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1.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(4): 99-107, 2021 02.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728880

RESUMEN

Within this work are approached some historical elements on the history of the evolution of the perception of the links between the soul and the body and the modification of the place of the soul within canon and Roman rights.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Metafisicas Mente-Cuerpo , Cristianismo/historia , Estado de Conciencia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Psicología/historia , Roma
3.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(2): 110-116, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563344

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nasal lavage is an ancient practice that still has a fundamental role in the management of sinonasal conditions. The history related to these devices is extensive and remarkable. By reviewing it, it is hoped that a broader view can be achieved on what is currently possible with nasal lavage and how advances may be made in the future. METHODS: A careful review of different sources, such as ancient manuscripts, registered patents and scientific papers, was conducted to achieve a thorough examination of the history related to nasal rinsing devices. CONCLUSION: Nasal lavage has evolved significantly since first considered for medical use and has always played a central role in the treatment of patients with sinonasal conditions. Further innovation is still necessary to surmount the shortcomings of current nasal lavage systems.


Asunto(s)
Diseño de Equipo/historia , Lavado Nasal (Proceso)/instrumentación , Enfermedades Nasales/terapia , Senos Paranasales/patología , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Lavado Nasal (Proceso)/historia , Líquido del Lavado Nasal , Jeringas
5.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(2): 229-250, 2021 12.
Artículo en Croata | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535761

RESUMEN

The article describes the oldest locations and buildings for the treatment of patients in Rijeka. According to historical sources, the first known site for health care and treatment was a hospital founded in the 14th or 15th century in the Old Town, in the St Sebastian Street, in which also existed a little church of the same name. It is not known for sure when the hospital was moved to a new location, to a house opposite the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The Statute of Rijeka from 1530 mentions it under the name Hospital of St. Mary (hospitali Sanctae Mariae) but later changed its name to St. Spirit Hospital. It was named after the chapel located in the same block of buildings. As in the previous location, there was an orphanage and an almshouse within the hospital. The hospital and the orphanage operated in this building until 1822, when, at the initiative of the Municipality, they moved to Brajda, in an adapted complex of buildings of the former wax factory. The building of the former hospital has been adapted for residential use. At the end of World War II, the building was destroyed under aerial bombardment and later a new building was built in its place.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Urbanos/historia , Austria-Hungría , Croacia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Medieval
6.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(2): 375-397, 2021 12.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535768

RESUMEN

Syphilis is the prime example of a "new disease" which triggered a transnational (European) discussion among physicians. It appeared between the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Modern Times (at the beginning of the sixteenth century), a time in which medicine was changing from a dogmatic to an experimental discipline. The main changes were in the field of anatomy: in 1543, the same year of the astronomy-disrupting work by Nicolas Copernicus, the new less dogmatic and more empirical approach to anatomy by Andreas Vesalius was published. Nevertheless, in the Renaissance, medicine remains a tradition-bound discipline, proud of its millennial history and its superiority over the empirical, non-academic healers. When syphilis appeared in Europe, several explanations were elaborated. In the mid-16th century, an Italian doctor Luigi Luigini (born in 1526) published in Venice a collection of all the works on syphilis that appeared until 1566. He wanted to entrust to colleagues, contemporary and future, a compendium of all that was known about the "new" disease (the Latin term Novus means both "new" and "strange"). According to the most authors of the collection, the disease is in fact "new" and "strange". Some authors of the collection find it impossible that authorities like Hippocrates and Galen overlooked it. Luigini's work shows the authors' effort to absorb syphilis in the corpus of academic medicine and affirm the authority of academic physicians against the empirical healers.


Asunto(s)
Médicos/historia , Sífilis/historia , Europa (Continente) , Historia del Siglo XVI , Humanos , Italia
7.
8.
Nat Plants ; 7(2): 152-158, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495555

