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2.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(2): 13, 2022 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411477

RESUMEN

In the 1940s, the 'modern synthesis' (MS) of Darwinism and genetics cast genetic mutation and recombination as the source of variability from which environmental events naturally select the fittest, such 'natural selection' constituting the cause of evolution. Recent biology increasingly challenges this view by casting genes as followers and awarding the leading role in the genesis of adaptations to the agency and plasticity of developing phenotypes-making natural selection a consequence of other causal processes. Both views of natural selection claim to capture the core of Darwin's arguments in On the Origin of Species. Today, historians largely concur with the MS's reading of Origin as a book aimed to prove natural selection the cause (vera causa) of adaptive change. This paper finds the evidence for that conclusion wanting. I undertake to examine the context and meaning of all Darwin's known uses of the phrase vera causa, documenting in particular Darwin's resistance to the pressure to prove natural selection a vera causa in letters written early in 1860. His resistance underlines the logical dependence of natural selection, an unobservable phenomenon, on the causal processes producing the observable events captured by the laws of inheritance, variation, and the struggle for existence, established in Chapters 1-3 of Origin.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Herencia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Selección Genética
4.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(1): 21-39, 2022.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442277

RESUMEN

Francisco Antônio de Sampaio worked as a surgeon for over two decades in Cachoeira, in the captaincy of Bahia, Brazil. In this village, he produced writings on natural history, which he sent to the Lisbon Academy of Science, although he had no specific training in this area. This article analyzes his scientific output and healing practices, especially the uses and descriptions of local plants and his relationships with different agents, such as the "local commoners" and the naturalist and magistrate Joaquim de Amorim e Castro. His production of knowledge is interpreted here both from the perspective of the construction of scientific authority and through his interactions with local and metropolitan agents.


Francisco Antônio de Sampaio atuou como cirurgião por mais de duas décadas em Cachoeira (BA). Nessa vila, produziu e enviou à Academia das Ciências de Lisboa escritos de história natural, embora não tivesse formação específica para esses estudos. Neste artigo analisamos sua produção científica e suas práticas de cura, em particular os usos e descrições das plantas locais e sua relação com diferentes agentes, a exemplo das pessoas do "vulgo local" e do naturalista e juiz de fora Amorim e Castro. Buscamos interpretar sua produção de conhecimento, tanto do ponto de vista da construção de autoridade científica quanto de sua interação com os agentes locais e metropolitanos.


Asunto(s)
Academias e Institutos , Historia Natural , Brasil , Ambiente , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Conocimiento , Masculino , Historia Natural/historia
5.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(1): 195-214, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442286

RESUMEN

As of the nineteenth century, the number of world fairs and hygiene exhibitions grew significantly. This phenomenon was linked to the experience of modernity and the emergence of bacteriology, when different cities were sanitized with the aim of combating urban diseases and epidemics. For the purpose of sanitary education and hygiene propaganda, many objects and pictures were displayed in hygiene exhibitions and museums, such as the International Hygiene Exhibition of 1911 and the German Hygiene Museum, both in Dresden. The goal of this article is to analyze a chapter of the international history of health through images that portray the connections between the German Hygiene Museum and Latin American countries between 1911 and 1933.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriología , Museos , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Higiene/historia , América Latina , Museos/historia , Propaganda
6.
Am Surg ; 88(5): 823-827, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412399

RESUMEN

Rudolph Matas (1860-1957) was one of the foremost figures in the history of vascular surgery. He is considered the father of vascular surgery for his operations for arteriovenous fistula and peripheral artery aneurysm, all devised before the isolation of heparin and the wide adoption of techniques for vascular anastomosis. A medical and surgical prodigy, Matas received his medical degree from Tulane University at age 19 (1880) and was named its chair of surgery at 35 (1895), a position he would hold until 1927. A contemporary and friend of Halsted, Matas throughout his career was known as a leader in the field, holding the presidencies of the American College of Surgeons (1925-1926) and the American Surgical Association (1909). He maintained loyal relationships to those who trained in surgery with him at Touro Hospital in New Orleans, including the author's grandfather, the first Richard J. Field. Matas was an honored guest at the dedication of the Centreville Clinic in 1928, the facility where three generations of Field surgeons have provided continuous service to its rural Mississippi community for nearly a century.


