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1.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(5): 890-899, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785018

RESUMEN

St. Gallicanus Hospital in Rome, Italy, created by the will of Pope Benedict XIII (1649-1730) in 1725, was the first dermatologic hospital in the world. The strong bond between science and faith, humanitarian spirit and scientific research, and the profoundness and legacy of its entire history have all contributed to its legacy. We have traced its development by examining archival documents to understand the life of the institute and the diseases that were diagnosed and treated from the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century. Some of the main diseases were leprosy, mange, scabies, ringworm, and syphilis, which were widespread in Rome during the 18th and 19th centuries and were creating a mortal threat for much of the population. St. Gallicanus Hospital was dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these diseases where possible. Special attention has been directed to syphilis and the use of penicillin therapy after its introduction in 1943, especially for curbing the extensive problems created by prostitution.


Asunto(s)
Escabiosis , Sífilis , Academias e Institutos , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Hospitales , Humanos , Ciudad de Roma , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sífilis/epidemiología
2.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(5): 904-906, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785020

RESUMEN

Historic medical texts in China focused on schematic representations of external pathologies for the most part, but Imperially Commissioned Golden Mirror of the Orthodox Lineage of Medicine (, Yuzuan yizong jinjian), published in 1742, stands out for its illustrations of disease states. This contribution explores depictions of smallpox and breast abscesses, as they appeared in The Golden Mirror.


Asunto(s)
Ilustración Médica , Medicina , China , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Publicaciones
3.
Cir Cir ; 89(5): 698-702, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665182

RESUMEN

In this paper, we have tried to integrate a biography with the greatest data that we were able to obtain about the life of the Military Physician and Surgeon Ignacio Fernández de Córdova (1777-1816). For this purpose, we undertook the task of investigating the parish archives of the State of Guanajuato and Michoacán, as well as examining the bibliography on the subject. In the same way, it was possible to determine his degree of studies and the places where he did them. We know that he was briefly a member of Hidalgo's troops, and that in his native Valladolid/Morelia he was director of the San Juan de Dios Hospital. On the other hand, in short, an incomprehensible doubt has been elucidated: Fernández de Córdova was the first fabulist in Mexico, and the first formal one in the American Continent; for the glory of the New Hispanic guild of the times of the Enlightenment.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales , Cirujanos , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Masculino , México , Estados Unidos
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 723821, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616690

RESUMEN

Ancient dental calculus, formed from dental plaque, is a rich source of ancient DNA and can provide information regarding the food and oral microbiology at that time. Genomic analysis of dental calculus from Neanderthals has revealed the difference in bacterial composition of oral microbiome between Neanderthals and modern humans. There are few reports investigating whether the pathogenic bacteria of periodontitis, a polymicrobial disease induced in response to the accumulation of dental plaque, were different between ancient and modern humans. This study aimed to compare the bacterial composition of the oral microbiome in ancient and modern human samples and to investigate whether lifestyle differences depending on the era have altered the bacterial composition of the oral microbiome and the causative bacteria of periodontitis. Additionally, we introduce a novel diagnostic approach for periodontitis in ancient skeletons using micro-computed tomography. Ancient 16S rDNA sequences were obtained from 12 samples at the Unko-in site (18th-19th century) of the Edo era (1603-1867), a characteristic period in Japan when immigrants were not accepted. Furthermore, modern 16S rDNA data from 53 samples were obtained from a database to compare the modern and ancient microbiome. The microbial co-occurrence network was analyzed based on 16S rDNA read abundance. Eubacterium species, Mollicutes species, and Treponema socranskii were the core species in the Edo co-occurrence network. The co-occurrence relationship between Actinomyces oricola and Eggerthella lenta appeared to have played a key role in causing periodontitis in the Edo era. However, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. vincentii, and Prevotella pleuritidis were the core and highly abundant species in the co-occurrence network of modern samples. These results suggest the possibility of differences in the pathogens causing periodontitis during different eras in history.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/clasificación , Periodontitis , Actinobacteria , Actinomyces , Fusobacterium , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Japón , Periodontitis/diagnóstico , Periodontitis/historia , Periodontitis/microbiología , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella , Treponema , Microtomografía por Rayos X
5.
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 171(15-16): 349-350, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709532
9.
J UOEH ; 43(3): 341-348, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483193

