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1.
Ann Anat ; 239: 151843, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653620

RESUMEN

In France, bioarcheological research has long overlooked the early and late modern periods, which witnessed major transformations impacting population structure and leading to the dawn of modern industrialized societies. Two recently excavated large cemeteries in Provence present a unique opportunity to investigate on a large scale the impact on health and living conditions brought about by the Industrial Revolution and consequently track health status changes from the 16th to the early 20th century. The sample includes 642 individuals from the early modern cemetery of Saint-Jacques, La Ciotat (1581-1831) and the late modern cemetery of Les Crottes, Marseille (1784-1905). This study aims to document dental health markers and compare the results between both assemblages, considering ante-mortem tooth loss, wear, caries, abscesses, calculus, periodontitis and linear enamel hypoplasia. The available archaeological and historical sources for these recent periods provide a full documentation in which to interpret and discuss the biological analysis, thus enabling an inclusive bioarcheological approach. RESULTS: revealed similarities between both samples. Differences are more subtle than expected and are seen through the increase in carious lesions and in linear enamel hypoplasia. The former seem to indicate changes in diet with the introduction of new foodstuffs and manufacturing processes during the Industrial Revolution. The latter could reflect the increase in early childhood stress, perhaps due to new feeding practices around weaning and breastfeeding or a poorly diversified diet. Finally, the increasing number of stress events could suggest a noxious sanitary and infectious environment. During the 19th century, Marseille experienced strong demographic and urban growth, resulting in overcrowded areas where sanitation facilities were insufficient or absent. Moreover, the activity of this important trading seaport might have promoted the transmission and appearance of epidemic diseases despite scientific and medical advances, which would have a real impact only from the 20th century onwards.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Conducta Alimentaria , Preescolar , Francia , Estado de Salud , Historia del Siglo XVII , Humanos , Destete
2.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(5): 890-899, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785018

RESUMEN

St. Gallicanus Hospital in Rome, Italy, created by the will of Pope Benedict XIII (1649-1730) in 1725, was the first dermatologic hospital in the world. The strong bond between science and faith, humanitarian spirit and scientific research, and the profoundness and legacy of its entire history have all contributed to its legacy. We have traced its development by examining archival documents to understand the life of the institute and the diseases that were diagnosed and treated from the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century. Some of the main diseases were leprosy, mange, scabies, ringworm, and syphilis, which were widespread in Rome during the 18th and 19th centuries and were creating a mortal threat for much of the population. St. Gallicanus Hospital was dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these diseases where possible. Special attention has been directed to syphilis and the use of penicillin therapy after its introduction in 1943, especially for curbing the extensive problems created by prostitution.


Asunto(s)
Escabiosis , Sífilis , Academias e Institutos , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Hospitales , Humanos , Ciudad de Roma , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sífilis/epidemiología
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 723821, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616690

RESUMEN

Ancient dental calculus, formed from dental plaque, is a rich source of ancient DNA and can provide information regarding the food and oral microbiology at that time. Genomic analysis of dental calculus from Neanderthals has revealed the difference in bacterial composition of oral microbiome between Neanderthals and modern humans. There are few reports investigating whether the pathogenic bacteria of periodontitis, a polymicrobial disease induced in response to the accumulation of dental plaque, were different between ancient and modern humans. This study aimed to compare the bacterial composition of the oral microbiome in ancient and modern human samples and to investigate whether lifestyle differences depending on the era have altered the bacterial composition of the oral microbiome and the causative bacteria of periodontitis. Additionally, we introduce a novel diagnostic approach for periodontitis in ancient skeletons using micro-computed tomography. Ancient 16S rDNA sequences were obtained from 12 samples at the Unko-in site (18th-19th century) of the Edo era (1603-1867), a characteristic period in Japan when immigrants were not accepted. Furthermore, modern 16S rDNA data from 53 samples were obtained from a database to compare the modern and ancient microbiome. The microbial co-occurrence network was analyzed based on 16S rDNA read abundance. Eubacterium species, Mollicutes species, and Treponema socranskii were the core species in the Edo co-occurrence network. The co-occurrence relationship between Actinomyces oricola and Eggerthella lenta appeared to have played a key role in causing periodontitis in the Edo era. However, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. vincentii, and Prevotella pleuritidis were the core and highly abundant species in the co-occurrence network of modern samples. These results suggest the possibility of differences in the pathogens causing periodontitis during different eras in history.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/clasificación , Periodontitis , Actinobacteria , Actinomyces , Fusobacterium , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Japón , Periodontitis/diagnóstico , Periodontitis/historia , Periodontitis/microbiología , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella , Treponema , Microtomografía por Rayos X
4.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 105081, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520873

