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1.
Urol Clin North Am ; 49(1): 23-38, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776052

RESUMEN

Among the various robotic devices that exist for urologic surgery, the most common are synergistic telemanipulator systems. Several have achieved clinical feasibility and have been licensed for use in humans: the standard da Vinci, Avatera, Hinotori, Revo-i, Senhance, Versius, and Surgenius. Handheld and hands-on synergistic systems are also clinically relevant for use in urologic surgeries, including minimally invasive and endoscopic approaches. Future trends of robotic innovation include an exploration of more robust haptic systems that offer kinesthetic and tactile feedback; miniaturization and microrobotics; enhanced visual feedback with greater magnification and higher fidelity detail; and autonomous robots.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados/instrumentación , Robótica/historia , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Urológicos/instrumentación , Retroalimentación , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Laparoscopía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados/historia , Terminología como Asunto , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Urológicos/historia , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos
2.
Mol Biol Cell ; 32(22): ae2, 2021 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735269

RESUMEN

If this was not happening in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, I imagine that I would be speaking these words instead of writing them on my laptop. Even so, I am so jazzed for this opportunity! No word or phrase describes what I am feeling in this moment in receiving the 2021 American Society for Cell Biology Prize for Excellence in Inclusivity. It is certainly an honor to be recognized in this way. I am grateful to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute for awarding me additional resources to keep on keeping on. My approach to finding the connection between people and their science certainly could use the monetary support. Resources open doors. At the same time that I am grateful for the attention, I am not exactly sure what to do with the spotlight. Importantly, there are a host of other folks out there also doing amazing things who have never been recognized. Let's work to ensure that their contributions are supported, appreciated, and recognized. Instead of focusing the spotlight on me, I would rather redirect it to recognize my foundational influences. I also hope to encourage the need for institutional approaches beyond celebrating individual accomplishment.


Asunto(s)
Distinciones y Premios , Diversidad Cultural , Cambio Social , Academias e Institutos , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Medio Social
3.
Lancet ; 398(10313): 1837-1850, 2021 11 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774146

RESUMEN

Type 1 diabetes is on the rise globally; however, the burden of mortality remains disproportionate in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). As 2021 marks 100 years since the discovery of insulin, we revisit progress, global burden of type 1 diabetes trends, and understanding of the pathogenesis and management practices related to the disease. Despite much progress, inequities in access and availability of insulin formulations persist and are reflected in differences in survival and morbidity patterns related to the disease. Some of these inequities have also been exacerbated by health-system challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a clear opportunity to improve access to insulin and related essential technologies for improved management of type 1 diabetes in LMICs, especially as a part of universal health coverage. These improvements will require concerted action and investments in human resources, community engagement, and education for the timely diagnosis and management of type 1 diabetes, as well as adequate health-care financing. Further research in LMICs, especially those in Africa, is needed to improve our understanding of the burden, risk factors, and implementation strategies for managing type 1 diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Carga Global de Enfermedades/tendencias , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Insulina/uso terapéutico , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/economía , Hipoglucemiantes/historia , Insulina/economía , Insulina/historia , Esperanza de Vida , Cobertura Universal del Seguro de Salud
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 40, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795821

RESUMEN

The post-independence era in Nigeria ushered in an array of fundamental structuring and development in all sectors of the Nigerian economy including medical education and training. This era saw the establishment of medical schools across the country which mirrored the medical curriculum of British universities. This paper dives into the general structure of undergraduate medical education in Nigeria, its historical background and how it compares with neighboring and distant countries. Since the undergraduate medical education curriculum has not seen significant modifications since conception, this paper presents the challenges of the existent structure to include biased admission process, emphasis on irrelevant pre-medical courses, paucity of of technologically-advanced teaching and learning aids, increased workloads of lecturers amongst others. Importantly, solutions and recommendations are prescribed in this paper, which if considered, may improve undergraduate medical training in Nigeria, and ultimately improve the standard of healthcare service provision in the country.


Asunto(s)
Curriculum/normas , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/normas , Facultades de Medicina/normas , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Nigeria , Facultades de Medicina/historia
5.
FEBS J ; 288(22): 6310-6314, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780116

RESUMEN

In this special interview series, we profile members of The FEBS Journal editorial board to highlight their research focus, perspectives on the journal and future directions in their field. Eli Arama is an Associate Professor at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel. He has served as an editorial board member of The FEBS Journal since 2018.


Asunto(s)
Caspasas/metabolismo , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Animales , Caspasas/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos
6.
Zootaxa ; 5051(1): 7-10, 2021 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810909

RESUMEN

John Wells, who died at age 83 on 12 November 2018, was a research scientist, teacher, Professor of Zoology, Dean of Science at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, family man and community leader. He was a man of his time, surviving World War II, progressing to a career that stretched around the world.


