Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 228.747
Filtrar
2.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161677

RESUMEN

The article considers main directions of health care reform in the USSR during first post-war decades. The brief description of the state of health and health care in the USSR on the eve of the reform is presented. The main transformations implemented in 1945-1965 are adduced and analyzed. The corresponding impact on changes in medical demographic indices is demonstrated.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud , Reforma de la Atención de Salud , Reforma de la Atención de Salud/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , U.R.S.S.
3.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161678

RESUMEN

The article, on the basis of declassified archival documents, considers the issue of centralized state distribution of penicillin in the USSR in the second half of 1940s. The mechanism of determining the need in medication using special coefficient is presented. It is demonstrated that in conditions of acute shortage, this approach became an attempt to ensure physical accessibility of medication for patient. However, by the end of 1940s, when acute shortage was overcome, free state supplies created preconditions for mismanagement and misuse at national and local levels, that affected timing and volume of supplies of antibiotic to medical institutions, as well as quality of medication supplied to patient. The district hospitals of provincial towns occurred in the worst condition. The article presents the facts testifying that penicillin supply solved not only health problems, but also domestic and foreign policy problems of the post-war USSR.


Asunto(s)
Penicilinas , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Penicilinas/historia , Penicilinas/provisión & distribución , U.R.S.S.
4.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161682

RESUMEN

The article highlights the course of life, scientific, pedagogical and social activities of Nikolai Andreevich Vinogradov, the eminent therapist of the XIX century and the disciple of S. P. Botkin.


Asunto(s)
Historia de la Medicina , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Federación de Rusia
6.
JAMA ; 324(17): 1794, 2020 11 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141200
7.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 3073-3077, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025195

RESUMEN

The species concept used in virology is based on the logic of the Linnaean hierarchy, which views a species class as the lowest abstract category that is included in all the higher categories in the classification, such as genera and families. As a result of this class inclusion, the members of a species class are always less numerous than the members of higher classes, which become more numerous as one moves up in the hierarchy. Because species classes always have fewer members than any of the higher classes, logic requires that they need more qualifications for establishing membership than any of the higher classes. This invalidates the claim that a species could be defined by a single property present in all its members. Species were only accepted in virus classification in 1991, because virologists assumed that it would lead to the use of Latin species names, which they rejected. Anglicized binomial species names have been used by virologists for more the 40 years and are popular because they consist of a virus name followed by a genus name that most virologists are familiar with. The ICTV has proposed to introduce a new Latinized virus species binomial nomenclature using the genus name followed by a hard-to-remember Latinized species epithet that bears little resemblance to the name of the virus itself. However, the proposal did not clarify what the advantage is of having to learn hundreds of new unfamiliar virus species names. In 2013, the ICTV changed the definition of a virus species as an abstract class and defined it as a group of physical objects, which induced virologists to believe that a virus species could be defined by a few characteristics of the viral genome. In recent years, thousands of viral sequences have been discovered in metagenomic databases, and the ICTV has suggested that it should be possible to incorporate these sequences in the current ICTV virus classification. Unfortunately, the relational properties of these hypothetical viruses that result from their biological interactions with hosts and vectors remain in the vast majority of cases totally unknown. The absence of this information makes it in fact impossible to incorporate these metagenomic sequences in the current classification of virus species.


Asunto(s)
Virología/historia , Virus/clasificación , Manejo de Datos , Bases de Datos como Asunto , Genoma Viral , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI
9.
Arkh Patol ; 82(5): 79-83, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054037

RESUMEN

The paper describes the life of A.I. Polunin (1820-1888), the first professor of an independent department of pathological anatomy in Russia, which was founded at Imperial Moscow University in 1849. It analyzes his doctoral dissertation on cholera and also gives the reviews of his key works. It is noted that the activities of A.I. Polunin as a scientist were greatly influenced by the humoral theory of pathology by Karl von Rokitansky (1804-1878), the doctrine of blood «crases¼, and by the works of representatives of the Viennese School of physicians who upheld the clinical and anatomical approach in medicine. At the same time, Professor A.I. Polunin is noted to be the first to familiarize Russian physicians with the theory of cellular pathology by R. Virchow (1821-1902).


Asunto(s)
Aniversarios y Eventos Especiales , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Moscú , Federación de Rusia
10.
Arkh Patol ; 82(5): 84-88, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054038

RESUMEN

November 4, 2020 marked the 100th anniversary of the birth of one of the leading pathologists of Russia, Honored Scientist of Russia, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, President of the Russian Association of Pathologists, Honorary Doctor of St. Petersburg Academy of Postgraduate Education Oleg Khmelnitsky - a man of bright, multifaceted, effective in his work, who had numerous pupils and followers.


Asunto(s)
Aniversarios y Eventos Especiales , Patólogos , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Federación de Rusia
11.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(6): 971-992, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128891

RESUMEN

Surgeons have been involved, since the beginning, in the development and evolution of endoscopy. They have been instrumental in developing new methods and have been actively involved in most of the therapeutic applications. The continued evolution of endoscopic technique is inevitable and will involve the integration of new technology with innovative thinking.


