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2.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134138, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505345

RESUMEN

Plague synchronously swept across separated regions in Europe throughout history. However, the spatio-temporal synchrony of plague and its driving mechanism have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we transformed the historical European plague database spanned 1347-1800 CE into country-level time-series that differentiated large-scale plague outbreak from counted data. We found that there are 74 years in which two or more countries in our study region (UK, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy) experienced large-scale plague outbreak in the same year. Our Multivariate Ripley's K-function results showed that the onset year and the cessation year of large-scale plague outbreak are synchronized at the 0-23-year and 0-20-year windows, respectively. The temporal association between such synchrony and climatic forcing was further investigated using the Superposed Epoch Analysis, and drought was found to be responsible for the synchrony. Integrating our results with a literature survey, we suggested that prior to the peak of plague, the occurrence of drought and the subsequent reintroduced rainfall dampened both the rodent community and human society and boosted the number of fleas that carried plague. Such a synthesis facilitated the outbreak of plague. At the same time, high temperature associated with such drought also confined the geographic diffusion of the plague. Hence, although continental mega-drought could initiate the synchrony of plague outbreak, the synchrony actually consisted of a number of localized plague outbreak events scattering across different regions in Europe. According to the projected rising trend of drought in terms of its magnitude, duration, and geographic extent, the risk of synchrony of rodent-borne diseases in Europe will be significantly elevated, especially in France, Italy, and Spain.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Sequías , Peste/epidemiología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia Medieval , Humanos
3.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(8): 1053-1058, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859971

RESUMEN

This essay analyzes the presence of the modern concept of melancholy in the Intercenales (1424-1439) by the humanist Leon Battista Alberti. The Intercenales is a collection of satirical, allegorical and moralizing writings composed with the purpose of entertaining an audience of close friends. In spite of the fact that the term "melancholia" does not appear in the text, this paper argues that Alberti's character of "the philosopher" is melancholic, since he is "ill in the soul" (suffering from morbus animi), and his illness is evidenced by a series of physical and psychological symptoms associated with melancholy in the classical and medieval medical traditions. These symptoms are stomach pain, pallor, insomnia, a rich memory, a propensity to study at night, and an ability to have premonitory dreams. With this characterization Alberti promotes a connection between melancholy and being a genius, which is distinctive to the Renaissance and the basis for the modern concept of melancholy. The essay concludes that the ultimate purpose of the Intercenales is to cure, from a literary and philosophical point of view, the illness of the melancholic philosopher.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo/historia , Medicina en la Literatura/historia , Filosofía/historia , Trastorno Depresivo/patología , Historia del Siglo XV , Humanos
4.
Tex Heart Inst J ; 46(3): 175-178, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708698

RESUMEN

In 1708, Adam Christian Thebesius, a 22-year-old student at Leiden University, presented his graduate thesis, Disputatio medica inauguralis de circulo sanguinis in corde. More than a doctoral dissertation, this groundbreaking work opened new channels into the study of the human coronary venous system. Thebesius' theory about the vascular communication between the coronary arteries and the chambers of the heart helped to advance understanding of hemodynamic principles and to clarify the physiologic pathways of the coronary circulation. The following article-the third in a trilogy about Lower Silesian scientists-provides an overview of the life story and achievements of this Silesian physician and innovator, whose name was immortalized in 2 cardiac eponyms: the Thebesian veins and the Thebesian valve.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía/historia , Cardiología/historia , Circulación Coronaria , Vasos Coronarios/anatomía & histología , Venas/anatomía & histología , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Polonia
5.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(5): 1588-1595, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368024

RESUMEN

Until well in the 19th century, the Aristotelian concept of the scala naturae (ladder of nature) was the most common biological theory among Western scientists. It dictated that only humans possessed a rational soul that provided the ability to reason and reflect. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (1533-1592) was the first philosopher influential enough to lastingly posit that animals are cognitive creatures. His view stirred a fierce controversy, with René Descartes (1596-1650) leading among his many adversaries. Only after it became accepted that animals and humans alike have cognitive abilities, did the research on the influence of conscious awareness and intention on the behavior of an animal become possible in the 20th century. We found the anatomist Andreas Vesalius (1515-1564) to have already rejected the Aristotelian view on the lack of the rational soul in animals in his 1543 opus magnum De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem. His observation "that there is a difference in size according to the amount of reason that they seem to possess: man's brain is the largest, followed by the ape's, the dog's, and so on, corresponding to the amount of rational force that we deduce each animal to have" resonated some 330 years later when Darwin concluded that "the difference in mind between man and the higher animals, great as it is, certainly is one of degree and not of kind." We conclude that Vesalius was instrumental in breaking with two millenniums of dominance of the concept of lack of animal cognition.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía Comparada/historia , Cognición , Filosofía/historia , Animales , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos
6.
Nature ; 571(7766): 550-554, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341300