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has harshly impacted Italy since its arrival in February 2020. In particular, provinces in Italy's Central and Northern macroregions have dealt with disproportionately greater case prevalence and mortality rates than those in the South. In this paper, we compare the morbidity and mortality dynamics of 16th and 17th century Plague outbreaks with those of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic across Italian regions. We also include data on infectious respiratory diseases which are presently endemic to Italy in order to analyze the regional differences between epidemic and endemic disease. A Growth Curve Analysis allowed for the estimation of time-related intercepts and slopes across the 16th and 17th centuries. Those statistical parameters were later incorporated as criterion variables in multiple General Linear Models. These statistical examinations determined that the Northern macroregion had a higher intercept than the Southern macroregion. This indicated that provinces located in Northern Italy had historically experienced higher plague mortalities than Southern polities. The analyses also revealed that this geographical differential in morbidity and mortality persists to this day, as the Northern macroregion has experienced a substantially higher COVID-19 mortality than the Southern macroregion. These results are consistent with previously published analyses. The only other stable and significant predictor of epidemic disease mortality was foreign urban potential, a measure of the degree of interconnectedness between 16th and 17th century Italian cities. Foreign urban potential was negatively associated with plague slope and positively associated with plague intercept, COVID-19 mortality, GDP per capita, and immigration per capita. Its substantial contribution in predicting both past and present outcomes provides a temporal continuity not seen in any other measure tested here. Overall, this study provides compelling evidence that temporally stable geographical factors, impacting both historical and current foreign pathogen spread above and beyond other hypothesized predictors, underlie the disproportionate impact COVID-19 has had throughout Central and Northern Italian provinces.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas/historia , Modelos Estadísticos , Pandemias , Peste/epidemiología , COVID-19/historia , COVID-19/mortalidad , Ciudades , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Geografía , Producto Interno Bruto , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Peste/historia , Peste/mortalidad , Prevalencia , Análisis de Supervivencia
5.
J UOEH ; 43(3): 341-348, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483193

RESUMEN

This paper provides a picture of the observations made over three hundred years ago by Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) in light of current topical issues ranging from health problems related to work and lifestyle habits to the current burdensome COVID-19 pandemic. The main aspects of his work consist of descriptions of disorders linked to environmental risks, suggestions for measures for risk protection, and recommendations for healthy living. This paper focuses on Ramazzini's most relevant achievements by (1) analyzing the episodes that stimulated the composition of his main work and highlighting some observations on which current epidemiological and toxicological studies are based; (2) reviewing his work showing not only the systematic descriptions of work-related illnesses caused by occupational factors but also his sound etiological and physiopathological contributions to the field of occupational lung diseases, breast cancer, and environmental disorders; and (3) remarking on his main observations in the fields of risk prevention and health promotion, also in the light of some highly topical issues related to unhealthy lifestyle habits and the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Promoción de la Salud/historia , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/historia , Salud Laboral/historia , Medicina del Trabajo/historia , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Riesgo
6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256853, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495997

RESUMEN

The reconstruction of fire history is essential to understand the palaeoclimate and human history. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been extensively used as a fire marker. In this work, the distribution of PAHs in Borneo peat archives was investigated to understand how PAHs reflect the palaeo-fire activity. In total, 52 peat samples were analysed from a Borneo peat core for the PAH analysis. Pyrogenic PAHs consist of 2-7 aromatic rings, some of which have methyl and ethyl groups. The results reveal that the concentration of pyrogenic PAHs fluctuated with the core depth. Compared to low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs, the high-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs had a more similar depth variation to the charcoal abundance. This finding also suggests that the HMW PAHs were mainly formed at a local fire near the study area, while the LMW PAHs could be transported from remote locations.


