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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260505, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932567

RESUMEN

Over the centuries, iconographic representations of St Anthony of Padua, one of the most revered saints in the Catholic world, have been inspired by literary sources, which described the Saint as either naturally corpulent or with a swollen abdomen due to dropsy (i.e. fluid accumulation in the body cavities). Even recent attempts to reconstruct the face of the Saint have yielded discordant results regarding his outward appearance. To address questions about the real appearance of St Anthony, we applied body mass estimation equations to the osteometric measurements taken in 1981, during the public recognition of the Saint's skeletal remains. Both the biomechanical and the morphometric approach were employed to solve some intrinsic limitations in the equations for body mass estimation from skeletal remains. The estimated body mass was used to assess the physique of the Saint with the body mass index. The outcomes of this investigation reveal interesting information about the body type of the Saint throughout his lifetime.


Asunto(s)
Edema/diagnóstico , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Apariencia Física , Santos/historia , Grasa Abdominal/fisiopatología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Restos Mortales/anatomía & histología , Diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Edema/historia , Edema/fisiopatología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/historia , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/fisiopatología , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Italia , Obesidad/historia , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Religión y Medicina
2.
Bull Hist Med ; 95(3): 277-314, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924435

RESUMEN

As one of the most popular medieval plague treatises produced during the Second Plague Pandemic, John of Burgundy's tract offers an excellent example of how medical books changed over time and place: in their material formats (such as manuscript to print), their textual contents and meanings, the people involved in their production, their readership, and sometimes even their purpose. The seemingly formulaic structure and medical contents of plague tracts has contributed to a long-standing perception that they were largely static or even ahistorical, one treatise easily exchanged for another. However, by examining copies of the treatise as individual and unique productions, rather than simply seeing the apparent uniformity of a few exemplars (or even the entire genre), we can begin to trace the itineraries through which they traveled and the rich tapestries of change that mark their life stories.


Asunto(s)
Peste , Libros , Historia Medieval , Humanos
3.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(5): 890-899, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785018

RESUMEN

St. Gallicanus Hospital in Rome, Italy, created by the will of Pope Benedict XIII (1649-1730) in 1725, was the first dermatologic hospital in the world. The strong bond between science and faith, humanitarian spirit and scientific research, and the profoundness and legacy of its entire history have all contributed to its legacy. We have traced its development by examining archival documents to understand the life of the institute and the diseases that were diagnosed and treated from the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century. Some of the main diseases were leprosy, mange, scabies, ringworm, and syphilis, which were widespread in Rome during the 18th and 19th centuries and were creating a mortal threat for much of the population. St. Gallicanus Hospital was dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these diseases where possible. Special attention has been directed to syphilis and the use of penicillin therapy after its introduction in 1943, especially for curbing the extensive problems created by prostitution.


Asunto(s)
Escabiosis , Sífilis , Academias e Institutos , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Hospitales , Humanos , Ciudad de Roma , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sífilis/epidemiología
4.
Nature ; 598(7879): 82-85, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616056

RESUMEN

New Zealand was among the last habitable places on earth to be colonized by humans1. Charcoal records indicate that wildfires were rare prior to colonization and widespread following the 13th- to 14th-century Maori settlement2, but the precise timing and magnitude of associated biomass-burning emissions are unknown1,3, as are effects on light-absorbing black carbon aerosol concentrations over the pristine Southern Ocean and Antarctica4. Here we used an array of well-dated Antarctic ice-core records to show that while black carbon deposition rates were stable over continental Antarctica during the past two millennia, they were approximately threefold higher over the northern Antarctic Peninsula during the past 700 years. Aerosol modelling5 demonstrates that the observed deposition could result only from increased emissions poleward of 40° S-implicating fires in Tasmania, New Zealand and Patagonia-but only New Zealand palaeofire records indicate coincident increases. Rapid deposition increases started in 1297 (±30 s.d.) in the northern Antarctic Peninsula, consistent with the late 13th-century Maori settlement and New Zealand black carbon emissions of 36 (±21 2 s.d.) Gg y-1 during peak deposition in the 16th century. While charcoal and pollen records suggest earlier, climate-modulated burning in Tasmania and southern Patagonia6,7, deposition in Antarctica shows that black carbon emissions from burning in New Zealand dwarfed other preindustrial emissions in these regions during the past 2,000 years, providing clear evidence of large-scale environmental effects associated with early human activities across the remote Southern Hemisphere.


