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1.
Obes Rev ; 23(6): e13440, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35238142

RESUMEN

World Health Organization defines obesity as abnormal or excess adipose tissue accumulation. Nowadays, this condition is a serious threat to the public health in most countries around the world. Obesity adversely affects physical, mental, and in most cultures, social well-being. However, throughout the ages-from ancient times to the 21st century-this condition has been subject to various interpretations. As a matter of fact, obesity has not always been regarded as a disease. For many decades, excessive body weight has been considered rather a symbol of health. It was a marker of wealth and prosperity, as well as a sign of high social status. The centuries that passed on the development of science and medicine have gradually changed its face, but significant progress in understanding the causes and consequences of obesity has been made in the last 30 years. This paper presents the historical outline of obesity and its treatment from ancient times to the present-from its affirmation to the epidemic in the late 20th and 21st century.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad , Peso Corporal , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Obesidad/epidemiología
4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 7(1): 105-107, 2022 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550308

RESUMEN

Importance: The recognition of the pulmonary circulation is a complex evolution in medical history and draws on theories across eras and cultures. Observations: This narrative review summarizes evidence suggesting that the recognition of pulmonary circulation is older than the time of Ibn Nafis. The theory of pulmonary circulation originated in ancient Persia (ad 224-637), was overshadowed by Greek theory from the 11th century, and reestablished by Ibn Nafis in the 13th century. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this review may help contextualize the story of the discovery of pulmonary circulation in ancient Persian and Greek theories before Ibn Nafis.


Asunto(s)
Cardiología/historia , Circulación Pulmonar/fisiología , Grecia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Persia
5.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(2): 97-102, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819180

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: For centuries, the tympanum has remained the only visible structure of the organ of hearing. This study aimed to trace the understanding of the tympanic membrane from antiquity to the early twentieth century. METHODS: A review was conducted of primary and secondary historical and scientific literature describing the tympanic membrane anatomy. RESULTS: Although ancient polymaths sensed that sounds were vibrations that could spread in the air and be perceived by the hearing organ, there were numerous misconceptions about the tympanum until human dissections performed during the Renaissance. The tympanum was correctly described only centuries later when technological advances enabled otologists to understand it as a fundamental part of the hearing organ. CONCLUSION: The tympanic membrane history reflects key stages in medical knowledge; limited for centuries, a great technological leap was possible in the nineteenth century, contributing to the emergence of otologists and laying the foundations of modern otology.


Asunto(s)
Otolaringología/historia , Membrana Timpánica/anatomía & histología , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos
8.
J Anat ; 240(2): 183-196, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595744

RESUMEN

Leonardo da Vinci, the Renaissance polymath, is still recognized today-above all for his oil paintings and mechanical inventions. His anatomical studies have attracted less attention, even though he devoted over 30 years of his life to them. This paper outlines Leonardo's career and research methods and focuses on the importance of his medical images for anatomical research and teaching. Following a short presentation of the state of (dental) medicine in the early Renaissance period, it offers a description of five of his cranial drawings that show the anatomy of the teeth, the nervous and vascular system on inner and outer tables of the skull and the paranasal sinuses in great detail. Leonardo da Vinci had obviously discovered and depicted the maxillary sinus 150 years before the anatomist Nathaniel Highmore, who is usually credited with this discovery. Other anatomical drawings by Leonardo address the correct human dental formula and describe the morphology of the four types of teeth. His handwritten notes show that he recognized the connection between tooth form and function. Finally, this paper evaluates the influence of these discoveries and innovations on the development of dentistry and its establishment as a scientific discipline. There is no doubt that Leonardo da Vinci's preoccupation with the anatomy of the maxillofacial region influenced the development of anatomy and dentistry, even though he never published his anatomical research.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía , Personajes , Diente , Cabeza , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Cuerpo Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Cráneo
9.
ANZ J Surg ; 92(1-2): 34-45, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636472

RESUMEN

This review discusses how renaissance artists such as Leonardo and Michelangelo had to undertake anatomical studies of human cadavers in order to understand the anatomy that then informed their artworks, whether they were drawings, paintings or sculpture. Around this time, anatomists, such as Vesalius and Estienne, had to in part become artists or engage with artists and artisans to illustrate their many discoveries. This review tries to portray how this was occurring in a period in history not only when there was a shift-taking place in philosophical and theological thinking about the human condition but also when there was a concurrent revolution in the visual language with the advent of print reproduction. This allowed the creation of essentially the first medical texts, and the wide dissemination of newly acquired knowledge for the advancement of surgery and medicine henceforth. A classic example of where this did not align is Leonardo de Vinci many of whose original works were hidden for 150-400 years. This review also describes how learning anatomy and artistic endeavours still have a mutually beneficial relationship in the modern world-a second 'Renaissance'. Examples are given such as body painting, exposure of art students human cadavers resources and lastly there is consideration of how modern anatomy relies on many new technologies that allow students and practitioners to 'dissect' in a virtual sense and with the advent of a new visual language, that is, 3D printing, to create novel artforms of educational significance.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía , Medicina en las Artes , Medicina , Pinturas , Anatomía/educación , Historia del Siglo XVI , Humanos , Conocimiento , Aprendizaje
10.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 35(11): 2149-2155, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580605

