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2.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 44(5): 593-8, 2024 May 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764112

RESUMEN

Chinese traditional medicine is long in the natural history, which focuses on herbal medicine, but has less discussion on acupuncture. On the basis of exploring the body knowledge in Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor 's Inner Canon) from the perspective of the natural history, especially through the investigation of the evolution of acupoint knowledge, the route of the natural history of body in Huangdi Neijing have been detected in the aspects of observation, record, nomination and classification. In Huangdi Neijing, the natural history of body is characterized by the object annotation, the interaction between the nature and things, and the practicability. Launching the natural history of body is of great significance to understanding the generation of classical body knowledge and constructing acupuncture theory.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Medicina en la Literatura , Humanos , Terapia por Acupuntura/historia , Historia Antigua , Medicina en la Literatura/historia , China , Medicina Tradicional China/historia , Acupuntura/historia , Historia Natural/historia , Puntos de Acupuntura
3.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300591, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768118

RESUMEN

The "princely" barrows of Leki Male, Greater Poland are the oldest such monuments within the distribution area of Únetice societies in Central Europe. While in the Circum-Harz group and in Silesia similar rich furnished graves under mounds have appeared as single monuments as early as 1950 BC, Leki Male represents a chain of barrows constructed between 2150 BC and 1800 BC. Of the original 14 mounds, only four were preserved well enough that their complex biographies can now be reconstructed. They included ritual activities (before, during, and after the funeral), and also subsequent incursions, including robberies. The long lasting barrow cemetery at Leki Male can be linked to a nearby fortified site, Bruszczewo. Together, Leki Male and Bruszczewo represent a stable, socially differentiated society that existed for no less than 350-400 years. Therefore, it can be argued that the Early Bronze Age societies of Greater Poland were extremely sustainable in comparison to those of other Únetice regions.


Asunto(s)
Cementerios , Polonia , Cementerios/historia , Humanos , Arqueología , Historia Antigua , Europa (Continente)
4.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302788, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722837

RESUMEN

Research has identified Northwest Turkey as a key region for the development of dairying in the seventh millennium BCE, yet little is known about how this practice began or evolved there. This research studies Barcin Höyük, a site located in Bursa's Yenisehir Valley, which ranges chronologically from 6600 BCE, when the first evidence of settled life appears in the Marmara Region, to 6000 BCE, when Neolithic habitation at the site ceases. Using pottery sherds diagnostic by vessel category and type, this paper aims at identifying which ones may have been primarily used to store, process, or consume dairy products. Organic residue analysis of selected samples helped address the process of adoption and intensification of milk processing in this region over time. The lipid residue data discussed in this paper derive from 143 isotopic results subsampled from 173 organic residues obtained from 805 Neolithic potsherds and suggest that bowls and four-lugged pots may have been preferred containers for processing milk. The discovery of abundant milk residues even among the earliest ceramics indicates that the pioneer farmers arrived in the region already with the knowhow of dairying and milk processing. In fact, these skills and the reliance on secondary products may have given them one of the necessary tools to successfully venture into the unfarmed lands of Northwest Anatolia in the first place.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Industria Lechera , Turquía , Industria Lechera/historia , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Animales , Leche/química
5.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300749, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723036