Asunto(s)
Incendios/historia , Sedimentos Geológicos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Suelo/química , Borneo , Carbón Orgánico/análisis , Biomarcadores Ambientales , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/clasificación
7.
Neuron ; 109(19): 3036-3040, 2021 10 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559982

RESUMEN

The Learning Salon is an online weekly forum for discussing points of contention and common ground in biological and artificial learning. Hosting neuroscientists, computer scientists, AI researchers, and philosophers, the Salon promotes short talks and long discussions, committed to an ethos of participation, horizontality, and inclusion.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencias/tendencias , Comunicación por Videocoferencia/tendencias , Comunicación , Congresos como Asunto/historia , Congresos como Asunto/tendencias , Diversidad Cultural , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Comunicación Interdisciplinaria
8.
Anaesth Intensive Care ; 49(1_suppl): 41-50, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553610

RESUMEN

In 1683, a self-proclaimed apothecary physician and London professor of physick by the name of Guilelmus (William) Salmon authored a pharmacopoeia titled Doron medicum, the 'gift of medicine' (Greek/Latin translation). This text formulates an English supplement to the Latin Materia medica (16th century), discussing internal and external compound medicines of the late 17th century. This pharmacopoeia enabled those incapable of reading Latin to provide medical care to a challenging post-plague community. Opiology, mercury, dragon's blood, willow bark, animal preparations and therapies now considered obscure, provide insight into therapies at the time. Early critical care treatments in haemorrhage control and pain management are described.Doron medicum preceded the controversial opening by the College of Physicians of the first London Dispensary in 1698, and was published in a maturing period of medical governance and healthcare establishment in London. During the 17th century, great competition and debate existed between the Royal College of Physicians and the apothecaries. Throughout such debates, William Salmon advocated for access to medical care for the poor and recognition of an allied approach to healthcare.This paper discusses Salmon's contribution to medicine, which has been poorly transcribed in medical history. A selection of opiate-based analgesic therapies, early critical care strategies and animal preparations are revisited. A small chronicle of William Salmon's life and professional achievements will be reviewed. Debate surrounding the opening of the first London Dispensary will be discussed in relation to William Salmon's contribution, echoing ongoing contemporary challenges in healthcare over 300 years later.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos , Cognición , Animales , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Londres
9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255528, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351988

RESUMEN

The evolution theory of ageing predicts that reproduction comes with long-term costs of survival. However, empirical studies in human species report mixed findings of the relationship between fertility and longevity, which varies by populations, time periods, and individual characteristics. One explanation underscores that changes in survival conditions over historical periods can moderate the negative effect of human fertility on longevity. This study investigates the fertility-longevity relationship in Europe during a period of rapid modernisation (seventeenth to twentieth centuries) and emphasises the dynamics across generations. Using a crowdsourced genealogy dataset from the FamiLinx project, our sample consists of 81,924 women and 103,642 men born between 1601 and 1910 across 16 European countries. Results from multilevel analyses show that higher fertility has a significantly negative effect on longevity. For both women and men, the negative effects are stronger among the older cohorts and have reduced over time. Moreover, we find similar trends in the dynamic associations between fertility and longevity across four geographical regions in Europe. Findings and limitations of this study call for further investigations into the historical dynamics of multiple mechanisms behind the human evolution of ageing.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Evolución Biológica , Colaboración de las Masas/métodos , Fertilidad , Longevidad , Mortalidad/historia , Reproducción , Adulto , Anciano , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales
10.
Elife ; 102021 08 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350829

RESUMEN

After the European colonization of the Americas, there was a dramatic population collapse of the Indigenous inhabitants caused in part by the introduction of new pathogens. Although there is much speculation on the etiology of the Colonial epidemics, direct evidence for the presence of specific viruses during the Colonial era is lacking. To uncover the diversity of viral pathogens during this period, we designed an enrichment assay targeting ancient DNA (aDNA) from viruses of clinical importance and applied it to DNA extracts from individuals found in a Colonial hospital and a Colonial chapel (16th-18th century) where records suggest that victims of epidemics were buried during important outbreaks in Mexico City. This allowed us to reconstruct three ancient human parvovirus B19 genomes and one ancient human hepatitis B virus genome from distinct individuals. The viral genomes are similar to African strains, consistent with the inferred morphological and genetic African ancestry of the hosts as well as with the isotopic analysis of the human remains, suggesting an origin on the African continent. This study provides direct molecular evidence of ancient viruses being transported to the Americas during the transatlantic slave trade and their subsequent introduction to New Spain. Altogether, our observations enrich the discussion about the etiology of infectious diseases during the Colonial period in Mexico.