RESUMEN

This paper provides a picture of the observations made over three hundred years ago by Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) in light of current topical issues ranging from health problems related to work and lifestyle habits to the current burdensome COVID-19 pandemic. The main aspects of his work consist of descriptions of disorders linked to environmental risks, suggestions for measures for risk protection, and recommendations for healthy living. This paper focuses on Ramazzini's most relevant achievements by (1) analyzing the episodes that stimulated the composition of his main work and highlighting some observations on which current epidemiological and toxicological studies are based; (2) reviewing his work showing not only the systematic descriptions of work-related illnesses caused by occupational factors but also his sound etiological and physiopathological contributions to the field of occupational lung diseases, breast cancer, and environmental disorders; and (3) remarking on his main observations in the fields of risk prevention and health promotion, also in the light of some highly topical issues related to unhealthy lifestyle habits and the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Promoción de la Salud/historia , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Enfermedades Profesionales/etiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/historia , Salud Laboral/historia , Medicina del Trabajo/historia , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Riesgo
10.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 875-878, jul.-set. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339975

RESUMEN

Resumo A partir de contribuições teóricas do campo da história das ciências, o presente texto debate aspectos das etapas das pandemias entendidas como fenômeno social e como tem ocorrido o processo de interiorização da covid-19 na Amazônia. A chegada da doença aos vastos territórios da floresta tem deixado mais evidente o processo de acesso diferenciado à saúde pública, com concentração de serviços e profissionais nas maiores cidades da região Norte. O crescimento dos índices do coronavírus na floresta evidencia, portanto, as desigualdades sociais históricas da região e os problemas no acesso à cidadania na sociedade brasileira.


Abstract This text uses theoretical contributions from the history of science to discuss aspects of the stages of pandemics understood as social phenomena and how covid-19 moved into the interior of the Amazon region. The arrival of this disease in the vast forest territory made differentiated access to public health more evident, with services and professionals concentrated in the larger cities in the north of Brazil. The rise in coronavirus rates within the forest consequently highlights the history of social inequalities in the region and problems accessing citizenship in Brazilian society.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Bosques , Pandemias/historia , Pandemias/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Pobreza , Factores Socioeconómicos , Brasil/epidemiología , Indios Sudamericanos , Salud Pública/historia , Ciudades , Gripe Humana/etiología , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/transmisión
11.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256853, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495997

RESUMEN

The reconstruction of fire history is essential to understand the palaeoclimate and human history. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been extensively used as a fire marker. In this work, the distribution of PAHs in Borneo peat archives was investigated to understand how PAHs reflect the palaeo-fire activity. In total, 52 peat samples were analysed from a Borneo peat core for the PAH analysis. Pyrogenic PAHs consist of 2-7 aromatic rings, some of which have methyl and ethyl groups. The results reveal that the concentration of pyrogenic PAHs fluctuated with the core depth. Compared to low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs, the high-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs had a more similar depth variation to the charcoal abundance. This finding also suggests that the HMW PAHs were mainly formed at a local fire near the study area, while the LMW PAHs could be transported from remote locations.


