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1.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202597, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520135

RESUMEN

Medical Uniforms date back from medieval times. Nursing uniforms were based on nuns clothes whereas doctors used the famous "plague costumes" and black "frock" coats from about 15th to early 19th century. In latter half 19th century medical uniforms started to change. Nursing uniforms gradually lost their similarities to religious outfits. Doctors started to use white clothing. With great emphasis on hygiene and sanitation, the idea of personal protective equipment (PPE) started to evolve with William Stewart Halsted introducing the use of rubber gloves in 1889. In the 1960s-1970s it became more usual to wear green and blue `scrubs in order to look for a greater contrast in clothing with the all-white hospital environment. In contemporary times, some specialties even stopped using specific uniforms, while others still use them. At the same time, PPE became more and more important, up to nowadays "plague costume" in the combat of the COVID-19 epidemics.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Ropa de Protección/historia , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos
3.
Nature ; 581(7806): 63-66, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376961

RESUMEN

The storage of organic carbon in the terrestrial biosphere directly affects atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide over a wide range of timescales. Within the terrestrial biosphere, the magnitude of carbon storage can vary in response to environmental perturbations such as changing temperature or hydroclimate1, potentially generating feedback on the atmospheric inventory of carbon dioxide. Although temperature controls the storage of soil organic carbon at mid and high latitudes2,3, hydroclimate may be the dominant driver of soil carbon persistence in the tropics4,5; however, the sensitivity of tropical soil carbon turnover to large-scale hydroclimate variability remains poorly understood. Here we show that changes in Indian Summer Monsoon rainfall have controlled the residence time of soil carbon in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin over the past 18,000 years. Comparison of radiocarbon ages of bulk organic carbon and terrestrial higher-plant biomarkers with co-located palaeohydrological records6 reveals a negative relationship between monsoon rainfall and soil organic carbon stocks on a millennial timescale. Across the deglaciation period, a depletion of basin-wide soil carbon stocks was triggered by increasing rainfall and associated enhanced soil respiration rates. Our results suggest that future hydroclimate changes in tropical regions are likely to accelerate soil carbon destabilization, further increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/historia , Secuestro de Carbono , Suelo/química , Clima Tropical , Atmósfera/química , Ciclo del Carbono , Planeta Tierra , Historia Antigua , Lluvia , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura , Factores de Tiempo
4.
Nature ; 581(7808): 299-302, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433609

RESUMEN

The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in Europe witnessed the replacement and partial absorption of local Neanderthal populations by Homo sapiens populations of African origin1. However, this process probably varied across regions and its details remain largely unknown. In particular, the duration of chronological overlap between the two groups is much debated, as are the implications of this overlap for the nature of the biological and cultural interactions between Neanderthals and H. sapiens. Here we report the discovery and direct dating of human remains found in association with Initial Upper Palaeolithic artefacts2, from excavations at Bacho Kiro Cave (Bulgaria). Morphological analysis of a tooth and mitochondrial DNA from several hominin bone fragments, identified through proteomic screening, assign these finds to H. sapiens and link the expansion of Initial Upper Palaeolithic technologies with the spread of H. sapiens into the mid-latitudes of Eurasia before 45 thousand years ago3. The excavations yielded a wealth of bone artefacts, including pendants manufactured from cave bear teeth that are reminiscent of those later produced by the last Neanderthals of western Europe4-6. These finds are consistent with models based on the arrival of multiple waves of H. sapiens into Europe coming into contact with declining Neanderthal populations7,8.


Asunto(s)
Fósiles , Migración Humana/historia , Animales , Asia , Huesos/metabolismo , Bulgaria , Cuevas , ADN Antiguo/aislamiento & purificación , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , ADN Mitocondrial/aislamiento & purificación , Europa (Continente) , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Hombre de Neandertal/genética , Filogenia , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Diente/anatomía & histología , Diente/metabolismo
5.
Urologe A ; 59(5): 585-594, 2020 May.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367176

RESUMEN

The knowledge of hagiography and hagiotherapy still plays an important role in the history of science, especially when focusing on specific aspects of history. While knowledge about St. Liborius persists in urology, knowledge about patron saints for pandemics, especially those who were called upon to treat venereal diseases, has diminished due to the association with nonappropriate sexual behavior.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias/historia , Santos/historia , Urología/historia , Catolicismo/historia , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Medicina , Religión y Medicina
7.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 208(6): 443-444, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472811

RESUMEN

The aim of this work is to elucidate psychosocial reactions to plagues by analyzing three landmark descriptions from different eras: Thucydides' description of the plague of Athens (430 BC) in The History of the Peloponnesian War, Giovanni Boccaccio's description of the plague in Florence (1348) in The Decameron, and Albert Camus' description in The Plague (1947). Using a narrative inquiry, we found psychosocial reactions to be complex and ambivalent and could discern several coping strategies. We propose that this knowledge can help psychiatrists and other healthcare professionals during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Medicina en la Literatura/historia , Pandemias/historia , Peste/historia , Conducta Social/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanidades/historia , Humanos
8.
Nature ; 581(7807): 190-193, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404996