RESUMEN

This paper aims to re-examine the dietary practices of individuals buried at Sigatoka Sand Dunes site (Fiji) in Burial Ground 1 excavated by Simon Best in 1987 and 1988 using two approaches and a reassessment of their archaeological, bioarchaeological and chronological frame. First, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis was applied to document dietary changes between childhood and adulthood using an intra-individual approach on paired bone-tooth. Second, the potential adaptation of the individuals to their environment was evaluated through regional and temporal comparisons using inter-individual bone analysis. Ten AMS radiocarbon dates were measured directly on human bone collagen samples, placing the series in a range of approximately 600 years covering the middle of the first millennium CE (1,888 to 1,272 cal BP). δ13C and δ15N ratios were measured on bone and tooth collagen samples from 38 adult individuals. The results show that δ15N values from tooth are higher than those s from bone while bone and tooth δ13C values are similar, except for females. Fifteen individuals were included in an intra-individual analysis based on paired bone and tooth samples, which revealed six dietary patterns distinguished by a differential dietary intake of marine resources and resources at different trophic levels. These highlight sex-specific differences not related to mortuary practices but to daily life activities, supporting the hypothesis of a sexual division of labour. Compared to other Southwest Pacific series, Sigatoka diets show a specific trend towards marine food consumption that supports the hypothesis of a relative food self-sufficiency requiring no interactions with other groups.


Asunto(s)
Huesos , Entierro , Isótopos de Carbono , Isótopos de Nitrógeno , Humanos , Isótopos de Carbono/análisis , Femenino , Isótopos de Nitrógeno/análisis , Masculino , Entierro/historia , Huesos/química , Adulto , Fiji , Arqueología , Dieta/historia , Colágeno , Historia Antigua , Diente/química , Niño , Datación Radiométrica/métodos
6.
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(21): e2318293121, 2024 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753504

RESUMEN

The antiquity of human dispersal into Mediterranean islands and ensuing coastal adaptation have remained largely unexplored due to the prevailing assumption that the sea was a barrier to movement and that islands were hostile environments to early hunter-gatherers [J. F. Cherry, T. P. Leppard, J. Isl. Coast. Archaeol. 13, 191-205 (2018), 10.1080/15564894.2016.1276489]. Using the latest archaeological data, hindcasted climate projections, and age-structured demographic models, we demonstrate evidence for early arrival (14,257 to 13,182 calendar years ago) to Cyprus and predicted that large groups of people (~1,000 to 1,375) arrived in 2 to 3 main events occurring within <100 y to ensure low extinction risk. These results indicate that the postglacial settlement of Cyprus involved only a few large-scale, organized events requiring advanced watercraft technology. Our spatially debiased and Signor-Lipps-corrected estimates indicate rapid settlement of the island within <200 y, and expansion to a median of 4,000 to 5,000 people (0.36 to 0.46 km-2) in <11 human generations (<300 y). Our results do not support the hypothesis of inaccessible and inhospitable islands in the Mediterranean for pre-agropastoralists, agreeing with analogous conclusions for other parts of the world [M. I. Bird et al., Sci. Rep. 9, 8220 (2019), 10.1038/s41598-019-42946-9]. Our results also highlight the need to revisit these questions in the Mediterranean and test their validity with new technologies, field methods, and data. By applying stochastic models to the Mediterranean region, we can place Cyprus and large islands in general as attractive and favorable destinations for paleolithic peoples.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Humanos , Chipre , Arqueología/métodos , Historia Antigua , Migración Humana/historia , Demografía/métodos
8.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302334, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748638

RESUMEN

Susceptibility to morbidity and mortality is increased in early life, yet proactive measures, such as breastfeeding and weaning practices, can be taken through specific investments from parents and wider society. The extent to which such biosocialcultural investment was achieved within 1st millennium BCE Etruscan society, of whom little written sources are available, is unkown. This research investigates life histories in non-adults and adults from Pontecagnano (southern Italy, 730-580 BCE) in order to track cross-sectional and longitudinal breastfeeding and weaning patterns and to characterize the diet more broadly. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of incrementally-sampled deciduous and permanent dentine (n = 15), bulk bone collagen (n = 38), and tooth enamel bioapatite (n = 21) reveal the diet was largely based on C3 staple crops with marginal contributions of animal protein. Millet was found to play a role for maternal diet and trajectories of breastfeeding and feeding for some infants and children at the site. The combination of multiple isotope systems and tissues demonstrates exclusive breastfeeding was pursued until 0.6 years, followed by progressive introduction of proteanocius supplementary foods during weaning that lasted between approximately 0.7 and 2.6 years. The combination of biochemical data with macroscopic skeletal lesions of infantile metabolic diseases and physiological stress markers showed high δ15Ndentine in the months prior to death consistent with the isotopic pattern of opposing covariance.