Asunto(s)
Incendios/historia , Sedimentos Geológicos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Suelo/química , Borneo , Carbón Orgánico/análisis , Biomarcadores Ambientales , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/clasificación
12.
Neuron ; 109(19): 3036-3040, 2021 10 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559982

RESUMEN

The Learning Salon is an online weekly forum for discussing points of contention and common ground in biological and artificial learning. Hosting neuroscientists, computer scientists, AI researchers, and philosophers, the Salon promotes short talks and long discussions, committed to an ethos of participation, horizontality, and inclusion.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencias/tendencias , Comunicación por Videocoferencia/tendencias , Comunicación , Congresos como Asunto/historia , Congresos como Asunto/tendencias , Diversidad Cultural , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Comunicación Interdisciplinaria
13.
Anaesth Intensive Care ; 49(1_suppl): 41-50, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553610

RESUMEN

In 1683, a self-proclaimed apothecary physician and London professor of physick by the name of Guilelmus (William) Salmon authored a pharmacopoeia titled Doron medicum, the 'gift of medicine' (Greek/Latin translation). This text formulates an English supplement to the Latin Materia medica (16th century), discussing internal and external compound medicines of the late 17th century. This pharmacopoeia enabled those incapable of reading Latin to provide medical care to a challenging post-plague community. Opiology, mercury, dragon's blood, willow bark, animal preparations and therapies now considered obscure, provide insight into therapies at the time. Early critical care treatments in haemorrhage control and pain management are described.Doron medicum preceded the controversial opening by the College of Physicians of the first London Dispensary in 1698, and was published in a maturing period of medical governance and healthcare establishment in London. During the 17th century, great competition and debate existed between the Royal College of Physicians and the apothecaries. Throughout such debates, William Salmon advocated for access to medical care for the poor and recognition of an allied approach to healthcare.This paper discusses Salmon's contribution to medicine, which has been poorly transcribed in medical history. A selection of opiate-based analgesic therapies, early critical care strategies and animal preparations are revisited. A small chronicle of William Salmon's life and professional achievements will be reviewed. Debate surrounding the opening of the first London Dispensary will be discussed in relation to William Salmon's contribution, echoing ongoing contemporary challenges in healthcare over 300 years later.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos , Cognición , Animales , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Londres
14.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 28(3): 875-878, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346993

RESUMEN

This text uses theoretical contributions from the history of science to discuss aspects of the stages of pandemics understood as social phenomena and how covid-19 moved into the interior of the Amazon region. The arrival of this disease in the vast forest territory made differentiated access to public health more evident, with services and professionals concentrated in the larger cities in the north of Brazil. The rise in coronavirus rates within the forest consequently highlights the history of social inequalities in the region and problems accessing citizenship in Brazilian society.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Bosques , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Pandemias , Brasil/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/transmisión , Ciudades , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Indios Sudamericanos , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/etiología , Pandemias/historia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Pobreza , Salud Pública/historia , Factores Socioeconómicos
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444517

RESUMEN

Academic activity is intrinsically composed of two aspects: teaching and research. Since the 20th century, the aphorism "publish or perish" has overwhelmingly established itself in the academic field. Research activity has absorbed more attention from the professors who have neglected teaching activity. In anatomical sciences, research has focused mainly on ultrastructural anatomy and biochemical aspects, far removed from the topics addressed to medical students. Will today's anatomists be rewarded by their choice? To generate a forecast, we should entrust what history has already taught us. For this analysis, an example was taken, concerning the fate that history reserved for the anatomy teachers of the University of Bologna in the second half of the 16th century. Thanks to Vesalius (1514-1564), experimentation on the human body replaced the old dogmatic knowledge, and didactic innovation was one with research. Some figures were highly praised despite their poor scientific production. The present article focuses on the figure of Flaminio Rota, who was highly esteemed by his colleagues in spite of no significant scientific activity. Reasons for this paradox are examined. Then, history also whispers to us: publish, but without perishing in the oblivion of students.


