rocks collected in Continental Antarctica over a distance of about 350 km along an altitudinal transect from 834 up to 3100 m above sea level (a.s.l.). RESULTS: A total of 497 draft bacterial genome sequences were assembled and clustered into 269 candidate species that lack a representative genome in public databases. Actinobacteria represent the most abundant phylum, followed by Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The "Candidatus Jiangella antarctica" has been recorded across all samples, suggesting a high adaptation and specialization of this species to the harshest Antarctic desert environment. The majority of these new species belong to monophyletic bacterial clades that diverged from related taxa in a range from 1.2 billion to 410 Ma and are functionally distinct from known related taxa. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings significantly increase the repertoire of genomic data for several taxa and, to date, represent the first example of bacterial genomes recovered from endolithic communities. Their ancient origin seems to not be related to the geological history of the continent, rather they may represent evolutionary remnants of pristine clades that evolved across the Tonian glaciation. These unique genomic resources will underpin future studies on the structure, evolution, and function of these ecosystems at the edge of life. Video abstract.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/clasificación , Ecosistema , Filogenia , Regiones Antárticas , Bacterias/genética , Historia Antigua , Marte
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(3): 517-524, 2021 03 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667394

RESUMEN

Tuberculosis (TB), usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, is the first cause of death from an infectious disease at the worldwide scale, yet the mode and tempo of TB pressure on humans remain unknown. The recent discovery that homozygotes for the P1104A polymorphism of TYK2 are at higher risk to develop clinical forms of TB provided the first evidence of a common, monogenic predisposition to TB, offering a unique opportunity to inform on human co-evolution with a deadly pathogen. Here, we investigate the history of human exposure to TB by determining the evolutionary trajectory of the TYK2 P1104A variant in Europe, where TB is considered to be the deadliest documented infectious disease. Leveraging a large dataset of 1,013 ancient human genomes and using an approximate Bayesian computation approach, we find that the P1104A variant originated in the common ancestors of West Eurasians ∼30,000 years ago. Furthermore, we show that, following large-scale population movements of Anatolian Neolithic farmers and Eurasian steppe herders into Europe, P1104A has markedly fluctuated in frequency over the last 10,000 years of European history, with a dramatic decrease in frequency after the Bronze Age. Our analyses indicate that such a frequency drop is attributable to strong negative selection starting ∼2,000 years ago, with a relative fitness reduction on homozygotes of 20%, among the highest in the human genome. Together, our results provide genetic evidence that TB has imposed a heavy burden on European health over the last two millennia.


Asunto(s)
ADN Antiguo/análisis , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , TYK2 Quinasa/genética , Tuberculosis/genética , Restos Mortales , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Genoma Humano/genética , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Masculino , Tuberculosis/historia , Tuberculosis/microbiología
13.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(4): 99-107, 2021 02.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728880

RESUMEN

Within this work are approached some historical elements on the history of the evolution of the perception of the links between the soul and the body and the modification of the place of the soul within canon and Roman rights.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Metafisicas Mente-Cuerpo , Cristianismo/historia , Estado de Conciencia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Psicología/historia , Ciudad de Roma
14.
Hist Psychol ; 24(1): 1-12, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661676

RESUMEN

This contribution aims to promote a dialogue between history and psychology by outlining a direction for future research at the intersection of these disciplines. In particular, it seeks to demonstrate the potential contributions of history to psychology by employing the category of mental health in a historical context. The analysis focuses on notions of psychological health that were developed in late antiquity, especially the equation between "health of the soul" and dispassion (apatheia) within the Christian monastic movement. This theologically informed notion of what constitutes positive human functioning and well-being is examined in view of modern attempts, in mainstream and positive psychology, to define mental health. The optimism concerning the naturalness of virtue and the malleability of human nature that underlies late antique notions of "health of the soul" becomes noticeable in its absence once we turn to modern notions of mental health. It thus provides an illuminating counter-example against which to compare and analyze modern attempts to define mental health. A comparison of these alternative notions human flourishing offers an opportunity to reflect on and test the validity of contemporary attempts to define this condition in a culturally sensitive manner. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Cristianismo/historia , Historiografía , Salud Mental/historia , Psicología/historia , Cristianismo/psicología , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Monjes/historia , Monjes/psicología
15.
Hist Psychol ; 24(1): 17-21, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661678