RESUMEN

AIM: To confirm that the sixteenth century surgeon-anatomist, Jacopo Berengario da Carpi, used a woman who died of a ruptured uterus as a model for a woodcut of female genital anatomy, and that the presentation was based on the cloak in Michelangelo's Creation of Adam after visiting the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican whilst he was in Rome. METHOD: Analysis of the woodcut for evidence of a uterus at term, and comparison with the shape of the cloak in the Creation of Adam, coupled with Berengario's own description. RESULTS: The size of the uterus is that in the 38th to 40th week of pregnancy, further supported by striations of the endometrial surface, rather than the smooth surface of the non-gravid. By rotating the woman's image 90° counterclockwise, the outline of the woman's cloak becomes almost perfectly superimposed over God's cloak. CONCLUSION: In the woodcut, the open belly of the model shows typical features of the full-term uterus. The use of God's cloak softens the features. At the same time, it exemplifies the creative power of God and describes the birth of humanity in both theological and physiological ways. Intertwining art, religion and anatomy, Michelangelo and Berengario allow scholars to appreciate the concepts of divinity and humanity at multiple levels.


Asunto(s)
Personajes , Muerte Materna , Pinturas , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XVI , Humanos , Masculino , Pinturas/historia , Parto , Embarazo , Religión
13.
Molecules ; 26(22)2021 Nov 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834025

RESUMEN

This work is based on the study of 150 majolica vases dated back to the mid XVII century that once preserved medicinal remedies prepared in the ancient Pharmacy annexed to the Ospedale Maggiore Ca' Granda in Milan (Lombardy, Italy). The Hortus simplicium was created in 1641 as a source of plant-based ingredients for those remedies. The main objective of the present work is to lay the knowledge base for the restoration of the ancient Garden for educational and informative purposes. Therefore, the following complementary phases were carried out: (i) the analysis of the inscriptions on the jars, along with the survey on historical medical texts, allowing for the positive identification of the plant ingredients of the remedies and their ancient use as medicines; (ii) the bibliographic research in modern pharmacological literature in order to validate or refute the historical uses; (iii) the realization of the checklist of plants potentially present in cultivation at the ancient Garden, concurrently with the comparison with the results of a previous in situ archaeobotanical study concerning pollen grains. For the species selection, considerations were made also regarding drug amounts in the remedies and pedoclimatic conditions of the study area. Out of the 150 vases, 108 contained plant-based remedies, corresponding to 148 taxa. The remedies mainly treated gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders. At least one of the medicinal uses was validated in scientific literature for 112 out of the 148 examined species. Finally, a checklist of 40 taxa, presumably hosted in the Hortus simplicium, was assembled.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Tradicional/historia , Fitoterapia/historia , Plantas Medicinales , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Italia
14.
Ann Surg ; 274(6): e616-e624, 2021 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784667

RESUMEN

Despite persistent critiques of the rigor of surgical research, surgeons have actually pursued careful empirical studies for centuries. Their work has enriched not only surgical science but also the development of evidencebased medicine. From conducting landmark controlled trials, to using statistics, alternate patient allocation, randomization, and sham controls, surgeons have long embraced innovative trial approaches and played important roles in the development of key methods of RCTs. However, historical contexts unique to surgery have shaped the implementation of RCTs in this field. Unlike the history of pharmaceuticals, in which substantial research funding has been devoted to testing new drugs before their approval, surgical trials have followed a different trajectory. New operations have repeatedly come into wide use in the absence of RCTs. On many occasions, when established procedures have become controversial, surgeons have then marshaled the resources to conduct RCTs reassessing the operations. Such trials have triggered powerful debates in which proponents of surgical RCTs battled against ingrained practices and preferences. In such cases, RCTs often were not decisive factors in determining the fate of surgical practices but supporting tools that followed and reflected changes in surgical judgment already underway. Surgical trialists also have encountered specific, recurring challenges, especially with the methodological and ethical complexity of blinded and sham-controlled trials. The history of surgical trials thus reveals major contributions from surgeons to the advancement of evidence-based medicine, as well as ongoing challenges. Strengthened and systematic trial support could advance the future of surgical RCTs.


Asunto(s)
Cirugía General/historia , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/historia , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/historia , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
15.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(5): 890-899, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785018

RESUMEN

St. Gallicanus Hospital in Rome, Italy, created by the will of Pope Benedict XIII (1649-1730) in 1725, was the first dermatologic hospital in the world. The strong bond between science and faith, humanitarian spirit and scientific research, and the profoundness and legacy of its entire history have all contributed to its legacy. We have traced its development by examining archival documents to understand the life of the institute and the diseases that were diagnosed and treated from the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century. Some of the main diseases were leprosy, mange, scabies, ringworm, and syphilis, which were widespread in Rome during the 18th and 19th centuries and were creating a mortal threat for much of the population. St. Gallicanus Hospital was dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these diseases where possible. Special attention has been directed to syphilis and the use of penicillin therapy after its introduction in 1943, especially for curbing the extensive problems created by prostitution.