Asunto(s)
Endoscopios Gastrointestinales/historia , Endoscopía Gastrointestinal/historia , Tecnología de Fibra Óptica/historia , Endoscopía Gastrointestinal/instrumentación , Endoscopía Gastrointestinal/tendencias , Europa (Continente) , Tecnología de Fibra Óptica/instrumentación , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Óptica y Fotónica/historia , Óptica y Fotónica/tendencias , Estados Unidos
12.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020501, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110584

RESUMEN

Background: The focus of the study is to assess the role of different transport means in the importation and diffusion of 1918-19 influenza and a novel 2019 corona virus designated as COVID-19 in Nigeria. Methods: The study provides a review of the means by which the two pandemics were imported into the country and the roles the transport means of each period played in the local spread of the epidemics. Results: The study notes that seaports and railways, being the emerging transportation modes in the country were significant to the importation and local diffusion of 1918-19 influenza, respectively, while air transport is significant to the importation of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The study concludes that increasing preference for the transport at a given epoch is significant to the diffusion of prevailing epidemic in the epoch.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Influenza Pandémica, 1918-1919/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Transportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Pandemias/historia , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Transportes/historia
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4918, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004800

RESUMEN

In order to control and eradicate epidemic cholera, we need to understand how epidemics begin, how they spread, and how they decline and eventually end. This requires extensive sampling of epidemic disease over time, alongside the background of endemic disease that may exist concurrently with the epidemic. The unique circumstances surrounding the Argentinian cholera epidemic of 1992-1998 presented an opportunity to do this. Here, we use 490 Argentinian V. cholerae genome sequences to characterise the variation within, and between, epidemic and endemic V. cholerae. We show that, during the 1992-1998 cholera epidemic, the invariant epidemic clone co-existed alongside highly diverse members of the Vibrio cholerae species in Argentina, and we contrast the clonality of epidemic V. cholerae with the background diversity of local endemic bacteria. Our findings refine and add nuance to our genomic definitions of epidemic and endemic cholera, and are of direct relevance to controlling current and future cholera epidemics.


Asunto(s)
Cólera/microbiología , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Pandemias/prevención & control , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Argentina/epidemiología , Cólera/epidemiología , Cólera/prevención & control , ADN Bacteriano/genética , ADN Bacteriano/aislamiento & purificación , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Anotación de Secuencia Molecular , Pandemias/historia , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Vibrio cholerae/aislamiento & purificación , Vibrio cholerae/patogenicidad
14.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 08 13.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030318

RESUMEN

The Dutch example shows that there are not only differences but also several similarities between COVID-19 and the Spanish flu, although risk of infection and death toll were much higher than they are now, especially at the end of 1918. These similarities include emphasis on the importance of hand washing, prohibition of gatherings (and disregard of these rules), disruption of public life, uncertainty about the nature of the cause, praise of and warnings against ineffective medication as well as debate on use and necessity of certain measures. There is also the social context in which the disease and the measures taken to combat it are happening, with the poor paying the highest price, now as well as then.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Influenza Pandémica, 1918-1919/historia , Gripe Humana/historia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Influenza Pandémica, 1918-1919/mortalidad , Influenza Pandémica, 1918-1919/prevención & control , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control
15.
Am Surg ; 86(9): 1049-1055, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049164

RESUMEN

Dr Dean Warren was born in 1924 and died prematurely from cancer in 1989. He was a man of uncommon intelligence, wit, collegiality, integrity, honesty, and a true leader in American surgery. In 1966, he and his colleagues (Drs Zeppa and Fomon) presented a new concept for surgical shunts to control variceal hemorrhage while maintaining portal perfusion or hepatopetal blood flow. He termed this new shunt the distal splenorenal shunt (DSRS), which was the first selective shunt invented. The DSRS selective shunt was a brilliant improvement over the total shunt concept proposed by Nicolai Eck and was practiced worldwide during the 1980s. In a space of 2 decades, Dr Warren's pioneering work would show that the selective DSRS was superior to total shunts for treatment of portal hypertension, but that endoscopic sclerotherapy was a better first-line treatment for variceal hemorrhage than his own creation. His absolute adherence to the principles he espoused in his presidential address to the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract in 1973 were employed in his research and treatment of patients. This paper details Dr Warren's extraordinary research accomplishments and sets a lesson for us that well-designed clinical trials including randomization are essential in the advancement of the care of surgical patients.