Asunto(s)
Aneurisma , Cirugía General , Especialidades Quirúrgicas , Adulto , Aneurisma/cirugía , Arterias , Cirugía General/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Nueva Orleans , Estados Unidos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Vasculares/historia , Adulto Joven
7.
Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko ; 86(2): 125-126, 2022.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412722

RESUMEN

The year 2021 marks the 125th anniversary of the birth of the outstanding neurosurgeon L.A. Koreishi. He occupies a prominent place in the history of Russian neurosurgery. I had the chance to know Leonid Alexandrovich for many years and to work in the clinic under his direct supervision.


Asunto(s)
Neurocirugia , Aniversarios y Eventos Especiales , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Neurocirujanos , Neurocirugia/historia , Procedimientos Neuroquirúrgicos , Federación de Rusia
8.
Obes Rev ; 23(6): e13440, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35238142

RESUMEN

World Health Organization defines obesity as abnormal or excess adipose tissue accumulation. Nowadays, this condition is a serious threat to the public health in most countries around the world. Obesity adversely affects physical, mental, and in most cultures, social well-being. However, throughout the ages-from ancient times to the 21st century-this condition has been subject to various interpretations. As a matter of fact, obesity has not always been regarded as a disease. For many decades, excessive body weight has been considered rather a symbol of health. It was a marker of wealth and prosperity, as well as a sign of high social status. The centuries that passed on the development of science and medicine have gradually changed its face, but significant progress in understanding the causes and consequences of obesity has been made in the last 30 years. This paper presents the historical outline of obesity and its treatment from ancient times to the present-from its affirmation to the epidemic in the late 20th and 21st century.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad , Peso Corporal , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Obesidad/epidemiología
9.
J Hist Biol ; 55(1): 35-57, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35246756

RESUMEN

A common object found within medical museums is the developmental series: an arrangement of embryos depicting the transformation of an unremarkable blob into an anatomically organized and recognizable organism. The developmental series depicts a normative process, one where bodies emerge in reliable sequential stages to reveal anatomically perfect beings. Yet a century before the developmental series would become a visual model of embryological development, the very process of development itself was discerned through the comparative study of preserved human fetuses-specifically, those deemed "monstrous" or characterized as "malformations." This article examines how anatomically diverse fetal bodies were reformulated from singular curiosities into alternative developmental pathways whose characteristics testified to the laws of nature and to the primordial, physical relationship between humans and other species. In early nineteenth century Amsterdam, the father-son team of physicians Gerard and Willem Vrolik built up an internationally renowned anatomical museum famous especially for Willem's collection of fetal malformations. Physical preparations of fetal malformations play a central role in Willem's monumental handbook on developmental embryology: comparing human embryos against one another and the embryos of other species, Willem plots out a sequence of embryological development in which a body's form marks its place within the ever-unfolding natural order. In conversation with the literature on model organisms, this article explores how the "monstrous" gets standardized and, in doing so, contributes to the scientific production of a normative physiological process.