RESUMEN

In her thought-provoking article, Graiver (see record 2021-21903-001) argues that many early Christian monks achieved sustained psychological health, perceived as joyful serenity by their contemporaries, and admired within their milieu and the society at large. This state was attained by means of dispassion (apatheia) and culminated in spiritual enlightenment. In the author's opinion, conclusions of this historical research call for a reassessment of modern attitudes to psychological health that can be construed only "in a culturally sensitive manner" (p. 1). In my opinion, limitation of the evidence on mental health in Ancient Greece to medical authors only is hardly justified. The word psuchê is virtually ignored by Greek medical authors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Cristianismo/historia , Salud Mental/historia , Monjes/historia , Cristianismo/psicología , Antigua Grecia , Historia Antigua , Monjes/psicología
16.
Hist Psychol ; 24(1): 22-33, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661679

RESUMEN

Following three turning points in the historical development of psychology this study examines how the relation between mental health and the state of illness is linked to the concept of "passions." The first was the birth of modern psychiatry in 18th century France. The second was the development of the field of inquiry in antiquity about the psuche and its mental activities, and the third was the turn of early Christian thought about mind and soul. A comparison between early modern and ancient concepts of "the passions" reveals the moral and ethical aspects of the concept "mental health," and shows that more than for any other kind of illness, the history of mental illness and mental health is embedded within a moralistic philosophical perspective. Pathology as a field of study of "the passions," whatever their definition was, enabled thinkers to refer to mental illness and health in moral terms. Although "passions" meant different things to different authors in different times, it was used by all as means to link between inner mental activities and the way the body react to the outside world. We can see it as an obligatory element to conceptualize illness, disorder, and health in regards to mental activities. Pagan ancient authors as well as early Christian authors used it to construct new theories and praxes about mental health, while early modern psychiatrists used it to develop corporeal methods of cure. In all currents of thought the concept of "passions" and the definition of the ways in which they affected the mind were used to distinguish mental illness and mental health from any other type of illness and health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental/historia , Principios Morales , Psiquiatría/historia , Psicopatología/historia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Filosofía/historia
17.
Arch Esp Urol ; 74(2): 239-246, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650539

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES:  The people of ancient age appealed to sanctuaries of different gods and goddesses they believed to have healing powers and consecrated anatomical votive offerings representing their sick or healed organs. Male genital organ votives were also present among these votives. In this article, male genital organ votive offerings presented to gods and goddesses were examined and the votives giving information about the diseases they indicated were revealed in contemporary medicine. METHODS: Information available in written resources on ancient medicine and diseases was reviewed. Main sanctuary healing centers in Anatolia (Asia Minor), Greece and Italy which concurrently hosted similar civilizations were investigated. Male genital organ shap anatomical votive samples in national and foreign medical history and archaeology museums, galleries and special collections were investigated and examined. RESULTS:  It was observed that most male genital organ votives had a healthy and normal structure and didn't provide any specific information on a urogenital disease. But it was also observed that some votives among genital organ votives consecrated by sick individuals to gods demonstrated some urogenital diseases and conditions. Among this very limited number of genital votives providing disease information, votives indicating phimosis, hypospadias, varicocele, penile hemangioma or condylama, Peyronie's disease or penile curvature, genital hidradenitis suppurativa, condition of pubic hair and erectile condition of penis were detected. CONCLUSIONS: As proofs of seeking a remedy for diseases or recovering from diseases, anatomical organ votives are very important to understand ancient sanctuary medicine. Among male genital organ votives, very limited number of samples providing specific information on diseases provided us important information so that we can understand some ancient age diseases.