Asunto(s)
ADN Antiguo/análisis , Personas Esclavizadas/historia , Genoma Viral/genética , Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Parvovirus B19 Humano/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/historia , Virus de la Hepatitis B/aislamiento & purificación , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Metagenómica , Parvovirus B19 Humano/aislamiento & purificación
11.
J Anal Psychol ; 66(3): 583-604, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231888

RESUMEN

In the struggle with COVID-19, art offered a way to face the solitude of the lockdown. The focus of this paper is primarily on Caravaggio's painting The Seven Works of Mercy, with references to other paintings to amplify some aspects of the artist's approach to life and his uniqueness in the artistic landscape of his time. Darkness was part of Caravaggio's research for spiritual truth and by entering the stories of his life and exploring the tales told through imaginative expression in his paintings, it is possible to understand his process of exploration of ancestral darkness. The author uses her imagination to reflect on how art can help to contact the profound fears buried in the unconscious which are now being awakened by the pandemic. The contemplation of this painting facilitated the emergence of emotions related to the darkness of our time, with the discovery that empathy and mercy offer a way to come to terms with the pandemic. This approach demands a different understanding of reality with Caravaggio's dark creative world becoming a companion that permits the exploration of what is not yet thinkable in daily life. Images accompany the author's research that relies on her imagination and amplifications.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pinturas/historia , Religión y Psicología , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Peste/historia
13.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 179: 7-43, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225985

RESUMEN

The central brain region of interest for neuroendocrinology is the hypothalamus, a name coined by Wilhelm His in 1893. Neuroendocrinology is the discipline that studies hormone production by neurons, the sensitivity of neurons for hormones, as well as the dynamic, bidirectional interactions between neurons and endocrine glands. These interactions do not only occur through hormones, but are also partly accomplished by the autonomic nervous system that is regulated by the hypothalamus and that innervates the endocrine glands. A special characteristic of the hypothalamus is that it contains neuroendocrine neurons projecting either to the neurohypophysis or to the portal vessels of the anterior lobe of the pituitary in the median eminence, where they release their neuropeptides or other neuroactive compounds into the bloodstream, which subsequently act as neurohormones. In the 1970s it was found that vasopressin and oxytocin not only are released as hormones in the circulation but that their neurons project to other neurons within and outside the hypothalamus and function as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that regulate central functions, including the autonomic innervation of all our body organs. Recently magnocellular oxytocin neurons were shown to send not only an axon to the neurohypophysis, but also axon collaterals of the same neuroendocrine neuron to a multitude of brain areas. In this way, the hypothalamus acts as a central integrator for endocrine, autonomic, and higher brain functions. The history of neuroendocrinology is described in this chapter from the descriptions in De humani corporis fabrica by Vesalius (1537) to the present, with a timeline of the scientists and their findings.


Asunto(s)
Hipotálamo , Neuroendocrinología/historia , Oxitocina , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Neuronas , Sistemas Neurosecretores , Hipófisis
15.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(3): 89, 2021 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251537

RESUMEN

We invite systematic consideration of the metaphors of cycles and circulation as a long-term theme in the history of the life and environmental sciences and medicine. Ubiquitous in ancient religious and philosophical traditions, especially in representing the seasons and the motions of celestial bodies, circles once symbolized perfection. Over the centuries cyclic images in western medicine, natural philosophy, natural history and eventually biology gained independence from cosmology and theology and came to depend less on strictly circular forms. As potent 'canonical icons', cycles also interacted with representations of linear and irreversible change, including arrows, arcs, scales, series and trees, as in theories of the Earth and of evolution. In modern times life cycles and reproductive cycles have often been held to characterize life, in some cases especially female life, while human efforts selectively to foster and disrupt these cycles have harnessed their productivity in medicine and agriculture. But strong cyclic metaphors have continued to link physiology and climatology, medicine and economics, and biology and manufacturing, notably through the relations between land, food and population. From the grand nineteenth-century transformations of matter to systems ecology, the circulation of molecules through organic and inorganic compartments has posed the problem of maintaining identity in the face of flux and highlights the seductive ability of cyclic schemes to imply closure where no original state was in fact restored. More concerted attention to cycles and circulation will enrich analyses of the power of metaphors to naturalize understandings of life and their shaping by practical interests and political imaginations.