Asunto(s)
Huesos , Isótopos de Carbono , Dieta , Isótopos de Nitrógeno , Humanos , Italia , Lactante , Dieta/historia , Isótopos de Carbono/análisis , Isótopos de Nitrógeno/análisis , Historia Antigua , Huesos/química , Femenino , Paleopatología , Adulto , Destete , Lactancia Materna/historia , Estrés Fisiológico , Dentina/química , Dentina/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Colágeno/análisis , Preescolar , Masculino , Niño
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11150, 2024 05 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750053

RESUMEN

Numerous genetic studies have contributed to reconstructing the human history of the Canary Islands population. The recent use of new ancient DNA targeted enrichment and next-generation sequencing techniques on new Canary Islands samples have greatly improved these molecular results. However, the bulk of the available data is still provided by the classic mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies carried out on the indigenous, historical, and extant human populations of the Canary Islands. In the present study, making use of all the accumulated mitochondrial information, the existence of DNA contamination and archaeological sample misidentification in those samples is evidenced. Following a thorough review of these cases, the new phylogeographic analysis revealed the existence of a heterogeneous indigenous Canarian population, asymmetrically distributed across the various islands, which most likely descended from a unique mainland settlement. These new results and new proposed coalescent ages are compatible with a Roman-mediated arrival driven by the exploitation of the purple dye manufacture in the Canary Islands.


Asunto(s)
ADN Antiguo , ADN Mitocondrial , Filogeografía , Humanos , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , ADN Antiguo/análisis , España , Filogenia , Genética de Población , Pueblos Indígenas/genética , Arqueología , Migración Humana , Historia Antigua , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento
10.
Prog Brain Res ; 285: 115-126, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705711

RESUMEN

The only instruments for opening the cranium considered in this chapter are drills, and in some cases facilitated with a special chisel called a lenticular. There were two kinds of trepan. The modiolus was the Latin name for a crown trepan which had a circular base with teeth which sawed a hole. Then there were the non-penetrating trepans which had a bit shaped to prevent unwanted penetration. They made small openings which could be joined by chisels to remove altogether larger areas of bone than were accessible to modioli. They were the favored instrument from the ancient world up to the Renaissance. At the beginning of the Renaissance, there was a move toward greater use of crown trepans and various methods were applied to stop them sinking too far inward. These included wings in the outer wall and changing the shape of the bit from cylindrical to conic. In time preferences returned to the cylindrical shape and larger diameters. There was also two instruments called lenticulars, the illustrations of which have been confused in the literature. It is now clear that the Roman instrument was shaped to cut the cranium and minimize the need for trepanation. The Renaissance instrument had a different shape and was used to smooth rough bone edges and excise spicules penetrating the meninges. They were simply two different instruments to which the same name was applied.


Asunto(s)
Instrumentos Quirúrgicos , Instrumentos Quirúrgicos/historia , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Historia Medieval , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XV , Cráneo/anatomía & histología , Trepanación/historia , Trepanación/instrumentación
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9977, 2024 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693297

RESUMEN

This paper investigates trabecular bone ontogenetic changes in two different Polish populations, one prehistoric and the other historical. The studied populations are from the Brzesc Kujawski region in Kujawy (north-central Poland), one from the Neolithic Period (4500-4000 BC) and one from the Middle Ages (twelfth-sixteenth centuries AD), in total 62 vertebral specimens (32 males, 30 females). Eight morphometric parameters acquired from microCT scan images were analysed. Two-way ANOVA after Box-Cox transformation and multifactorial regression model were calculated. A significant decrease in percentage bone volume fraction (BV/TV; [%]) with age at death was observed in the studied sample; Tb.N (trabecular number) was also significantly decreased with age; trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) increased with advancing age; connectivity density (Conn.D) was negatively correlated with biological age and higher in the Neolithic population. These data are found to be compatible with data from the current biomedical literature, while no loss of horizontal trabeculae was recorded as would be expected based on modern osteoporosis.