Asunto(s)
Medicina , Induración Peniana , Fimosis , Genitales , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Religión y Medicina
18.
Nature ; 591(7850): 408-412, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692547

RESUMEN

Ammocoetes-the filter-feeding larvae of modern lampreys-have long influenced hypotheses of vertebrate ancestry1-7. The life history of modern lampreys, which develop from a superficially amphioxus-like ammocoete to a specialized predatory adult, appears to recapitulate widely accepted scenarios of vertebrate origin. However, no direct evidence has validated the evolutionary antiquity of ammocoetes, and their status as models of primitive vertebrate anatomy is uncertain. Here we report larval and juvenile forms of four stem lampreys from the Palaeozoic era (Hardistiella, Mayomyzon, Pipiscius, and Priscomyzon), including a hatchling-to-adult growth series of the genus Priscomyzon from Late Devonian Gondwana. Larvae of all four genera lack the defining traits of ammocoetes. They instead display features that are otherwise unique to adult modern lampreys, including prominent eyes, a cusped feeding apparatus, and posteriorly united branchial baskets. Notably, phylogenetic analyses find that these non-ammocoete larvae occur in at least three independent lineages of stem lamprey. This distribution strongly implies that ammocoetes are specializations of modern-lamprey life history rather than relics of vertebrate ancestry. These phylogenetic insights also suggest that the last common ancestor of hagfishes and lampreys was a macrophagous predator that did not have a filter-feeding larval phase. Thus, the armoured 'ostracoderms' that populate the cyclostome and gnathostome stems might serve as better proxies than living cyclostomes for the last common ancestor of all living vertebrates.


Asunto(s)
Fósiles , Lampreas/clasificación , Lampreas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Larva/anatomía & histología , Animales , Calibración , Femenino , Historia Antigua , Lampreas/anatomía & histología , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Filogenia , Factores de Tiempo
19.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(2): 201-228, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés, Croata | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535760

RESUMEN

Even though the absence of the body prevents sure conclusions, the death of Alexander the Great remains a hot topic of retrospective diagnosis. Due to the serious mishandling of ancient sources, the scientific literature had Alexander dying of every possible natural cause. In previous works, the hypothesis that typhoid fever killed Alexander was proposed, based on the presence of the remittent fever typical of this disease in the narrations of Plutarch and Arrian. Here we provide additional evidence for the presence of stupor, the second distinctive symptom of typhoid fever. In fact, based on the authority of Caelius Aurelianus and Galen, we demonstrate that the word ἄφωνος, used to describe the last moments of Alexander, is a technical word of the lexicon of the pathology of Hippocrates. Used by him, the word defines a group of diseases sharing a serious depression of consciousness and motility. The association of stupor with the remittent fever strengthens the typhoid fever hypothesis.


Asunto(s)
Afonía/historia , Mundo Griego/historia , Estupor/historia , Fiebre Tifoidea/historia , Personajes , Historia Antigua , Malaria/clasificación , Malaria/historia
20.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(4): 701-713, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539553

RESUMEN

Previous studies show that the indigenous people of the southern Cape of South Africa were dramatically impacted by the arrival of European colonists starting ~400 years ago and their descendants are today mixed with Europeans and Asians. To gain insight on the occupants of the Vaalkrans Shelter located at the southernmost tip of Africa, we investigated the genetic make-up of an individual who lived there about 200 years ago. We further contextualize the genetic ancestry of this individual among prehistoric and current groups. From a hair sample excavated at the shelter, which was indirectly dated to about 200 years old, we sequenced the genome (1.01 times coverage) of a Later Stone Age individual. We analyzed the Vaalkrans genome together with genetic data from 10 ancient (pre-colonial) individuals from southern Africa spanning the last 2000 years. We show that the individual from Vaalkrans was a man who traced ~80% of his ancestry to local southern San hunter-gatherers and ~20% to a mixed East African-Eurasian source. This genetic make-up is similar to modern-day Khoekhoe individuals from the Northern Cape Province (South Africa) and Namibia, but in the southern Cape, the Vaalkrans man's descendants have likely been assimilated into mixed-ancestry "Coloured" groups. The Vaalkrans man's genome reveals that Khoekhoe pastoralist groups/individuals lived in the southern Cape as late as 200 years ago, without mixing with non-African colonists or Bantu-speaking farmers. Our findings are also consistent with the model of a Holocene pastoralist migration, originating in Eastern Africa, shaping the genomic landscape of historic and current southern African populations.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Genética de Población/métodos , Cabello/química , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/historia , Antropología Física , Grupos Étnicos/historia , Genoma Humano/genética , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia Antigua , Migración Humana/historia , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Sudáfrica
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...