Asunto(s)
Embriología , Museos , Comunicación , Conducta Exploratoria , Feto/anomalías , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Museos/historia
11.
Am J Psychiatry ; 179(5): 329-335, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331024

RESUMEN

Western psychiatry emerged as a medical specialty caring for the mentally ill over the course of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This emergence was a contingent process, dependent on the co-occurrence of three historical developments that together shaped the young discipline. The first was the rise of the mind as an entity with numerous active faculties in the conceptual space between the body and the Christian soul. Only by the latter half of the 18th century was it common to conceptualize conditions like mania or melancholy as mental illnesses. The second advance critical to psychiatry's proto-specialty status, with its increasing focus on a mechanistic understanding of disease, was the rejection of humoral theories of insanity in favor of the brain and nerves as the seat of madness. The third development was the rise of the asylum. Only in dedicated institutions could mad-doctors be exposed to large numbers of the insane, permitting the development of a specialized clinical vocabulary grounded in faculties of mind, which led to new nosologic systems. The decline of humoral medicine, with its purges, bleeding, and emetics, and the urgent clinical need for care produced, in early asylums, the first novel treatment from the young specialty: moral therapy. We tell this story focusing mainly on the work of five philosophers and physicians: Descartes, Willis, Locke, Boerhaave, de Sauvages, and Cullen. Throughout its history, psychiatry has struggled with its sometimes disconjugate goals of understanding both mind and brain, with alternating efforts to expel one of these tasks from the profession. A historical perspective demonstrates that psychiatry is a profession inextricably linked to these two contrasting projects-and, indeed, jointly constituted by them.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Enfermos Mentales , Médicos , Psiquiatría , Trastornos Psicóticos , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Hospitales Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Psiquiatría/historia
14.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 92: 196-208, 2022 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240550

RESUMEN

There have been constant and multiple endeavours to argue for Darwin's both epistemic and practical debt to Romanticism. Almost all of these arguments emphasise Darwin's theoretical and aesthetic associations with Alexander von Humboldt, who, from a prevailing Darwin-centred perspective, is in turn usually oversimplified as an undisputed incarnation of Romanticism. The antagonistic view, however, develops nothing other than another stereotype of Humboldt as an anti-idealistic, pro-French, and even highly Anglophone empiricist naturalist, and accordingly rejects the claim of a romantic Darwin in terms of his Humboldtian inheritance. In this paper, I will first portray a balanced figure of Humboldt in terms of both his critical incorporation of romantic philosophy and the idiosyncratic history of his science. Then, I will thematically compare Darwin with Humboldt and other romantics so as to elucidate Darwin's peculiar appropriation of romantic tenets. Three interrelated romantic themes are examined, along with a discrimination of different senses in which the term romanticism is used: a) the literature-science relation, b) the pursuit of the unity in and through multiplicity, and c) the epistemic role of imagination. On the basis of this triadic dissection, both Humboldt's and Darwin's adherence to and departure from romanticism are reevaluated.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Herencia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Filosofía/historia , Romanticismo , Vibración
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(10): e2120455119, 2022 03 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35238633

RESUMEN

Crowdsourced online genealogies have an unprecedented potential to shed light on long-run population dynamics, if analyzed properly. We investigate whether the historical mortality dynamics of males in familinx, a popular genealogical dataset, are representative of the general population, or whether they are closer to those of an elite subpopulation in two territories. The first territory is the German Empire, with a low level of genealogical coverage relative to the total population size, while the second territory is The Netherlands, with a higher level of genealogical coverage relative to the population. We find that, for the period around the turn of the 20th century (for which benchmark national life tables are available), mortality is consistently lower and more homogeneous in familinx than in the general population. For that time period, the mortality levels in familinx resemble those of elites in the German Empire, while they are closer to those in national life tables in The Netherlands. For the period before the 19th century, the mortality levels in familinx mirror those of the elites in both territories. We identify the low coverage of the total population and the oversampling of elites in online genealogies as potential explanations for these findings. Emerging digital data may revolutionize our knowledge of historical demographic dynamics, but only if we understand their potential uses and limitations.