Asunto(s)
Anatomistas , Personal Docente , Estudiantes de Medicina , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Publicaciones , Edición
16.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255528, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351988

RESUMEN

The evolution theory of ageing predicts that reproduction comes with long-term costs of survival. However, empirical studies in human species report mixed findings of the relationship between fertility and longevity, which varies by populations, time periods, and individual characteristics. One explanation underscores that changes in survival conditions over historical periods can moderate the negative effect of human fertility on longevity. This study investigates the fertility-longevity relationship in Europe during a period of rapid modernisation (seventeenth to twentieth centuries) and emphasises the dynamics across generations. Using a crowdsourced genealogy dataset from the FamiLinx project, our sample consists of 81,924 women and 103,642 men born between 1601 and 1910 across 16 European countries. Results from multilevel analyses show that higher fertility has a significantly negative effect on longevity. For both women and men, the negative effects are stronger among the older cohorts and have reduced over time. Moreover, we find similar trends in the dynamic associations between fertility and longevity across four geographical regions in Europe. Findings and limitations of this study call for further investigations into the historical dynamics of multiple mechanisms behind the human evolution of ageing.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Evolución Biológica , Colaboración de las Masas/métodos , Fertilidad , Longevidad , Mortalidad/historia , Reproducción , Adulto , Anciano , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales
17.
Elife ; 102021 08 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350829

RESUMEN

After the European colonization of the Americas, there was a dramatic population collapse of the Indigenous inhabitants caused in part by the introduction of new pathogens. Although there is much speculation on the etiology of the Colonial epidemics, direct evidence for the presence of specific viruses during the Colonial era is lacking. To uncover the diversity of viral pathogens during this period, we designed an enrichment assay targeting ancient DNA (aDNA) from viruses of clinical importance and applied it to DNA extracts from individuals found in a Colonial hospital and a Colonial chapel (16th-18th century) where records suggest that victims of epidemics were buried during important outbreaks in Mexico City. This allowed us to reconstruct three ancient human parvovirus B19 genomes and one ancient human hepatitis B virus genome from distinct individuals. The viral genomes are similar to African strains, consistent with the inferred morphological and genetic African ancestry of the hosts as well as with the isotopic analysis of the human remains, suggesting an origin on the African continent. This study provides direct molecular evidence of ancient viruses being transported to the Americas during the transatlantic slave trade and their subsequent introduction to New Spain. Altogether, our observations enrich the discussion about the etiology of infectious diseases during the Colonial period in Mexico.


Asunto(s)
ADN Antiguo/análisis , Personas Esclavizadas/historia , Genoma Viral/genética , Virus de la Hepatitis B/genética , Parvovirus B19 Humano/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/historia , Virus de la Hepatitis B/aislamiento & purificación , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Metagenómica , Parvovirus B19 Humano/aislamiento & purificación
18.
Vaccine ; 39(34): 4914-4919, 2021 08 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272094

RESUMEN

This history of vaccinology article outlines the work of William Money (1790-1843), who conducted a study related to smallpox disease, immunity, and vaccination. His hitherto unpublished study demonstrated that smallpox could be contracted more than once; notably, results from his studies showed that vaccination was not dangerous. He was also the author of a celebrated Vade Mecum in human anatomy. Here, we outline the work he conducted in England: from serving as the house surgeon at Northampton Infirmary to his post as a surgeon at the Royal Metropolitan Hospital in London.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna contra Viruela , Viruela , Inglaterra , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Londres , Viruela/prevención & control , Vacunación
20.
Forensic Sci Int ; 325: 110895, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274606

RESUMEN

The thesis of this brief exposition is the absolute and immediate necessity of preserving existing osteological collections. Once lost, they can never be replaced. They are priceless, historically and culturally. Each collection is unique, in content and in scientific value. No one collection is complete, or replicates any other. These collections are separated by space and by time, by geography and by epoch. They preserve our past, as well as our understanding of human variation. They help us to better understand the human condition and contribute to the advancement of many disciplines including: anthropology, medicine, surgery, anatomy, history, and, undeniably, forensic anthropology. In spite of their uniqueness, all osteological collections face similar challenges: cultural norms and sensitivities, funding, space limitations, and competing priorities. This article provides a succinct overview of several private and public collections around the world, the challenges of preservation, and the benefits of their salvation. The skeletal collections described here are but a sample of what is, and of what may be lost. Anything more would require a book. Anything less would be an irreplaceable and tragic loss.


Asunto(s)
Osteología , Antropología Forense , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Museos , Osteología/historia , Universidades
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