Asunto(s)
Incendios/historia , Actividades Humanas/historia , Hollín/análisis , Atmósfera/química , Biomasa , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Nueva Zelanda , Tasmania
5.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0253693, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662361

RESUMEN

This study documents a rare case of mummified human remains from Japan, dating to the late Heian period, 12th Century AD. The remains have only been scientifically investigated once in 1950 so far. The results of this investigation were translated, analyzed, and interpreted using methods of the 21st century. The remains have been traditionally identified as the four ruling generations of the Oshu Fujiwara clan, who built a cultural and economic center in Hiraizumi. Accordingly, this paper will first examine the historical and cultural significance of Hiraizumi and its ruling class before re-evaluating the findings of the 1950 investigation. This study is the first in the Western scientific literature to provide a comprehensive historical, cultural, and medical evaluation of these mummies.


Asunto(s)
Momias/historia , Restos Mortales , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Estudios Interdisciplinarios , Japón
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5929, 2021 10 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642339

RESUMEN

Arab populations are largely understudied, notably their genetic structure and history. Here we present an in-depth analysis of 6,218 whole genomes from Qatar, revealing extensive diversity as well as genetic ancestries representing the main founding Arab genealogical lineages of Qahtanite (Peninsular Arabs) and Adnanite (General Arabs and West Eurasian Arabs). We find that Peninsular Arabs are the closest relatives of ancient hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Levant, and that founder Arab populations experienced multiple splitting events 12-20 kya, consistent with the aridification of Arabia and farming in the Levant, giving rise to settler and nomadic communities. In terms of recent genetic flow, we show that these ancestries contributed significantly to European, South Asian as well as South American populations, likely as a result of Islamic expansion over the past 1400 years. Notably, we characterize a large cohort of men with the ChrY J1a2b haplogroup (n = 1,491), identifying 29 unique sub-haplogroups. Finally, we leverage genotype novelty to build a reference panel of 12,432 haplotypes, demonstrating improved genotype imputation for both rare and common alleles in Arabs and the wider Middle East.


Asunto(s)
Cromosomas Humanos Y , Genoma Humano , Haplotipos , Migración Humana/historia , Filogenia , África , Alelos , Árabes/genética , Asia , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Flujo Génico , Frecuencia de los Genes , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Filogeografía , Qatar , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256853, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495997

RESUMEN

The reconstruction of fire history is essential to understand the palaeoclimate and human history. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been extensively used as a fire marker. In this work, the distribution of PAHs in Borneo peat archives was investigated to understand how PAHs reflect the palaeo-fire activity. In total, 52 peat samples were analysed from a Borneo peat core for the PAH analysis. Pyrogenic PAHs consist of 2-7 aromatic rings, some of which have methyl and ethyl groups. The results reveal that the concentration of pyrogenic PAHs fluctuated with the core depth. Compared to low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs, the high-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs had a more similar depth variation to the charcoal abundance. This finding also suggests that the HMW PAHs were mainly formed at a local fire near the study area, while the LMW PAHs could be transported from remote locations.