Asunto(s)
Várices Esofágicas y Gástricas/historia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/historia , Derivación Esplenorrenal Quirúrgica/historia , Várices Esofágicas y Gástricas/complicaciones , Várices Esofágicas y Gástricas/cirugía , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiología , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/cirugía , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
Curr Biol ; 30(19): R1124-R1130, 2020 10 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022254

RESUMEN

Since the first recognition that infectious microbes serve as the causes of many human diseases, physicians and scientists have sought to understand and control their spread. For the past 150+ years, these 'microbe hunters' have learned to combine epidemiological information with knowledge of the infectious agent(s). In this essay, I reflect on the evolution of microbe hunting, beginning with the history of pre-germ theory epidemiological studies, through the microbiological and molecular eras. Now in the genomic age, modern-day microbe hunters are combining pathogen whole-genome sequencing with epidemiological data to enhance epidemiological investigations, advance our understanding of the natural history of pathogens and drivers of disease, and ultimately reshape our plans and priorities for global disease control and eradication. Indeed, as we have seen during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, the role of microbe hunters is now more important than ever. Despite the advances already made by microbial genomic epidemiology, the field is still maturing, with many more exciting developments on the horizon.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/genética , Infecciones Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Epidemiología Molecular/métodos , Prevención Primaria/métodos , Bacterias/patogenicidad , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
17.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 316-319, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030446

RESUMEN

The paper gives an overview of the spatial conditions, human resources and development course of child and adolescent psychiatry as an independent profession. The beginnings of the development date back to 1959, when the Department of children and youth is opened in Sarajevo at the Neuropsychiatric Clinic, which continues without interruption even today. After that was opened same department in Banja Luka and after a certain period of outpatient work, and stationary departments in Tuzla and Mostar. Over time, as the world's developed and improved understanding of the needs of treatment of mental disorders, and as the trends of professional approaches changed from time to time, the same set of guidelines were followed by the professional work of staff members in the departments. As the material opportunities allowed, in all localities there is a clear tendency to improve spatial conditions. However, personnel capability has improved at a slightly faster pace, so by the war time in Bosnia-Herzegovina (BH) between 1992 and 1995, in BH were mostly trained professional teams. In meanwhile, the need for psychiatric assistance has largely exceeded the human resource capabilities. The situation of war has changed dramatically in the present situation, departments are empty, and there is a paradoxical situation that the patient in the hospitals does not exist, but the reason is bizarre, since because of the war, physically, patients are not able to access to hospitals. This situation also contributes to the departure a large number of staff, which is in the child psychiatry, and so was insufficient. Despite this, during the war in Sarajevo, the Psychiatric Clinic conducts research on psychiatric morbidity and evaluation of population trauma due to war stress in the city of Sarajevo, and included the population of children and adolescents who remained in the city. The project is implemented only in the city area, because Sarajevo was city, three and half years under the total military siege. Further on, the paper elaborates the status of spatial and human resources capacity in the post-war period up to the present day. There is an evident expansion of the psychological assistance service throughout the territory of BH, which has been largely on the initiative and all the necessary assistance of the international community through non-governmental organizations, but with the involvement of the remaining domestic staffs. They were also stated the government projects, in the last two decades, on the professional training of staff working in Mental Health Centers across the country. In the latest age of the last ten years, a number of private psychological counselling centers have been opened that, beside the psychiatrists, are led by certified psychotherapists, psychologists, pedagogues, and teachers. This fact is very important for the future, because this is a good part solving the current lack of professionalism to provide psychological assistance to the population in developmental age. All professionals involved in the human psyche were aware of how important the timely recognition and provided expert assistance, when it comes to developmental age. In the post-war period, certain scientific researches on the psychological trauma severity of the population are being carried out, and the results of some of these researches are mentioned in this paper. The paper concludes with the statement that the current state of development of child psychiatry in the country is satisfactory in relation to the conditions that we had the past decade, but with the suggestion that a long way to furthering this profession and its affirmation at the global level is in the future.


Asunto(s)
Psiquiatría del Adolescente/historia , Psiquiatría Infantil/historia , Adolescente , Bosnia y Herzegovina , Niño , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Hospitales Psiquiátricos/historia , Humanos
18.
J World Fed Orthod ; 9(3S): S3-S14, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023729

RESUMEN

The idea of a global orthodontic organization, the World Federation of Orthodontists (WFO), made up of national and regional orthodontic organizations, was realized in 1995 in San Francisco at the 4th International Orthodontic Congress that was held in conjunction with the 95th annual American Association of Orthodontists meeting. This umbrella organization strives to promote quality orthodontic care, practiced and delivered by orthodontic specialists in all parts of the world. In addition, it supports its member organizations with governing principles that promote appropriate membership criteria, qualified individual leadership participation, and long-term stability of the organization over time. In response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic, the WFO has responded proactively and plans to augment its digital resources even further in the near future. This article describes the formation of the organization, the idea that germinated through the first three international orthodontic congresses, its workflow and membership criteria, the accountability and commitment it has toward its affiliates and individual members, and its plans for future years to come.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ortodoncia/historia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Sociedades Odontológicas/historia , Betacoronavirus , Congresos como Asunto/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional/historia , Objetivos Organizacionales , Pandemias
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA