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1.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 64(3): 206-222, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007486

RESUMEN

Ernest R. Hilgard is not only one of the most important hypnosis theoreticians and researchers in history, but one the most eminent psychologists of the 20th century. This paper starts with a brief summary of his contributions to hypnosis, emphasizing his dissociation theory, and placing it within previous and later dissociation theories of hypnosis. I then transcribe an interview with him circa 1989, which I recorded with his authorization for later use, emphasizing dissociation in hypnosis. He also reminisced about historical figures in psychology.


Asunto(s)
Hipnosis , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos
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J Surg Oncol ; 125(1): 34-37, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897707

RESUMEN

Treatment of regional lymph nodes in melanoma has been controversial for more than a century. A series of clinical trials evaluating elective lymph node dissection and then sentinel lymph node biopsy have helped define the current standard of care. These trials resulted in increasingly selective application of surgical intervention for regional lymph nodes in melanoma. First by focusing on optimal candidates for elective lymph node dissection and then by identifying patients through sentinel lymph node biopsy. The current standard of sentinel lymph node biopsy for appropriately selected patients and nodal observation for many patients, even with involved sentinel nodes is both more accurate in staging and much less morbid than what came before.


Asunto(s)
Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/métodos , Ganglios Linfáticos/cirugía , Melanoma/cirugía , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/historia , Ensayos Clínicos Fase III como Asunto/historia , Ensayos Clínicos Fase III como Asunto/métodos , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Escisión del Ganglio Linfático , Ganglios Linfáticos/patología , Metástasis Linfática , Melanoma/historia , Melanoma/patología , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/historia , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/métodos , Biopsia del Ganglio Linfático Centinela/métodos
10.
J Surg Oncol ; 125(1): 7-16, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897706

RESUMEN

Surgical trials in breast cancer have catalyzed contemporary trial design for solid organ cancers and are a prime example of surgeons taking the lead in clinical trial design. Surgeons have lead trials that have improved patient outcomes and quality of life without sacrificing oncologic safety. We have evolved from radical mastectomy to breast conservation and sentinel node biopsy. Contemporary trial design in breast cancer now focus on personalizing care based on tumor genomics.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/métodos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/métodos , Neoplasias de la Mama/historia , Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/historia , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/historia , Proyectos de Investigación
11.
J Surg Oncol ; 125(1): 28-33, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897715

RESUMEN

Since the observation that clearance of all visible and microscopic tumors from cutaneous melanoma is critical to prevent a recurrence, wide surgical margins have been central to surgical dogma. In the last several decades, more conservative margin widths have been vigorously studied by surgical investigators to lessen wound complications, the need for reconstruction, and healthcare costs. This review summarizes surgeon-led clinical trials that define current guidelines and highlights the challenges to initiate and perform trials today.


Asunto(s)
Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/métodos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos de Citorreducción/métodos , Melanoma/cirugía , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/métodos , Neoplasias Cutáneas/cirugía , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/historia , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/normas , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos de Citorreducción/historia , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos de Citorreducción/normas , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Márgenes de Escisión , Melanoma/historia , Melanoma/patología , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/historia , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/normas , Neoplasias Cutáneas/historia , Neoplasias Cutáneas/patología
12.
Metabolism ; 126: 154935, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762931

RESUMEN

The first insulin preparation injected in humans in 1922 was short-acting, extracted from animal pancreas, contaminated by impurities. Ever since the insulin extracted from animal pancreas has been continuously purified, until an unlimited synthesis of regular human insulin (RHI) became possible in the '80s using the recombinant-DNA (rDNA) technique. The rDNA technique then led to the designer insulins (analogs) in the early '90s. Rapid-acting insulin analogs were developed to accelerate the slow subcutaneous (sc) absorption of RHI, thus lowering the 2-h post-prandial plasma glucose (PP-PG) and risk for late hypoglycemia as comparing with RHI. The first rapid-acting analog was lispro (in 1996), soon followed by aspart and glulisine. Rapid-acting analogs are more convenient than RHI: they improve early PP-PG, and 24-h PG and A1C as long as basal insulin is also optimized; they lower the risk of late PP hypoglycemia and they allow a shorter time-interval between injection and meal. Today rapid-acting analogs are the gold standard prandial insulins. Recently, even faster analogs have become available (faster aspart, ultra-rapid lispro) or are being studied (Biochaperone lispro), making additional gains in lowering PP-PG. Rapid-acting analogs are recommended in all those with type 1 and type 2 diabetes who need prandial insulin replacement.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipoglucemiantes/historia , Insulina/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/administración & dosificación , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Insulina/administración & dosificación , Insulina/uso terapéutico
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