Asunto(s)
Zoología , Animales , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Masculino , Zoología/historia
7.
Am Psychol ; 76(5): 812-814, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780222

RESUMEN

This award recognizes a distinguished career and enduring contribution to the practice of psychology. Samuel Knapp's long, distinguished career has resulted in demonstrable effects and significant contributions to best practices in professionalism, ethics education, positive ethics, and legislative advocacy as Director of Professional Affairs for the Pennsylvania Psychological Association and as an ethics educator extraordinaire. Dr. Knapp's work has modified the way psychologists think about professional ethics through education, from avoiding disciplinary consequences to promoting overarching ethical principles to achieve the highest standards of ethical behavior. His focus on respectful collaboration among psychologists promotes honesty through nonjudgmental conversations. His Ethics Educators Workshop and other continuing education programs have brought together psychology practitioners and faculty to focus deeply on ethics and resulted in the development of the APA Ethics Educators Award. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Distinciones y Premios , Comunicación , Ética Profesional , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Principios Morales , Pennsylvania , Psicología
8.
Am Psychol ; 76(5): 825-826, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780226

RESUMEN

This award recognizes a distinguished career and enduring contribution to the teaching of psychology. Elizabeth Yost Hammer is recognized for her significant career as a psychologist with a proven track record as an exceptional teacher of psychology. Dr. Hammer is a passionate, student-centered teacher, as well as a distinguished expert in pedagogy and teaching of psychology. Her leadership roles in Psi-Chi and the Society for the Teaching of Psychology were an inspiration to many, and she is a highly regarded speaker and contributor. Throughout all her work as a leader, mentor, teacher, faculty member, and peer, she remains student-centered, inclusive, and appreciative of the diversity of talents and perspectives across the field. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Distinciones y Premios , Emociones , Docentes , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Psicología , Sociedades Científicas , Estudiantes
9.
Am Psychol ; 76(5): 815-817, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780223

RESUMEN

This award recognizes a distinguished career and enduring contribution to psychology in the public interest. Vonnie C. McLoyd has made outstanding contributions in the public interest as a scholar, mentor, and leader in professional affairs. Her scholarship advanced understanding of the processes through which poverty harms children and provided evidence of the protective effects of social support on parents and children experiencing poverty and neighborhood violence. Her work helped transform the study of African American children to one focused on normative development, contextual influences, and sources of within-group variation. She increased ethnic diversity in psychology through her extensive mentorship and activities undertaken as a leader in the Society for Research on Adolescence, the Society for Research in Child Development, and the Association for Psychological Science. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Distinciones y Premios , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Pobreza , Psicología , Apoyo Social , Estados Unidos , Violencia
10.
Am Psychol ; 76(5): 818-821, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780224

RESUMEN

This award recognizes a distinguished career and enduring contribution to applications of psychology. Frederick Morrison, PhD, is recognized for pioneering research linking psychology and education. He was one of the first psychologists to utilize the information-processing approach to study childhood reading disorders, demonstrating that dyslexic children do not suffer primarily from a visual-perceptual deficit but from a language-based phonological coding problem. He discovered and exploited a natural experiment, termed school cutoff, to study the causal impact of early schooling on children's language, cognitive, social, and academic skills. His findings confirmed the critical role of instructional practices on children's growth but also that the most effective instruction varied with the skill level of the child. Based on these insights, with colleague Carol Connor, Morrison developed and implemented an intervention to individualize student instruction, confirming that children benefit from different types of instruction. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Distinciones y Premios , Sociedades Científicas , Niño , Escolaridad , Familia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Psicología , Instituciones Académicas
12.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 603810, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744569

RESUMEN

Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the long-term trends of breast cancer incidence in Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Los Angeles (LA). Methods: Data were obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5plus) database. The average annual percent change (AAPC) was conducted by joinpoint regression analysis, and the age, period and cohort effects were estimated by age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. Results: The age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) in LA were higher than Shanghai and Hong Kong. During 1988-2012, the ASIRs significantly decreased in white women in LA (AAPC = -0.6%, 95% CI: -0.9% to -0.4%) while increased in Shanghai (2.5%: 2.1%-2.9%) and Hong Kong (2.2%: 2.0%-2.5%). The APC analysis revealed significantly increased effects of age and period, and decreased effect of birth cohort. Conclusion: Although age and cohort effects were relatively strong, the period effect may be the key factor affecting trends of incidence, which may be caused by increasing exposures to carcinogens and risk factors. Therefore, more effective measures should be carried out promptly to protect high-risk populations such as elder women, to avoid exposures to risk factors of breast cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Anciano , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/historia , China/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Los Angeles/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6009, 2021 10 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650062

RESUMEN

By October 2021, 230 million SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses have been reported. Yet, a considerable proportion of cases remains undetected. Here, we propose GInPipe, a method that rapidly reconstructs SARS-CoV-2 incidence profiles solely from publicly available, time-stamped viral genomes. We validate GInPipe against simulated outbreaks and elaborate phylodynamic analyses. Using available sequence data, we reconstruct incidence histories for Denmark, Scotland, Switzerland, and Victoria (Australia) and demonstrate, how to use the method to investigate the effects of changing testing policies on case ascertainment. Specifically, we find that under-reporting was highest during summer 2020 in Europe, coinciding with more liberal testing policies at times of low testing capacities. Due to the increased use of real-time sequencing, it is envisaged that GInPipe can complement established surveillance tools to monitor the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In post-pandemic times, when diagnostic efforts are decreasing, GInPipe may facilitate the detection of hidden infection dynamics.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Genoma Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/historia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Incidencia , Pandemias , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/clasificación , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Escocia , Suiza , Victoria
17.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 46(5): 639-646, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662882