RESUMEN

Earth's climate history is often understood by breaking it down into constituent climatic epochs1. Over the Common Era (the past 2,000 years) these epochs, such as the Little Ice Age2-4, have been characterized as having occurred at the same time across extensive spatial scales5. Although the rapid global warming seen in observations over the past 150 years does show nearly global coherence6, the spatiotemporal coherence of climate epochs earlier in the Common Era has yet to be robustly tested. Here we use global palaeoclimate reconstructions for the past 2,000 years, and find no evidence for preindustrial globally coherent cold and warm epochs. In particular, we find that the coldest epoch of the last millennium-the putative Little Ice Age-is most likely to have experienced the coldest temperatures during the fifteenth century in the central and eastern Pacific Ocean, during the seventeenth century in northwestern Europe and southeastern North America, and during the mid-nineteenth century over most of the remaining regions. Furthermore, the spatial coherence that does exist over the preindustrial Common Era is consistent with the spatial coherence of stochastic climatic variability. This lack of spatiotemporal coherence indicates that preindustrial forcing was not sufficient to produce globally synchronous extreme temperatures at multidecadal and centennial timescales. By contrast, we find that the warmest period of the past two millennia occurred during the twentieth century for more than 98 per cent of the globe. This provides strong evidence that anthropogenic global warming is not only unparalleled in terms of absolute temperatures5, but also unprecedented in spatial consistency within the context of the past 2,000 years.


Asunto(s)
Frío , Calentamiento Global/historia , Calentamiento Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Calor , Industrias/historia , Industrias/estadística & datos numéricos , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Actividades Humanas , Cubierta de Hielo , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
7.
Br J Surg ; 106(9): 1167, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304586
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 242: 112059, 2019 Oct 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279866

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa (RR) is a crude drug used in traditional Japanese Kampo medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Sometimes, the crude drug is subjected to additional processing before use. AIM OF THE STUDY: To determine the effects of steam processing and pretreatment with liquor of RR through historical investigation, analytical chemistry, and pharmacological experiments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We inspected TCM literature from the Later Han Dynasty to the present day. Dried RR steamed for 3, 6, 9, or 12 h (steamed RRs, SRRs), dried RR soaked in yellow rice wine (liquor) (liquor-RR), and dried RR steamed for 6 h pretreated with liquor (liquor-SRR) were prepared. These samples were extracted using boiling water, and the inducible effects of the extracts on granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) secretion in cultured enterocytes and the content of their marker compounds were evaluated by using HPLC. RESULTS: The effect of processing using both steaming and the pretreatment using liquor described in TCM literature over different eras was to enhance the warming effect and tonifying qi (energy) of RR. We found that SRR, processed by pretreatment with liquor, became mainstream since the Qing Dynasty. In SRR, stachyose content was decreased and fructose and manninotriose contents were increased with steaming time. However, the content of these compounds was not altered by pretreatment with liquor. RR extract induced G-CSF secretion in cultured enterocytes; moreover, the SRR extract steamed for more than 6 h had significantly stronger effects than that RR. Pretreatment with liquor did not cause any significant differences in the effects of RR or SRR. CONCLUSIONS: The aim of processing for RR by both steaming and pretreatment with liquor in TCM literature over different eras was to enhance the tonifying effect on qi and its immunostimulatory effect. Although the effect of RR on the induction of G-CSF secretion in intestinal epithelial cells was enhanced by steaming, this enhancement was not enhanced by the pretreatment with liquor. These results provide scientific support for steaming, but could not elucidate a reason for pretreatment with liquor in TCM theory.


Asunto(s)
Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Medicina China Tradicional/historia , Medicina Kampo/historia , Preparaciones de Plantas/uso terapéutico , Rehmannia , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/farmacología , Animales , Línea Celular , Factor Estimulante de Colonias de Granulocitos/metabolismo , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Medieval , Ratones , Preparaciones de Plantas/farmacología , Raíces de Plantas , Vapor
9.
Int J Paleopathol ; 26: 1-7, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151079

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the etiology of a subadult skeleton exhibiting increased size of the neurocranium and upper face. MATERIALS: Skeletal remains of a child aged between 1.5-2 years from the Early Modern Period (14th -18th), Zumberak, Croatia. METHODS: Metric and volumetric data were collected, and CT with VRT reconstruction was employed. RESULTS: Metric analyses indicate that the neurocranium and upper face display increased size and volume. CONCLUSION: A diagnosis of the communicating form of hydrocephalus is suggested. SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first published case of the communicating form of hydrocephalus. LIMITATIONS: It is difficult to determine the specific etiology of this condition based on skeletal remains.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocefalia/historia , Croacia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Lactante
11.
Infez Med ; 27(2): 198-211, 2019 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205047

RESUMEN

In past centuries, epidemics, the scourge of humankind, caused pain, anger, uncertainty of the future, social as well as economic disorder and a significant impact on their victims, involving also their spiritual sphere. The latter effect led to undoubted effects on participation in the religious and social life of communities. The custom of preparing artistic votive expressions has been lost in the mists of time and evidence of ex voto gifts, offered by believers to pagan gods, has been found in prehistoric archaeological sites. Furthermore, several finds from the Ancient Greek and Roman worlds may be observed in our museums. These remains are generally ceramic and metal artifacts, reproducing limbs and other body parts which had been healed. These elements, according to the belief of those making the offerings, had benefited from the miraculous intervention of a thaumaturgical deity. With the advent of Christianity, some pre-existing religious practices were endorsed by the new religion. Believers continued to demonstrate their gratitude in different ways either to miracle-working saints or to the Virgin Mary, because they thought that, thanks to an act of faith, their own health or that of a family member would benefit from the direct intervention of the divine entities to whom they had prayed. In the Ancient Greek world, it was believed that the god Asclepius could directly influence human events, as testified by the popularity of shrines and temples to the god, especially at Epidaurus. In the Christian world as well, particular places have been detected, often solitary and secluded in the countryside or in the mountains, where, according to tradition, direct contact was established between the faithful and Saints or the Virgin Mary Herself. Manifestations occurred by means of miracles and apparitions, thereby creating a direct link between the supernatural world and believers. Religious communities, in these extraordinary places, responded to the call through the building of shrines and promotion of the cult. Over time, the faithful reached these places of mystery, performing pilgrimages with the aim of strengthening their religious faith, but also with the purpose of seeking intercession and grace. In this case, the request for clemency assumed spiritual characteristics and also became a profession of faith. Accordingly, the shrines in the Christian world are places where supernatural events may occur. In these environments the believer resorted to faith, when medicine showed its limits in a tangible way. For the above reasons, while epidemics were occurring, the requests for clemency were numerous and such petitions were both individual and collective. In particular, by means of votive offerings (ex voto) the believers, both individually and collectively, gave the evidence of the received grace to the thaumaturgical Saint. Through the votive act, a perpetual link between the believer and the Saints or Holy Virgin was forged and a strong request for communion was transmitted. The aim of the present study is to describe the role played by votive tablets (ex voto) in the last 500-600 years, as visible evidence of human suffering. From this perspective, these votive expressions may assume the role of markers because, in accordance with the expressions of popular faith, they allow us to follow the most important outbreaks that have caused distress to Christian communities.


Asunto(s)
Curación por la Fe/historia , Medicina en las Artes/historia , Pinturas/historia , Peste/historia , Religión y Medicina , Cristianismo/historia , Mundo Griego/historia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Mundo Romano/historia , Simbolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216895, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083691