RESUMEN

The onset of plant cultivation is one of the most important cultural transitions in human history1-4. Southwestern Amazonia has previously been proposed as an early centre of plant domestication, on the basis of molecular markers that show genetic similarities between domesticated plants and wild relatives4-6. However, the nature of the early human occupation of southwestern Amazonia, and the history of plant cultivation in this region, are poorly understood. Here we document the cultivation of squash (Cucurbita sp.) at about 10,250 calibrated years before present (cal. yr BP), manioc (Manihot sp.) at about 10,350 cal. yr BP and maize (Zea mays) at about 6,850 cal. yr BP, in the Llanos de Moxos (Bolivia). We show that, starting at around 10,850 cal. yr BP, inhabitants of this region began to create a landscape that ultimately comprised approximately 4,700 artificial forest islands within a treeless, seasonally flooded savannah. Our results confirm that the Llanos de Moxos is a hotspot for early plant cultivation and demonstrate that-ever since their arrival in Amazonia-humans have markedly altered the landscape, with lasting repercussions for habitat heterogeneity and species conservation.


Asunto(s)
Producción de Cultivos/historia , Productos Agrícolas/historia , Bosques , Pradera , Actividades Humanas , Biodiversidad , Bolivia , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Cucurbita/crecimiento & desarrollo , Mapeo Geográfico , Historia Antigua , Manihot/crecimiento & desarrollo , Manihot/historia , Almidón , Zea mays/crecimiento & desarrollo
9.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 05 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471830

RESUMEN

With great apprehension, the world is now watching the birth of a novel pandemic already causing tremendous suffering, death, and disruption of normal life. Uncertainty and dread are exacerbated by the belief that what we are experiencing is new and mysterious. However, deadly pandemics and disease emergences are not new phenomena: they have been challenging human existence throughout recorded history. Some have killed sizeable percentages of humanity, but humans have always searched for, and often found, ways of mitigating their deadly effects. We here review the ancient and modern histories of such diseases, discuss factors associated with their emergences, and attempt to identify lessons that will help us meet the current challenge.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/historia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Animales , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/historia , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Salud Pública/historia , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Zoonosis/transmisión
11.
Science ; 368(6488): 234-237, 2020 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299933
12.
Nature ; 580(7801): 81-86, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238944

RESUMEN

The mid-Cretaceous period was one of the warmest intervals of the past 140 million years1-5, driven by atmospheric carbon dioxide levels of around 1,000 parts per million by volume6. In the near absence of proximal geological records from south of the Antarctic Circle, it is disputed whether polar ice could exist under such environmental conditions. Here we use a sedimentary sequence recovered from the West Antarctic shelf-the southernmost Cretaceous record reported so far-and show that a temperate lowland rainforest environment existed at a palaeolatitude of about 82° S during the Turonian-Santonian age (92 to 83 million years ago). This record contains an intact 3-metre-long network of in situ fossil roots embedded in a mudstone matrix containing diverse pollen and spores. A climate model simulation shows that the reconstructed temperate climate at this high latitude requires a combination of both atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations of 1,120-1,680 parts per million by volume and a vegetated land surface without major Antarctic glaciation, highlighting the important cooling effect exerted by ice albedo under high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.


Asunto(s)
Atmósfera/química , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Dióxido de Carbono/historia , Clima , Bosque Lluvioso , Temperatura , Regiones Antárticas , Fósiles , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Historia Antigua , Modelos Teóricos , Nueva Zelanda , Polen , Esporas/aislamiento & purificación
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230733, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236131

RESUMEN

During the reign of the first Ptolemaic kings in Egypt, mainly in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, the Egyptian cults related to the divine couple of Isis and Sarapis (i.e. the Isiac cults) spread successfully from Egypt to ports and coastal cities of the ancient Mediterranean. The discussion on the topic of the factors involved in the process of the early spread of these cults outside Egypt is still open and, so far, the research in this area has been conducted mainly by using established historiographical methods. However, these methods are limited when dealing with the interplay among different variables involved in complex historical processes. This article aims to overcome these limits by using a quantitative spatial network analysis. The results of our previous published research, which focused on a quantitative evaluation of the impact of individual factors on the early spread of the Isiac cults across the ancient Aegean Islands, suggest that the process was promoted by military and commercial activities of the Ptolemaic dynasty, and that the Ptolemaic military operations were the most influential factor. Following these results, this article focuses on the early spread of the Isiac cults on the west coast of Hellenistic Asia Minor, i.e. the region which the Ptolemies attempted to control in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE. The statistically significant results presented in this article support the hypothesis that the Ptolemaic political engagement in Asia Minor had a positive impact on the early spread of the Isiac cults. The results also suggest that the activities of the Seleucid dynasty, a political rival of the Ptolemies, in the area of interest could have constituted an immunological factor limiting the spread of the Isiac cults further to the eastern parts of Asia Minor.