Asunto(s)
Hueso Esponjoso , Humanos , Polonia , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Hueso Esponjoso/anatomía & histología , Hueso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagen , Historia Medieval , Persona de Mediana Edad , Columna Vertebral/anatomía & histología , Columna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Historia Antigua , Microtomografía por Rayos X , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Densidad Ósea , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
13.
Prog Brain Res ; 285: 137-147, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705713

RESUMEN

The dura was first described in ancient Egypt. Hippocrates insisted that it should be protected and not penetrated. Celsus proposed an association between clinical findings and meningeal damage. Galen proposed that the dura was attached only at the sutures, and he was the first to describe the pia in humans. In the Middle Ages, new interest in the management of meningeal injuries arose, with renewed interest in relating clinical changes to intracranial injuries. These associations were neither consistent nor accurate. The Renaissance brought little change. It was in the 18th century that it became clear that the indication for opening the cranium following trauma was to relieve pressure from hematomas. Moreover, the important clinical findings on which to base an indication for intervention were changes in the level of consciousness.


Asunto(s)
Meninges , Humanos , Historia Antigua , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia Medieval , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XX
14.
Prog Brain Res ; 285: 149-155, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705714

RESUMEN

The purpose of this chapter is to present how past surgeons have viewed the pericranium and how they have reacted to its appearances. In ancient times, the membrane was considered formed by the dura through the sutures and it retained a relationship with the dura via vessels in the sutures. It was considered advisable to strip it totally from any area to be examined for fissure fractures and also for any area to be trepanned, as pericranial injury was thought to lead to fever and inflammation. In the 18th century, a new idea arose that posttraumatic spontaneous separation of the pericranium from the bone was a reliable indicator of the development of intracranial suppuration. This idea was subsequently refuted. For over two millennia, the pericranium was considered to be an important membrane requiring the close attention of the surgeon. It is no longer required to receive more than minimal attention.


Asunto(s)
Duramadre , Humanos , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval
15.
Prog Brain Res ; 285: 95-113, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705720

RESUMEN

From the time of Hippocrates to the early 19th century, knowledge advanced but that was an uneven process. Anatomy was basically defined by Galen and remained cast in stone until the early 16th century. Neuroanatomy was described by Galen but had little practical value, as brain surgery was not possible. The anatomy of the cranium was known and was largely correct. Care was taken to avoid the frontal air sinuses and the venous sinuses and the temporal region. The role of the brain in consciousness was not understood. It was considered the seat of the soul but there was a lack of understanding that damage to it could induce clinical symptoms such as stupor or paralysis. These were variously attributed to injuries to the meninges or the bone. This error was finally corrected in the 18th century when the brain was identified as responsible for much of the clinical disturbance following cranial trauma. All awareness that post traumatic neurological deficit was contralateral was ignored until the late 18th century, although several authors noted it. Likewise, the presence of CSF had to wait until the 18th century until it was recognized. Fissures were treated with trepanation, because of a perceived risk of infection developing between the bone and the dura. Depressed fracture fragments were elevated, replaced, or removed according to the details of the injury. Finally, for centuries surgeons blocked patients ears to reduce the sound of drilling, despite the fact that such a blocking would amplify the noise.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Humanos , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia Antigua , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia Medieval , Historia del Siglo XX , Neuroanatomía/historia
17.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 65(1): E93-E97, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706766