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is just over a century since the 1918 flu pandemic, sometimes referred to as the "mother" of pandemics. This brief retrospective of the 1918 pandemic is taken from the viewpoint of the current SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic and is based on a short lecture given during the 2021 Virtual Congress of the ERA-EDTA. SUMMARY: This review summarizes and highlights some of the earlier pandemic's salient features, some parallels with today, and some potential learnings, bearing in mind that the flu pandemic occurred over 100 years ago at a time of major turmoil during the climax to WWl, and with limited medical expertise and knowledge, research facilities, or well-structured and resourced healthcare services. While there is little or no information on renal complications at the time, or an effective treatment, some observations in relation to COVID-19 and vaccination are included. Key Messages: Lessons are difficult to draw from 1918 other than the importance and value of non-pharmaceutical measures to limit viral transmission. While the economic impact of the 1918 pandemic was significant, as it is now with COVID-19, subsequent economic analysis has shown that protecting public health and preserving economic activity are not mutually exclusive. Both H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 viruses are neurotropic and may cause chronically debilitating neurological diseases, including conditions such as encephalitis lethargica (still debated) and myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome), respectively. Although coronavirus and influenza viral infections have some similarities, they are certainly not the same, as we are realising, and future infectious pandemics may still surprise us, but being "forewarned is forearmed."


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Pandémica, 1918-1919/historia , Gripe Humana/transmisión , Pandemias , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/economía , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Influenza Pandémica, 1918-1919/economía
18.
Nature ; 598(7880): 308-314, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646000

RESUMEN

Estimates of global economic damage caused by carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions can inform climate policy1-3. The social cost of carbon (SCC) quantifies these damages by characterizing how additional CO2 emissions today impact future economic outcomes through altering the climate4-6. Previous estimates have suggested that large, warming-driven increases in energy expenditures could dominate the SCC7,8, but they rely on models9-11 that are spatially coarse and not tightly linked to data2,3,6,7,12,13. Here we show that the release of one ton of CO2 today is projected to reduce total future energy expenditures, with most estimates valued between -US$3 and -US$1, depending on discount rates. Our results are based on an architecture that integrates global data, econometrics and climate science to estimate local damages worldwide. Notably, we project that emerging economies in the tropics will dramatically increase electricity consumption owing to warming, which requires critical infrastructure planning. However, heating reductions in colder countries offset this increase globally. We estimate that 2099 annual global electricity consumption increases by about 4.5 exajoules (7 per cent of current global consumption) per one-degree-Celsius increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST), whereas direct consumption of other fuels declines by about 11.3 exajoules (7 per cent of current global consumption) per one-degree-Celsius increase in GMST. Our finding of net savings contradicts previous research7,8, because global data indicate that many populations will remain too poor for most of the twenty-first century to substantially increase energy consumption in response to warming. Importantly, damage estimates would differ if poorer populations were given greater weight14.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono/economía , Cambio Climático/economía , Cambio Climático/estadística & datos numéricos , Fuentes Generadoras de Energía/economía , Fuentes Generadoras de Energía/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Temperatura , Aire Acondicionado/economía , Aire Acondicionado/estadística & datos numéricos , Ciclo del Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Electricidad , Calefacción/economía , Calefacción/estadística & datos numéricos , Historia del Siglo XXI , Actividades Humanas , Pobreza/economía , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Ciencias Sociales
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5929, 2021 10 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642339

RESUMEN

Arab populations are largely understudied, notably their genetic structure and history. Here we present an in-depth analysis of 6,218 whole genomes from Qatar, revealing extensive diversity as well as genetic ancestries representing the main founding Arab genealogical lineages of Qahtanite (Peninsular Arabs) and Adnanite (General Arabs and West Eurasian Arabs). We find that Peninsular Arabs are the closest relatives of ancient hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Levant, and that founder Arab populations experienced multiple splitting events 12-20 kya, consistent with the aridification of Arabia and farming in the Levant, giving rise to settler and nomadic communities. In terms of recent genetic flow, we show that these ancestries contributed significantly to European, South Asian as well as South American populations, likely as a result of Islamic expansion over the past 1400 years. Notably, we characterize a large cohort of men with the ChrY J1a2b haplogroup (n = 1,491), identifying 29 unique sub-haplogroups. Finally, we leverage genotype novelty to build a reference panel of 12,432 haplotypes, demonstrating improved genotype imputation for both rare and common alleles in Arabs and the wider Middle East.


Asunto(s)
Cromosomas Humanos Y , Genoma Humano , Haplotipos , Migración Humana/historia , Filogenia , África , Alelos , Árabes/genética , Asia , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Flujo Génico , Frecuencia de los Genes , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Filogeografía , Qatar , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
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