RESUMEN

The archaeological record shows that large pre-Inca agricultural systems supported settlements for centuries around the ravines and oases of northern Chile's hyperarid Atacama Desert. This raises questions about how such productivity was achieved and sustained, and its social implications. Using isotopic data of well-preserved ancient plant remains from Atacama sites, we show a dramatic increase in crop nitrogen isotope values (δ15N) from around AD 1000. Maize was most affected, with δ15N values as high as +30‰, and human bone collagen following a similar trend; moreover, their carbon isotope values (δ13C) indicate a considerable increase in the consumption of maize at the same time. We attribute the shift to extremely high δ15N values-the highest in the world for archaeological plants-to the use of seabird guano to fertilize crops. Guano-'white gold' as it came to be called-thus sustained agricultural intensification, supporting a substantial population in an otherwise extreme environment.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/historia , Arqueología , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Productos Agrícolas/historia , Chile , Productos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Clima Desértico , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia Medieval
9.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, MOSAICO - Salud integrativa | ID: biblio-1145942

RESUMEN

Resumen: El "Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis" (Librito de las Hierbas Medicinales de los Indios) fue elaborado por los sabios indígenas Martín De la Cruz y Juan Badiano, 31 años después de la caída del imperio azteca. El primero es su autor, el segundo tradujo el manuscrito del Náhuatl al latín. Contiene numerosas recetas para tratar enfermedades humanas y 185 dibujos a color de las plantas utilizadas. En 1939 se publicó por primera vez como "Un Herbario Azteca". Empero, también contiene enfermedades y prácticas médicas europeas del siglo XVI. Presentamos una revisión actualizada de este hermoso códice, su historia, concepción, creadores y botánica; además, la química y farmacología de cinco plantas ahí citadas. El Libellus es una ventana en el tiempo que permite la investigación científica del antiguo conocimiento etnofarmacológico en Mesoamérica y documentar su persistencia, desaparición o transformación. Sin embargo, esto requiere superar desafíos lingüísticos, pero también derivados de su contexto histórico, antropológico, cultural, botánico y médico.


Abstract: The "Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis" (Little Book of Indian Medicinal Plants) was composed by the indigenous sages Martín De la Cruz and Juan Badiano, 31 years after the Aztec Empire fall. The former was the author, and the latter translated the manuscript from the Nahuatl language to Latin. It contains numerous recipes for treating human diseases and 185 colored drawings of the prescribed plants. In 1939 it was first published as "An Aztec Herbarium". However, it also contains XVI century European diseases and medical practices. We present an updated review of this beautiful codex, its history, conception, creators, and botany; as well as, the chemistry and pharmacology of five plants therein cited. The Libellus is a window in the time that allows the scientific research of ancient ethnopharmacological knowledge in Mesoamerica and document its persistence, disappearance, or transformation. However, this requires overcoming linguistic defies, but also derived from its historical, anthropological, cultural, botanical, and medical context.


Asunto(s)
Historia del Siglo XVI , Plantas Medicinales , Ciencia/historia , Américas , Etnofarmacología , México
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111072, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378971

RESUMEN

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive pulmonary interstitial inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, and is also a sequela in severe patients with the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nintedanib and pirfenidone are the only two known drugs which are conditionally recommended for the treatment of IPF by the FDA. However, these drugs pose some adverse side effects such as nausea and diarrhoea during clinical applications. Therefore, it is of great value and significance to identify effective and safe therapeutic drugs to solve the clinical problems associated with intake of western medicine. As a unique medical treatment, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has gradually exerted its advantages in the treatment of IPF worldwide through a multi-level and multi-target approach. Further, to overcome the current clinical problems of oral and injectable intakes of TCM, pulmonary drug delivery system (PDDS) could be designed to reduce the systemic metabolism and adverse reactions of the drug and to improve the bioavailability of drugs. Through PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and CNKI, we retrieved articles published in related fields in recent years, and this paper has summarized twenty-seven Chinese compound prescriptions, ten single TCM, and ten active ingredients for effective prevention and treatment of IPF. We also introduce three kinds of inhaling PDDS, which supports further research of TCM combined with PDDS to treat IPF.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Fibrosis Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamiento farmacológico , Medicina China Tradicional/métodos , Fitoterapia , Composición de Medicamentos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/administración & dosificación , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Fibrosis Pulmonar Idiopática/etiología , Fibrosis Pulmonar Idiopática/prevención & control , Medicina China Tradicional/historia , Nebulizadores y Vaporizadores , Terapia Respiratoria
11.
Asclepio ; 72(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-199283