Asunto(s)
Escabiosis , Sífilis , Academias e Institutos , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Hospitales , Humanos , Ciudad de Roma , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sífilis/epidemiología
17.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(10): 676-680, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672455

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Leonardo da Vinci, the artist and scientist, was an archetype figure of the Renaissance era. He was an autodidactic polymath in natural sciences, engineering, and physical sciences, imbued with universality, prodigious inventive imagination, and curiosity to know and understand the world around him. Among his myriad activities, anatomy, physiology, and biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system and the underlying systems fully engaged him. Leonardo dissected dozens of human and animal corpses to study. His anatomical illustrations were precise, combining art and science with an impeccable integration of both. Multiple drawings, diagrams, sketches, and designs are found in his notes. Leonardo's style was intensely personal, unveiling his thoughts, passions, and emotions. We analyzed significant biographic aspects of Leonardo's life, remarking on his scientific and life conceptions and their manifestation in his anatomical designs. The contribution of preceding anatomists is reported as a source of his inspiration as well as motivation to successors. Leonardo da Vinci left no publications, but rather an extensive collection of personal notebooks. Leonardo's contribution to modern anatomy was enormous and he is considered by the scientific and medical community as the father of the modern anatomy.


Asunto(s)
Anatomía Artística/historia , Cuerpo Humano , Medicina en las Artes/historia , Ciencia en las Artes/historia , Personajes , Historia del Siglo XVI , Humanos , Italia
19.
Nature ; 598(7879): 82-85, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616056

RESUMEN

New Zealand was among the last habitable places on earth to be colonized by humans1. Charcoal records indicate that wildfires were rare prior to colonization and widespread following the 13th- to 14th-century Maori settlement2, but the precise timing and magnitude of associated biomass-burning emissions are unknown1,3, as are effects on light-absorbing black carbon aerosol concentrations over the pristine Southern Ocean and Antarctica4. Here we used an array of well-dated Antarctic ice-core records to show that while black carbon deposition rates were stable over continental Antarctica during the past two millennia, they were approximately threefold higher over the northern Antarctic Peninsula during the past 700 years. Aerosol modelling5 demonstrates that the observed deposition could result only from increased emissions poleward of 40° S-implicating fires in Tasmania, New Zealand and Patagonia-but only New Zealand palaeofire records indicate coincident increases. Rapid deposition increases started in 1297 (±30 s.d.) in the northern Antarctic Peninsula, consistent with the late 13th-century Maori settlement and New Zealand black carbon emissions of 36 (±21 2 s.d.) Gg y-1 during peak deposition in the 16th century. While charcoal and pollen records suggest earlier, climate-modulated burning in Tasmania and southern Patagonia6,7, deposition in Antarctica shows that black carbon emissions from burning in New Zealand dwarfed other preindustrial emissions in these regions during the past 2,000 years, providing clear evidence of large-scale environmental effects associated with early human activities across the remote Southern Hemisphere.


Asunto(s)
Incendios/historia , Actividades Humanas/historia , Hollín/análisis , Atmósfera/química , Biomasa , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Nueva Zelanda , Tasmania
20.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258555, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653214

RESUMEN

The timeframe of Indigenous settlements in Northeast North America in the 15th-17th centuries CE has until very recently been largely described in terms of European material culture and history. An independent chronology was usually absent. Radiocarbon dating has recently begun to change this conventional model radically. The challenge, if an alternative, independent timeframe and history is to be created, is to articulate a high-resolution chronology appropriate and comparable with the lived histories of the Indigenous village settlements of the period. Improving substantially on previous initial work, we report here high-resolution defined chronologies for the three most extensively excavated and iconic ancestral Kanien'kehá꞉ka (Mohawk) village sites in New York (Smith-Pagerie, Klock and Garoga), and a fourth early historic Indigenous site, Brigg's Run, and re-assess the wider chronology of the Mohawk River Valley in the mid-15th to earlier 17th centuries. This new chronology confirms initial suggestions from radiocarbon that a wholesale reappraisal of past assumptions is necessary, since our dates conflict completely with past dates and the previously presumed temporal order of these three iconic sites. In turn, a wider reassessment of northeastern North American early history and re-interpretation of Atlantic connectivities in the later 15th through early 17th centuries is required. Our new closely defined date ranges are achieved employing detailed archival analysis of excavation records to establish the contextual history for radiocarbon-dated samples from each site, tree-ring defined short time series from wood charcoal samples fitted against the radiocarbon calibration curve ('wiggle-matching'), and Bayesian chronological modelling for each of the individual sites integrating all available prior knowledge and radiocarbon dating probabilities. We define (our preferred model) most likely (68.3% highest posterior density) village occupation ranges for Smith-Pagerie of ~1478-1498, Klock of ~1499-1521, Garoga of ~1550-1582, and Brigg's Run of ~1619-1632.


Asunto(s)
Arqueología , Emigración e Inmigración/historia , Teorema de Bayes , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Humanos , América del Norte , Datación Radiométrica , Ríos , Madera/química
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