Asunto(s)
Incendios/historia , Sedimentos Geológicos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Suelo/química , Borneo , Carbón Orgánico/análisis , Biomarcadores Ambientales , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/clasificación
8.
Nature ; 597(7877): 522-526, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552258

RESUMEN

Polynesia was settled in a series of extraordinary voyages across an ocean spanning one third of the Earth1, but the sequences of islands settled remain unknown and their timings disputed. Currently, several centuries separate the dates suggested by different archaeological surveys2-4. Here, using genome-wide data from merely 430 modern individuals from 21 key Pacific island populations and novel ancestry-specific computational analyses, we unravel the detailed genetic history of this vast, dispersed island network. Our reconstruction of the branching Polynesian migration sequence reveals a serial founder expansion, characterized by directional loss of variants, that originated in Samoa and spread first through the Cook Islands (Rarotonga), then to the Society (Totaiete ma) Islands (11th century), the western Austral (Tuha'a Pae) Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago (12th century), and finally to the widely separated, but genetically connected, megalithic statue-building cultures of the Marquesas (Te Henua 'Enana) Islands in the north, Raivavae in the south, and Easter Island (Rapa Nui), the easternmost of the Polynesian islands, settled in approximately AD 1200 via Mangareva.


Asunto(s)
Genoma Humano/genética , Genómica , Migración Humana/historia , /genética , Femenino , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Polinesia
9.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(3): 551-552, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518019

RESUMEN

Fifty years ago, in 1970, a lunar crater was named in honor of Avicenna, one of the most influential physicians of the Medieval period. His encyclopedic work, The Canon of Medicine, attempted to codify all medical knowledge including dermatology. This contribution provides a brief overview of Avicenna, his contributions to medicine and dermatology, and the lunar crater named after him.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Arábiga , Medicina , Médicos , Historia Medieval , Humanos
10.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486876

RESUMEN

The pandemic of plague, that affected Eurasia in middle of 40s - early 50s of XIV century and remained in history as as "The Black Death", became one of the most death-dealing epidemics that ever stroke humankind and recorded in historical sources. Owing to that many documentary and narrative sources remained intact, the history of this pandemic is considered as well examined. This is evidenced by enormous historiography of the problem, including works of the most different character and orientation. Yet, it should be admitted that in national Russian historiography the issues related to history of this pandemic on the Russian land remain to be insufficiently studied. This condition is related to limitation of source base from one hand and to inadequate development of comprehensive approach to exploration of this page of national history. The article, on the basis of analysis of chronicle texts, reconstructs general picture of the pandemic in the Russian land and characterizes its consequences.


Asunto(s)
Peste , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Medieval , Hospitalización , Humanos , Pandemias , Peste/epidemiología , Federación de Rusia/epidemiología
11.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361852

RESUMEN

Our cells and organs are threatened and, in most cases, constantly subjected to the aggression of numerous situations, both endogenous, characterized by unfavorable genetics, and exogenous, by deficient or inadequate nutrition, and even by a hostile environment; in most cases, they ultimately cause a cascade of degenerative and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and infections, as well as those related to the metabolic syndrome, all of which eventually generate irreversible damage to the organism and, consequently, a significant deterioration in its survival [...].


Asunto(s)
Quimioterapia/historia , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/historia , Historia Medieval , Humanos
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1792-1806, 2021 09 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411538

RESUMEN

The Finnish population is a unique example of a genetic isolate affected by a recent founder event. Previous studies have suggested that the ancestors of Finnic-speaking Finns and Estonians reached the circum-Baltic region by the 1st millennium BC. However, high linguistic similarity points to a more recent split of their languages. To study genetic connectedness between Finns and Estonians directly, we first assessed the efficacy of imputation of low-coverage ancient genomes by sequencing a medieval Estonian genome to high depth (23×) and evaluated the performance of its down-sampled replicas. We find that ancient genomes imputed from >0.1× coverage can be reliably used in principal-component analyses without projection. By searching for long shared allele intervals (LSAIs; similar to identity-by-descent segments) in unphased data for >143,000 present-day Estonians, 99 Finns, and 14 imputed ancient genomes from Estonia, we find unexpectedly high levels of individual connectedness between Estonians and Finns for the last eight centuries in contrast to their clear differentiation by allele frequencies. High levels of sharing of these segments between Estonians and Finns predate the demographic expansion and late settlement process of Finland. One plausible source of this extensive sharing is the 8th-10th centuries AD migration event from North Estonia to Finland that has been proposed to explain uniquely shared linguistic features between the Finnish language and the northern dialect of Estonian and shared Christianity-related loanwords from Slavic. These results suggest that LSAI detection provides a computationally tractable way to detect fine-scale structure in large cohorts.