RESUMEN

En este trabajo se analizan distintas facetas de la vida del médico sevillano Juan de la Fuente, quien fuera el primer catedrático de medicina en la Nueva España y en el continente americano. El objetivo principal es brindar una imagen más completa sobre este doctor, puesto que su figura ha sido frecuentemente estudiada haciendo énfasis en su magisterio en la Real Universidad de México, dejando de lado otros aspectos que lo muestran como un personaje más diverso, tales como su formación humanista y su fundamental participación en la creación de las primeras instituciones sanitarias novohispanas. A través de distintos documentos de archivo y referencias bibliográficas de la segunda mitad del siglo XVI se hace una reconstrucción de su vida y obra


This paper analyzes different aspects of Juan de la Fuente's life, a sevillian physician who was the first medical professor in New Spain and in the American continent. The main purpose is to show a complete image of this physician, not only since his teaching work at the Royal University of Mexico but as a more complex person; such as his important humanist education as well as a significant participation in the creation of the first healthcare institutions in the New Spain. In order to do it, a reconstruction of his life and work was made with different documents and books from the second half of 16th century


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia de la Medicina , España
12.
Asclepio ; 72(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-199284

RESUMEN

La historiografía ha mostrado extensamente cómo los médicos irlandeses tuvieron un papel de primer nivel en la medicina del siglo XVIII a lo largo de toda la Monarquía Hispánica. Sin embargo, más allá de las prominentes figuras ligadas a los círculos cortesanos y militares -tales como, Higgins, Purcell, Gorman u O'Scanlan-, puede reivindicarse todo un número de doctores irlandeses que desempeñaron su ejercicio en ámbitos público-privados de menor proyección, pero con sólidos posicionamientos profesionales, y en muchos de los casos, vehiculizando las nuevas corrientes ideológicas del continente, adquiridas en la trayectoria de su emigración. Así, Raymond Everard, natural del condado de Waterford (Irlanda), representa muy fielmente el arquetipo de médico irlandés que, tras un paso por las universidades y los círculos pre-ilustrados franceses, recaló en Bilbao como médico municipal, atendiendo a la villa durante casi cuarenta años, e impregnándola de la modernidad técnico-científica del momento a través de su labor médica


Historiography has extensively demonstrated that Irish doctors played a very relevant role in the medicine of the Spanish Monarchy along 18th century. Nevertheless, beyond the prominent figures linked to the court and military circles -such as Higgins, Purcell, Gorman or O'Scanlan-, a significant number of Irish doctors can be claimed, who practised medicine in public-private spheres of less projection. In any case, they were well established professionals, who conveyed the new ideological currents generated in the continent and acquired along their migration pathways. Raymond Everard, born in co. Waterford (Ireland), truly depicts the archetype of the Irish doctor who, after being immersed in the French enlightened circles and universities, settled down in Bilbao as municipal doctor, where he took care of the town for nearly forty years, imbuing it with the existing technical-scientific modernity through his medical work


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia de la Medicina , Irlanda
13.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 12 03.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332041

RESUMEN

The plague epidemics wiped out large parts of the city population from the 15th to the 17th century in the Netherlands. The plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) is transmitted to humans through infected rats and fleas and has been transferred from China to Europe via the trade routes over land and sea. Meetings were banned, plague victims were isolated at home or in pest houses, and ships quarantined. In the densely populated, poor neighborhoods of the cities, however, isolation and keeping distance were not feasible, which allowed the plague to rapidly spread. The lessons we have learned from the plague epidemics are timeless. Isolation, keeping your distance and quarantine were key principles and now apply again in the approach to the current Covid-19 pandemic. How effective these measures are depends on the social context in which they are applied.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Peste , Cuarentena , Animales , /prevención & control , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Vectores de Enfermedades , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Humanos , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Pandemias/historia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/historia , Peste/microbiología , Peste/prevención & control , Cuarentena/historia , Cuarentena/métodos , Yersinia pestis/patogenicidad
14.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244497, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382772