RESUMEN

An evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of 102 storage jar sherds by k0-neutron activation analysis (k0-NAA) from archaeological contexts in Cambodia and reference samples from stoneware production centres in Thailand provides a new perspective on regional and global trade in mainland Southeast Asia. Identification of seven geochemical groups enables distinctions between production centres, and articulation of their role in trade between northern and central Thailand, South China and Cambodia. Storage jars from Thailand and South China are known in archaeological contexts worldwide because of their durability and intrinsic functional and cultural values. Evidenced by a novel application of k0-NAA, analogous stoneware sherds at Longvek connect the Cambodian capital to a global trading network. Additional proof of ceramics from an undocumented Cambodian kiln demonstrates the gradual and complex transition between the Angkorian past and the Early Modern period.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Cerámica/historia , Comercio/historia , Cambodia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Humanos
16.
Intern Med J ; 49(5): 671-676, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083805

RESUMEN

There is a distinctive Venetian carnival mask with sinister overtones and historical significance to physicians because it belongs to the 'Doctor of the Plague'. The costume features a beaked white mask, black hat and waxed gown. This was worn by mediaeval Plague Doctors as protection according to the Miasma Theory of disease propagation. The plague (or Black Death), ravaged Europe over several centuries with each pandemic leaving millions of people dead. The cause of the contagion was not known, nor was there a cure, which added to the widespread desperation and fear. Venice was a major seaport, and each visitation of the plague (beginning in 1348) devastated the local population. In response, Venetians were among the first to establish the principles of quarantine and 'Lazarets' which we still use today. Plague outbreaks have occurred in Australia, notably in Sydney (1900-1925), and continue to flare up in poorer communities, most recently in Madagascar (2017). Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment, but there are concerns regarding the emergence of resistant pathogenic strains of Yersinia pestis, and their potential use in bio-terrorism.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias/historia , Médicos/historia , Peste/historia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/terapia
17.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 65: 68-75, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108434

RESUMEN

The aim of this work is to discuss the frequency of traumatic bone injuries in a quite unique skeletal assemblage of enslaved people from Valle da Gafaria, Lagos, Portugal (15th-17th centuries). In all, 30 males, 58 females, and 15 individuals of unknown sex were included in the study. The skeletal remains were macroscopically observed for traumatic lesions. When present, the traumatic bone injuries were classified as having occurred ante or perimortem. The antemortem lesions were also studied through radiological analysis. Traumatic lesions were identified in 11 men (36.7%), 23 women (39.7%) and two individuals of unknown sex (13.3%). From these 36 individuals, 61.1% presented antemortem trauma, 25.0% perimortem trauma and 13.9% exhibited simultaneously ante and perimortem trauma. The mechanism of all traumatic injuries was blunt force trauma. From the 9965 analysed bones, 186 exhibited traumatic lesions (87 antemortem, 97 perimortem, and two with both ante and perimortem lesions). The bone more affected by antemortem trauma was the 5th right intermediate foot phalange (40.0%) and by perimortem trauma was the skull (11.4%), probably related to accidents and interpersonal violence, respectively. When analysed by sex, the only significant differences were found in the skull and the right 5th proximal foot phalanges, men (57.1%) presenting more lesions than women (15.4%). The obtained results are consistent with an arduous life, corroborating historical sources which document labour accidents, physical punishments and hard work in the populations of slaves.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/historia , Huesos/lesiones , Huesos/patología , Esclavización/historia , Fracturas Óseas/patología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Antropología Forense , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Portugal , Adulto Joven
18.
World Neurosurg ; 128: 299-307, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100524

RESUMEN

The nomenclature of the 12 cranial nerves as we know it today was developed over a series of anatomic findings by some of history's most famous anatomists from Galen to Von Soemmerring. In this paper, we review the literature to present an overview of the remarkable historical journey that brought our forefathers to trace the pathway of individual cranial nerves from origin to destination. In particular, we discuss the evolution of the naming of the cranial nerves and highlight relevant eponymous descriptions. We also include some poignant illustrations of cranial nerves by ancient anatomists that set the scene to their discoveries. In reviewing this legacy, we summarize the important product of centuries of discoveries and investigations and the limitations of cranial nerve classification systems.


Asunto(s)
Nervios Craneales , Neurología/historia , Terminología como Asunto , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia Antigua , Humanos
20.
Prog Urol ; 29(6): 293-294, 2019.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126826

RESUMEN

Anne de Bretagne, symbol of Brittany, was twice queen of France. She would have died of obstructive pyelonephritis at the age of 36 years old, allowing the definitive reunification of the Kingdom of France. We have a hypothesis of her death.


Asunto(s)
Pielonefritis/historia , Francia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Política
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