Asunto(s)
Alelos , ADN Antiguo/análisis , Genoma Humano , Migración Humana/historia , Linaje , Estonia , Femenino , Finlandia , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genealogía y Heráldica , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Lenguaje/historia , Masculino
13.
Hum Genet ; 140(10): 1417-1431, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410492

RESUMEN

The Italian Peninsula, a natural pier across the Mediterranean Sea, witnessed intricate population events since the very beginning of the human occupation in Europe. In the last few years, an increasing number of modern and ancient genomes from the area have been published by the international research community. This genomic perspective started unveiling the relevance of Italy to understand the post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) re-peopling of Europe, the earlier phase of the Neolithic westward migrations, and its linking role between Eastern and Western Mediterranean areas after the Iron Age. However, many open questions are still waiting for more data to be addressed in full. With this review, we summarize the current knowledge emerging from the available ancient Italian individuals and, by re-analysing them all at once, we try to shed light on the avenues future research in the area should cover. In particular, open questions concern (1) the fate of pre-Villabruna Europeans and to what extent their genomic components were absorbed by the post-LGM hunter-gatherers; (2) the role of Sicily and Sardinia before LGM; (3) to what degree the documented genetic structure within the Early Neolithic settlers can be described as two separate migrations; (4) what are the population events behind the marked presence of an Iranian Neolithic-like component in Bronze Age and Iron Age Italian and Southern European samples.


Asunto(s)
ADN Antiguo/análisis , Evolución Molecular , Variación Genética , Genoma Humano , Genómica/historia , /historia , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Italia
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14952, 2021 07 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294817

RESUMEN

We present two 40 year records of monthly coral Sr/Ca ratios from the eastern pole of the Indian Ocean Dipole. A modern coral covers the period from 1968 to 2007. A sub-fossil coral derives from the medieval climate anomaly (MCA) and spans 1100-1140 AD. The modern coral records SST variability in the eastern pole of the Indian Ocean Dipole. A strong correlation is also found between coral Sr/Ca and the IOD index. The correlation with ENSO is asymmetric: the coral shows a moderate correlation with El Niño and a weak correlation with La Niña. The modern coral shows large interannual variability. Extreme IOD events cause cooling > 3 °C (1994, 1997) or ~ 2 °C (2006). In total, the modern coral indicates 32 warm/cool events, with 16 cool and 16 warm events. The MCA coral shows 24 warm/cool events, with 14 cool and 10 warm events. Only one cool event could be comparable to the positive Indian Ocean Dipole in 2006. The seasonal cycle of the MCA coral is reduced (< 50% of to the modern) and the skewness of the Sr/Ca data is lower. This suggests a deeper thermocline in the eastern Indian Ocean associated with a La Niña-like mean state in the Indo-Pacific during the MCA.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos/química , Calcio/análisis , Fósiles/historia , Estroncio/análisis , Animales , Historia Medieval , Océano Índico , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura
17.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202264