Asunto(s)
Biología/historia , Historia de la Medicina , Filosofía/historia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval
16.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 79(4): 346-349, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133516

RESUMEN

The longstanding study of gross anatomy experienced a considerable improvement with the advent of the microscope in the early 17th century. The representative personality of this new era certainly was Marcello Malpighi, seen as "founder of microscopic anatomy". He studied, with a rudimentary compound microscope, numerous tissues and organs of several classes of animals, as well as plants. He described, for the first time, the microscopic structure of the nervous system, identifying in the gray matter of its various levels minute elements he took as "glands". It should be reminded that the concept of "cell" (and "nerve cell") was unknown at his time. Many researchers followed, performing microscopic studies, but without better results, and Malpighi's view was maintained until the beginning of the 19th century, when new histological processing and staining techniques appeared, as well as improved microscopes.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Nervioso , Neuronas , Animales , Corteza Cerebral , Sustancia Gris , Historia del Siglo XVII , Italia , Coloración y Etiquetado
17.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063539

RESUMEN

Dental calculus analysis can be a valuable source of archaeological knowledge, since it preserves not only microbial and host biomolecules but also dietary and environmental debris, as well as metabolic products likely originating from dietary and craft activities. Here we described GC-MS analysis of a set of historic dental calculus samples from the front teeth of the mandibles of seven individuals found in 17th- and 18th-century graves in the city of Rzeszow, located in South-eastern Poland. We have found that only saturated fatty acids, which are characteristic for fats of animal origin, were present in the tested samples. Our preliminary results indicate that the diet of modern-period inhabitants of Rzeszow was rich in animal products, such as meat and dairy products.


Asunto(s)
Cálculos Dentales/química , Cálculos Dentales/historia , Grasas de la Dieta/análisis , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Adulto , Arqueología , Femenino , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Masculino , Polonia
18.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(4): e20200377, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105638

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Reflect on the evolution of pediatric nursing care from the perspective of emotions, from the conceptions of Florence Nightingale to the present. METHOD: Reflective study based on theoretical and experiential aspects of emotional care in pediatric nursing. RESULTS: From Nightingale, there were many definitions regarding the nursing care in an integrative and humanist logic; and with certain bond to emotional dimension. That time, nursing care was based on the religious conceptions of charity and love of our neighbor and, despite the conceptualization that shapes nursing science today, such conceptions have not ceased to be its attribute, mainly in the care of pediatric nurses. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: In pediatric nursing, nurture care with affection and facilitate emotions management in each interaction nurse-child-family is crucial for caring. This emotional care should evolve into a competence that recognizes the expertise and merit of professional action.


Asunto(s)
Emociones , Atención de Enfermería , Enfermería Pediátrica , Niño , Familia , Historia de la Enfermería , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Competencia Profesional
20.
Am J Med Sci ; 362(3): 227-232, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081900

RESUMEN

Health tourism has hundreds of years of history, most notably in visitors traveling to thermal baths. Medical tourism, a type of health tourism, has rapidly expanded in the last quarter century by patients travelling abroad to health centers for medical treatment. Because of lack of records in ancient times, the history of tourism for actual medical treatment is unknown. In Ottoman archives, medical treatment consent forms of patients were officially documented. We analyzed these existing records to identify foreign citizens who came to the Ottoman Empire for medical treatment. In our screening of Konya Ser'iye registration records, we found medical consent forms for three non-Ottoman foreign citizens. All three patients had the same medical illness and came to Konya for medical treatment. Therefore we emphasized that those patients searched for the name of doctor who was an authority on that illness. This study indicates that medical tourism may have occurred well before the 20th century.


Asunto(s)
Turismo Médico/historia , Sistema de Registros , Historia del Siglo XVII , Humanos , Imperio Otomano , Persia
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