Asunto(s)
Política , Arqueología , Asia , Antiguo Egipto , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Análisis Espacial , Transportes
14.
Nature ; 580(7804): 506-510, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322061

RESUMEN

Pottery is one of the most commonly recovered artefacts from archaeological sites. Despite more than a century of relative dating based on typology and seriation1, accurate dating of pottery using the radiocarbon dating method has proven extremely challenging owing to the limited survival of organic temper and unreliability of visible residues2-4. Here we report a method to directly date archaeological pottery based on accelerator mass spectrometry analysis of 14C in absorbed food residues using palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) fatty acids purified by preparative gas chromatography5-8. We present accurate compound-specific radiocarbon determinations of lipids extracted from pottery vessels, which were rigorously evaluated by comparison with dendrochronological dates9,10 and inclusion in site and regional chronologies that contained previously determined radiocarbon dates on other materials11-15. Notably, the compound-specific dates from each of the C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids in pottery vessels provide an internal quality control of the results6 and are entirely compatible with dates for other commonly dated materials. Accurate radiocarbon dating of pottery vessels can reveal: (1) the period of use of pottery; (2) the antiquity of organic residues, including when specific foodstuffs were exploited; (3) the chronology of sites in the absence of traditionally datable materials; and (4) direct verification of pottery typochronologies. Here we used the method to date the exploitation of dairy and carcass products in Neolithic vessels from Britain, Anatolia, central and western Europe, and Saharan Africa.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología/métodos , Cerámica/química , Cerámica/historia , Datación Radiométrica/métodos , Datación Radiométrica/normas , África del Norte , Arqueología/normas , Teorema de Bayes , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Europa (Continente) , Ácidos Grasos/química , Ácidos Grasos/aislamiento & purificación , Alimentos/historia , Historia Antigua , Lípidos/química , Lípidos/aislamiento & purificación , Espectrometría de Masas
15.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230642, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226040

RESUMEN

Evidence for specialised bone tools has recently been reported for the Middle Stone Age of North Africa [one], which complements similar finds of slightly younger age in South Africa [two, three]. However, until now scant reference has been made to lesser known tools also made of bone ('bone retouchers') that were employed specifically as intermediaries for working or refining stone artefacts, that are sometimes present in these assemblages. In this paper we describe 20 bone retouchers from the cave of Grotte des Pigeons at Taforalt in north-east Morocco. This is the largest stratified assemblage of bone retouchers from a North African MSA site, and the biggest single collection so far from the African Continent. A total of 18 bone retouchers was recovered in securely dated archaeological levels spanning a period from ~ 84.5 ka to 24 ka cal BP. A further two bone retouchers were found in a layer at the base of the deposits in association with Aterian artefacts dating to around 85,000 BP and so far represent the earliest evidence of this type of tool at Taforalt. In this paper we present a first, detailed description of the finds and trace the stages of their production, use and discard (chaîne opératoire). At the same time, we assess if there were diachronic changes in their form and function and, finally, explore their presence in relation to stone tools from the same occupation layers of the cave.


Asunto(s)
Huesos/anatomía & histología , Fósiles/historia , Tecnología , Arqueología , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Marruecos
17.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119227

RESUMEN

The article considers the features of the impact of epidemics on the course of hostilities and the fate of the states of Antiquity. Three cases are presented as examples. The first one is related to the invasion of the Assyrian King Sennacherib in Judea and the attempt of his troops to take Jerusalem. The second case is related to the epidemic in Athens in the early years of the Peloponnesian war. The third one - with the epidemic in the Roman Empire in the 2nd half of the 2nd century AD. The analysis, based on information from extant sources, permitted to conclude that the intensity and destructive effect of epidemics in the Ancient World increased gradually. To this fact is attributed the effect of "closing" the Oikumena into a single whole. However, the degree of influence of epidemics on the fate of ancient states is greatly exaggerated by the historical tradition, which developed under the influence of emotional descriptions of the tragedies and mass deaths of people.


Asunto(s)
Conflictos Armados , Epidemias , Conflictos Armados/historia , Epidemias/historia , Historia Antigua
19.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229447, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203557

RESUMEN

The presence of biochar with high carbon accumulation capacity and nutrient adsorption is causally associated with archeological soils. Although this type of soil organic matter has been known for a long time, the knowledge of its structure and environmental behavior is still limited. This work used Raman spectroscopy to obtain structural information and identify alterations in biochar particles. To this end, we studied biochar particles found in an archaeological site with a temporal window lasting 12451 to 11080 yr cal BP. The molecular, structural and sp2/sp3 characteristics of the charcoal particles were determined at the time of burning and associated with the temperature, time and characteristics of the burnt material. We propose that the process of oxidation of the biochar occurs during the first 2000 years after its genesis. The oxidation process is a reflection of decreases in the number of defects related to sp2 bonds on amorphous carbons and increases in the number of defects associated with ionic impurities, which clearly indicate the interaction between biochar particles and the soil matrix. The data confirm the hypothesis that the persistence of biochar in the environment is due to its graphite structure and suggest that over a 12000 year timeframe, biochar particles undergo several changes that occur in the disordered phase and are rapidly oxidized.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico/química , Carbón Orgánico/historia , Contaminantes del Suelo/química , Suelo/química , Espectrometría Raman/métodos , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Factores de Tiempo
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