RESUMEN

Cancer is often wrongly considered to be a modern disease in many popular medical venues. Cancers have been known to humanity since ancient times. In fact, its antiquity can be identified through the application of palaeopathological methodologies. The present perspective demonstrates by means of a historical and palaeopathological analysis how oncological manifestations were present long before the emergence of anatomically modern humans and addresses the epidemiological transition from ancient times to the contemporary world. The final section of the article examines breast cancer and its identification in ancient human remains.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Neoplasias , Paleopatología , Humanos , Historia Antigua , Neoplasias/historia , Neoplasias/patología , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Neoplasias de la Mama/historia , Femenino , Historia Medieval , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XV
19.
Nature ; 629(8012): 609-615, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720084

RESUMEN

Earth's silica-rich continental crust is unique among the terrestrial planets and is critical for planetary habitability. Cratons represent the most imperishable continental fragments and form about 50% of the continental crust of the Earth, yet the mechanisms responsible for craton stabilization remain enigmatic1. Large tracts of strongly differentiated crust formed between 3 and 2.5 billion years ago, during the late Mesoarchaean and Neoarchaean time periods2. This crust contains abundant granitoid rocks with elevated concentrations of U, Th and K; the formation of these igneous rocks represents the final stage of stabilization of the continental crust2,3. Here, we show that subaerial weathering, triggered by the emergence of continental landmasses above sea level, facilitated intracrustal melting and the generation of peraluminous granitoid magmas. This resulted in reorganization of the compositional architecture of continental crust in the Neoarchaean period. Subaerial weathering concentrated heat-producing elements into terrigenous sediments that were incorporated into the deep crust, where they drove crustal melting and the chemical stratification required to stabilize the cratonic lithosphere. The chain of causality between subaerial weathering and the final differentiation of Earth's crust implies that craton stabilization was an inevitable consequence of continental emergence. Generation of sedimentary rocks enriched in heat-producing elements, at a time in the history of the Earth when the rate of radiogenic heat production was on average twice the present-day rate, resolves a long-standing question of why many cratons were stabilized in the Neoarchaean period.


Asunto(s)
Sedimentos Geológicos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Historia Antigua , Tiempo (Meteorología) , Planeta Tierra , Congelación , Dióxido de Silicio/química
20.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301278, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753872

RESUMEN

The need to better understand economic change and the social uses of long-ago established pottery types to prepare and consume food has led to the study of 124 distinct ceramic vessels from 17 settlement and funerary sites in Central Germany (present day Saxony-Anhalt). These, dated from the Early Neolithic (from 5450 cal. BCE onwards) to the Late Bronze Age (1300-750 cal. BCE; youngest sample ca. 1000 BCE), include vessels from the Linear Pottery (LBK), Schiepzig/Schöningen groups (SCHIP), Baalberge (BAC), Corded Ware (CWC), Bell Beaker (BBC), and Únetice (UC) archaeological cultures. Organic residue analyses performed on this assemblage determined the presence of vessel contents surviving as lipid residues in 109 cases. These were studied in relation to the changing use of settlement and funerary pottery types and, in the case of burials, to the funerary contexts in which the vessels had been placed. The obtained results confirmed a marked increase in the consumption of dairy products linked to innovations in pottery types (e.g., small cups) during the Funnel Beaker related Baalberge Culture of the 4th millennium BCE. Although the intensive use of dairy products may have continued into the 3rd millennium BCE, especially amongst Bell Beaker populations, Corded Ware vessels found in funerary contexts suggest an increase in the importance of non-ruminant products, which may be linked to the production of specific vessel shapes and decoration. In the Early Bronze Age circum-Harz Únetice group (ca. 2200-1550 BCE), which saw the emergence of a highly hierarchical society, a greater variety of animal and plant derived products was detected in a much more standardised but, surprisingly, more multifunctional pottery assemblage. This long-term study of lipid residues from a concise region in Central Europe thus reveals the complex relationships that prehistoric populations established between food resources and the main means to prepare, store, and consume them.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Alemania , Humanos , Historia Antigua , Grasas de la Dieta/análisis , Cerámica/historia
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