Asunto(s)
Demografía , Esperanza de Vida , Adulto , Alemania , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Masculino , Países Bajos , Dinámica Poblacional
16.
Urologiia ; (1): 128-132, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35274874

RESUMEN

OBJECT: to study the medical history of N.A. Nekrasov and to determine the nature of his urological disease. The work was carried out from 1977 till 2021. He studied 2616 sources related to the biography of N.A. Nekrasov and medical history. The work was carried out in the archives of Moscow, St.Petersburg, Yaroslavl, Karabikha from 1998 till 2020. The Russian poet N.A.Nekrasov had an illness, which ended in death, during 3 years, from December 1874 till December 27, 1877. He was treated by famous doctors S.P. Botkin, N.V. Sklifosovsky, E.I. Bogdanovsky, N.A. Belogolovy and an operation was performed by Theodore Bilroth. Retrospective analysis revealed the following diagnosis of N.A. Nekrasov: rectal cancer at the stage of T4NXMOP4 with invasion of the sacrum, bladder and compression of the pelvic parts of both ureters, bilateral ureterohydronephrosis with the loss of the left kidney function, chronic renal failure, purulent cystitis, partial intestinal obstruction, suppuration of the wound after colostomy performed on April 12, 1877, Acute purulent paraproctitis, paranephritis, phlegmon of the left retroperitoneal space, purulent effusion to the thigh, phlegmon of the buttock area and the left thigh, sepsis, cerebral stroke. Urological complications of the rectal cancer accelerated the lethal outcome of the poet N.A. Nekrasov who died of sepsis and uremia.


Asunto(s)
Fallo Renal Crónico , Uréter , Enfermedades Urológicas , Personajes , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Riñón , Fallo Renal Crónico/complicaciones , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enfermedades Urológicas/etiología
18.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 58(2): 236-243, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262937

RESUMEN

This article explores what it means to work with decontextualized or mysterious archival traces within collections that already contain obscured provenance. In particular, it compels us to consider what a single object can tell us about the individual, Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld, and what it can teach us about the larger queer community from which it may have originated. Astrology, the occult, and new forms of spirituality proliferated in Weimar Germany, emerging from the late 19th century psy sciences and evolving within Berlin's urban landscape. The extent to which these occult and alternative pathways held a queer dimension is unknown, but not improbable.


Asunto(s)
Astrología , Archivos , Astrología/historia , Alemania , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
19.
Eur Neurol ; 85(3): 245-252, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35313319

RESUMEN

Albert Pitres (1848-1928) was an internist, neuropsychiatrist, professor of anatomy, pathology, and histology. He never really had a biography in English. However, the development of neurology and neurosciences in Bordeaux owes a lot to him, as to the psychiatrist Emmanuel Régis (1855-1918). The fact that his career was so closely linked with Charcot (1825-1893) should have secured him a more prominent place in neurology and the history of aphasiology. Pitres went on to co-author clinical and experimental research papers with Charcot that are considered some of the most notable ones among Charcot's publications. Both carried out studies about pathological correlations between cortical lesions and hemiplegia, published series of articles and two major books about neurophysiology of motor control. To convey the atmosphere and the importance of the neurological clinic of Pitres in the heyday, we illustrate this article with unpublished photos of him.


Asunto(s)
Neurología , Neurociencias , Médicos , Francia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Masculino , Neurología/historia , Neurofisiología , Médicos/historia , Estudiantes
20.
Pneumologie ; 76(5): 365-369, 2022 May.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213925

RESUMEN

During the reign of Emperor Napoleon I, Dominique-Jean Larrey (1766-1842) was chief surgeon in the French army. He has become known as the father of modern military surgery and for the development of the "triage system". Larrey was an outstanding and dedicated physician who provided medical care not only to his own troops but also to those of the enemy. Without reliable analgesia and anaesthesia, speed and skill were the most salient characteristics of a surgeon at that time. Against the opposition of the administration, Larrey is credited with the introduction of first-aid on the battlefield as well as a quick rescue of the wounded with the help of the so-called "flying ambulances". He was considered the soldiers' greatest friend.


Asunto(s)
Inventores , Medicina Militar , Personal Militar , Médicos , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Triaje
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