RESUMEN

Many native populations in South America have been severely impacted by two relatively recent historical events, the Inca and the Spanish conquest. However decisive these disruptive events may have been, the populations and their gene pools have been shaped markedly also by the history prior to the conquests. This study focuses mainly on the Chachapoya peoples that inhabit the montane forests on the eastern slopes of the northern Peruvian Andes, but also includes three distinct neighboring populations (the Jívaro, the Huancas and the Cajamarca). By assessing mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and autosomal diversity in the region, we explore questions that have emerged from archaeological and historical studies of the regional culture (s). These studies have shown, among others, that Chachapoyas was a crossroads for Coast-Andes-Amazon interactions since very early times. In this study, we examine the following questions: 1) was there pre-Hispanic genetic population substructure in the Chachapoyas sample? 2) did the Spanish conquest cause a more severe population decline on Chachapoyan males than on females? 3) can we detect different patterns of European gene flow in the Chachapoyas region? and, 4) did the demographic history in the Chachapoyas resemble the one from the Andean area? Despite cultural differences within the Chachapoyas region as shown by archaeological and ethnohistorical research, genetic markers show no significant evidence for past or current population substructure, although an Amazonian gene flow dynamic in the northern part of this territory is suggested. The data also indicates a bottleneck c. 25 generations ago that was more severe among males than females, as well as divergent population histories for populations in the Andean and Amazonian regions. In line with previous studies, we observe high genetic diversity in the Chachapoyas, despite the documented dramatic population declines. The diverse topography and great biodiversity of the northeastern Peruvian montane forests are potential contributing agents in shaping and maintaining the high genetic diversity in the Chachapoyas region.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Flujo Génico , Genética de Población , Indios Sudamericanos/genética , Dinámica Poblacional/historia , Arqueología , Cromosomas Humanos Y/genética , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Femenino , Marcadores Genéticos , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , América del Sur
15.
J Parasitol ; 106(6): 802-808, 2020 11 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351947

RESUMEN

Metagonimiasis is foodborne intestinal parasitism occurring by the definitive hosts' ingestion of raw or undercooked fish, mostly commonly sweetfish. Most Metagonimus infection is caused by Metagonimus yokogawai but also rarely by Metagonimus takahashii as well as Metagonimus miyatai. Despite recent molecular work on Metagonimus spp., there are still insufficient data to reveal the genetic characteristics of ancient M. yokogawai in a wide geo-historical scope. In this study, we were successful in the analysis of M. yokogawai ancient DNA (aDNA) using coprolite samples retrieved from 16th- to 17th-century Korean mummies. In BLAST and phylogenetic analyses, M. yokogawai 28S rDNA of Korean mummies were clustered along with the 28S rDNA taxa of M. takahashii and M. miyatai in GenBank. Conversely, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) of M. yokogawai aDNA from Korean mummies was distinctly clustered apart from M. takahashii and M. miyatai sequences. This study is the first report of its kind to identify M. yokogawai aDNA retrieved from the archaeological specimens and confirms the usefulness of COI in molecular diagnosis of M. yokogawai. Considering the rarity of reports on the genetics of genus Metagonimus spp., our study will be fundamental for the future study of M. yokogawai paleogenetics.


Asunto(s)
ADN de Helmintos/aislamiento & purificación , Heterophyidae/genética , Momias/historia , Momias/parasitología , Infecciones por Trematodos/historia , Animales , ADN de Helmintos/historia , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Heterophyidae/aislamiento & purificación , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Humanos , Corea (Geográfico) , Masculino , Infecciones por Trematodos/parasitología
16.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(10): 945-948, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026341

RESUMEN

More than 10 million enslaved Africans were transported to the Americas between 1500 and 1900. Recent genetic studies investigate regional African ancestry components in present-day Africa-Americans, and allow comparison with the extensive records documenting these deportations. The genetic evidence generally agrees with the historical records but brings additional insights in this dark episode of human history.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/genética , Personas Esclavizadas , Esclavización/historia , Genética de Población , África , Océano Atlántico , Comercio/historia , ADN Mitocondrial/análisis , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Personas Esclavizadas/historia , Flujo Génico/fisiología , Variación Genética , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Patrón de Herencia/genética , Estados Unidos
17.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 74(2): 180-195, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112103