RESUMEN

The present research investigates the relationship between dietary habits and mortality patterns in the Roman Imperial and Medieval periods. The reconstructions of population dynamics and subsistence strategies provide a fascinating source of information for understanding our history. This is particularly true given that the changes in social, economic, political, and religious aspects related to the transition from the Roman period to the Middle Ages have been widely discussed. We analyzed the isotopic and mortality patterns of 616 individuals from 18 archeological sites (the Medieval Latium sites of Colonna, Santa Severa, Allumiere, Cencelle, and 14 Medieval and Imperial funerary contexts from Rome) to compile a survivorship analysis. A semi-parametric approach was applied, suggesting variations in mortality patterns between sexes in the Roman period. Nitrogen isotopic signatures influenced mortality in both periods, showing a quadratic and a linear effect for Roman Imperial and Medieval populations, respectively. No influence of carbon isotopic signatures has been detected for Roman Imperial populations. Conversely, increased mortality risk for rising carbon isotopic values was observed in Medieval samples.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/historia , Mortalidad/historia , Isótopos de Carbono/análisis , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Italia , Isótopos de Nitrógeno/análisis
18.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(3): 89, 2021 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251537

RESUMEN

We invite systematic consideration of the metaphors of cycles and circulation as a long-term theme in the history of the life and environmental sciences and medicine. Ubiquitous in ancient religious and philosophical traditions, especially in representing the seasons and the motions of celestial bodies, circles once symbolized perfection. Over the centuries cyclic images in western medicine, natural philosophy, natural history and eventually biology gained independence from cosmology and theology and came to depend less on strictly circular forms. As potent 'canonical icons', cycles also interacted with representations of linear and irreversible change, including arrows, arcs, scales, series and trees, as in theories of the Earth and of evolution. In modern times life cycles and reproductive cycles have often been held to characterize life, in some cases especially female life, while human efforts selectively to foster and disrupt these cycles have harnessed their productivity in medicine and agriculture. But strong cyclic metaphors have continued to link physiology and climatology, medicine and economics, and biology and manufacturing, notably through the relations between land, food and population. From the grand nineteenth-century transformations of matter to systems ecology, the circulation of molecules through organic and inorganic compartments has posed the problem of maintaining identity in the face of flux and highlights the seductive ability of cyclic schemes to imply closure where no original state was in fact restored. More concerted attention to cycles and circulation will enrich analyses of the power of metaphors to naturalize understandings of life and their shaping by practical interests and political imaginations.


Asunto(s)
Biología/historia , Historia de la Medicina , Filosofía/historia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval
20.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(1): 36-53, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096038

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: By focusing on two Danish leprosaria (Naestved and Odense; 13th-16th c. CE) and using diet and origin as proxies, we follow a multi-isotopic approach to reconstruct life histories of patients and investigate how leprosy affected both institutionalized individuals and the medieval Danish community as a whole. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We combine archaeology, historical sources, biological anthropology, isotopic analyses (δ13 C, δ15 N, δ34 S, 87 Sr/86 Sr) and radiocarbon dating, and further analyze bones with different turnover rates (ribs and long bones). RESULTS: The δ13 C, δ15 N and δ34 S results indicate a C3 terrestrial diet with small contributions of marine protein for leprosy patients and individuals from other medieval Danish sites. A similar diet is seen through time, between males and females, and patients with and without changes on facial bones. The isotopic comparison between ribs and long bones reveals no significant dietary change. The δ34 S and 87 Sr/86 Sr results suggest that patients were local to the regions of the leprosaria. Moreover, the radiocarbon dates show a mere 50% agreement with the arm position dating method used in Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: A local origin for the leprosy patients is in line with historical evidence, unlike the small dietary contribution of marine protein. Although only 10% of the analyzed individuals have rib/long bone offsets that undoubtedly show a dietary shift, the data appear to reveal a pattern for 25 individuals (out of 50), with elevated δ13 C and/or δ15 N values in the ribs compared to the long bones, which points toward a communal type of diet and reveals organizational aspects of the institution.


Asunto(s)
Huesos/química , Isótopos/análisis , Lepra/etnología , Lepra/historia , Adulto , Antropología Física , Huesos/metabolismo , Dinamarca/etnología , Femenino , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Isótopos/metabolismo , Masculino , Datación Radiométrica
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