RESUMEN

Until the 19th century, the factor causing epidemics was not known, and the escape from a place where it occurred as well as isolation of patients was considered to be the only effective way to avoid illness and death. Quarantine in a sense similar to modern times was used in 1377 in Ragusa, today's Dubrovnik, during the plague epidemic. It was the first administratively imposed procedure in the world's history. It was later used in Venice and other rich port cities in the Mediterranean. On the territory of today's Poland, quarantine measures were used by the so-called Mayor of the Air - LukaszDrewno in 1623 during the plague epidemic in Warsaw. The quarantine left its mark on all areas of human activity. It affected all humanity in a way that is underestimated today. Throughout history, it has been described and presented visually. It is omnipresent in the world literature, art and philosophy. However, the isolation and closure of cities, limiting trade, had an impact on the economic balance, and the dilemma between the choice of inhabitants' health and the quality of existence, i.e. their wealth, has been the subject of discussions since the Middle Ages. Since the end of the 19th century, quarantine has lost its practical meaning. The discovery of bacteria and a huge development of medical and social sciences allowed limiting its range. In the 20th century isolation and quarantine no longer had a global range, because the ability to identify factors causing the epidemic, knowledge about the incubation period, carrier, infectiousness, enabled the rational determination of its duration and territorial range. The modern SARS COV 2 pandemic has resulted in a global quarantine on a scale unprecedented for at least three hundred years. The aim of this paper is to present the history of quarantine from its beginning to the present day, including its usefulness as an epidemiological tool.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias/historia , Peste/historia , Cuarentena/historia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/historia , Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Medieval , Humanos
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(44): 27703-27711, 2020 11 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077604

RESUMEN

Historical records reveal the temporal patterns of a sequence of plague epidemics in London, United Kingdom, from the 14th to 17th centuries. Analysis of these records shows that later epidemics spread significantly faster ("accelerated"). Between the Black Death of 1348 and the later epidemics that culminated with the Great Plague of 1665, we estimate that the epidemic growth rate increased fourfold. Currently available data do not provide enough information to infer the mode of plague transmission in any given epidemic; nevertheless, order-of-magnitude estimates of epidemic parameters suggest that the observed slow growth rates in the 14th century are inconsistent with direct (pneumonic) transmission. We discuss the potential roles of demographic and ecological factors, such as climate change or human or rat population density, in driving the observed acceleration.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias/historia , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/historia , Animales , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Londres , Peste/transmisión , Densidad de Población , Ratas
19.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1140): 633-638, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907877

RESUMEN

After the dramatic coronavirus outbreak at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, on 11 March 2020, a pandemic was declared by the WHO. Most countries worldwide imposed a quarantine or lockdown to their citizens, in an attempt to prevent uncontrolled infection from spreading. Historically, quarantine is the 40-day period of forced isolation to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. In this educational paper, a historical overview from the sacred temples of ancient Greece-the cradle of medicine-to modern hospitals, along with the conceive of healthcare systems, is provided. A few foods for thought as to the conflict between ethics in medicine and shortage of personnel and financial resources in the coronavirus disease 2019 era are offered as well.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ética Médica/historia , Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud/ética , Hospitales/historia , Pandemias/historia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Cuarentena/historia , Betacoronavirus , Cólera/epidemiología , Cólera/historia , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Juramento Hipocrático , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Lepra/epidemiología , Lepra/historia , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/historia , Asignación de Recursos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
20.
Neurology ; 95(11): 484-488, 2020 09 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934155

RESUMEN

The historical trajectory of the discovery of the brainstem as a vital center has been rarely explored. Focusing on its tracts and neurons first, anatomists much later expanded their understanding of the brainstem with the discovery of groups of nuclear networks that affected major vital functions. Comparative anatomists (i.e., Edinger) postulated a primordial paleopallium that indirectly implied the centrality of the brainstem and a neopallidum with its differentiation and specialization up to Homo sapiens Methods that governed the discovery of the brainstem were (1) comparative anatomy, (2) embryonic growth, (3) vivisection, (4) brain dissection, and, much later, (5) microscopy and chemical feedback loops. This historical study traces how neuroscientists of the 18th and 19th century became increasingly aware of the vital functions performed by the brainstem. The anatomists of the 20th century found the ascending reticular formation, the respiratory center, and pressor centers-all automatic and vital functions. It took centuries for this realization to open the way to use the testable brainstem centers to establish the criteria for a neurologic determination of death. The ontogenetic conclusion is that the brainstem is the ancestor of the developed human brain; the physiologic conclusion is that the brainstem is a vital center and a structural support system and conduit. When afunctional, life ends.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía Regional/historia , Concienciación , Tronco Encefálico , Tronco Encefálico/anatomía & histología , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
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