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2.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(21): 2791-2805, 2020 11 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135725

RESUMEN

Angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) is a homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme discovered in 2000. From the initial discovery, it was recognized that the kidneys were organs very rich on ACE2. Subsequent studies demonstrated the precise localization of ACE2 within the kidney and the importance of this enzyme in the metabolism of Angiotensin II and the formation of Angiotensin 1-7. With the recognition early in 2020 of ACE2 being the main receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the interest in this protein has dramatically increased. In this review, we will focus on kidney ACE2; its localization, its alterations in hypertension, diabetes, the effect of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) on ACE2 and the potential use of ACE2 recombinant proteins therapeutically for kidney disease. We also describe the emerging kidney manifestations of COVID-19, namely the frequent development of acute kidney injury. The possibility that binding of SARS-CoV-2 to kidney ACE2 plays a role in the kidney manifestations is also briefly discussed.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/enzimología , Enfermedades Renales/enzimología , Riñón/enzimología , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo , Neumonía Viral/enzimología , Receptores Virales/metabolismo , Lesión Renal Aguda/enzimología , Lesión Renal Aguda/virología , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina/uso terapéutico , Animales , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Diabetes Mellitus/enzimología , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatología , Historia del Siglo XXI , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Hipertensión/enzimología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Riñón/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Renales/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Renales/fisiopatología , Pandemias , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/historia , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/uso terapéutico , Neumonía Viral/virología , Receptores Virales/historia
4.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 3073-3077, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025195

RESUMEN

The species concept used in virology is based on the logic of the Linnaean hierarchy, which views a species class as the lowest abstract category that is included in all the higher categories in the classification, such as genera and families. As a result of this class inclusion, the members of a species class are always less numerous than the members of higher classes, which become more numerous as one moves up in the hierarchy. Because species classes always have fewer members than any of the higher classes, logic requires that they need more qualifications for establishing membership than any of the higher classes. This invalidates the claim that a species could be defined by a single property present in all its members. Species were only accepted in virus classification in 1991, because virologists assumed that it would lead to the use of Latin species names, which they rejected. Anglicized binomial species names have been used by virologists for more the 40 years and are popular because they consist of a virus name followed by a genus name that most virologists are familiar with. The ICTV has proposed to introduce a new Latinized virus species binomial nomenclature using the genus name followed by a hard-to-remember Latinized species epithet that bears little resemblance to the name of the virus itself. However, the proposal did not clarify what the advantage is of having to learn hundreds of new unfamiliar virus species names. In 2013, the ICTV changed the definition of a virus species as an abstract class and defined it as a group of physical objects, which induced virologists to believe that a virus species could be defined by a few characteristics of the viral genome. In recent years, thousands of viral sequences have been discovered in metagenomic databases, and the ICTV has suggested that it should be possible to incorporate these sequences in the current ICTV virus classification. Unfortunately, the relational properties of these hypothetical viruses that result from their biological interactions with hosts and vectors remain in the vast majority of cases totally unknown. The absence of this information makes it in fact impossible to incorporate these metagenomic sequences in the current classification of virus species.


Asunto(s)
Virología/historia , Virus/clasificación , Manejo de Datos , Bases de Datos como Asunto , Genoma Viral , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI
5.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020501, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110584

RESUMEN

Background: The focus of the study is to assess the role of different transport means in the importation and diffusion of 1918-19 influenza and a novel 2019 corona virus designated as COVID-19 in Nigeria. Methods: The study provides a review of the means by which the two pandemics were imported into the country and the roles the transport means of each period played in the local spread of the epidemics. Results: The study notes that seaports and railways, being the emerging transportation modes in the country were significant to the importation and local diffusion of 1918-19 influenza, respectively, while air transport is significant to the importation of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The study concludes that increasing preference for the transport at a given epoch is significant to the diffusion of prevailing epidemic in the epoch.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Influenza Pandémica, 1918-1919/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Transportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Pandemias/historia , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Transportes/historia
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 316-319, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030446

RESUMEN

The paper gives an overview of the spatial conditions, human resources and development course of child and adolescent psychiatry as an independent profession. The beginnings of the development date back to 1959, when the Department of children and youth is opened in Sarajevo at the Neuropsychiatric Clinic, which continues without interruption even today. After that was opened same department in Banja Luka and after a certain period of outpatient work, and stationary departments in Tuzla and Mostar. Over time, as the world's developed and improved understanding of the needs of treatment of mental disorders, and as the trends of professional approaches changed from time to time, the same set of guidelines were followed by the professional work of staff members in the departments. As the material opportunities allowed, in all localities there is a clear tendency to improve spatial conditions. However, personnel capability has improved at a slightly faster pace, so by the war time in Bosnia-Herzegovina (BH) between 1992 and 1995, in BH were mostly trained professional teams. In meanwhile, the need for psychiatric assistance has largely exceeded the human resource capabilities. The situation of war has changed dramatically in the present situation, departments are empty, and there is a paradoxical situation that the patient in the hospitals does not exist, but the reason is bizarre, since because of the war, physically, patients are not able to access to hospitals. This situation also contributes to the departure a large number of staff, which is in the child psychiatry, and so was insufficient. Despite this, during the war in Sarajevo, the Psychiatric Clinic conducts research on psychiatric morbidity and evaluation of population trauma due to war stress in the city of Sarajevo, and included the population of children and adolescents who remained in the city. The project is implemented only in the city area, because Sarajevo was city, three and half years under the total military siege. Further on, the paper elaborates the status of spatial and human resources capacity in the post-war period up to the present day. There is an evident expansion of the psychological assistance service throughout the territory of BH, which has been largely on the initiative and all the necessary assistance of the international community through non-governmental organizations, but with the involvement of the remaining domestic staffs. They were also stated the government projects, in the last two decades, on the professional training of staff working in Mental Health Centers across the country. In the latest age of the last ten years, a number of private psychological counselling centers have been opened that, beside the psychiatrists, are led by certified psychotherapists, psychologists, pedagogues, and teachers. This fact is very important for the future, because this is a good part solving the current lack of professionalism to provide psychological assistance to the population in developmental age. All professionals involved in the human psyche were aware of how important the timely recognition and provided expert assistance, when it comes to developmental age. In the post-war period, certain scientific researches on the psychological trauma severity of the population are being carried out, and the results of some of these researches are mentioned in this paper. The paper concludes with the statement that the current state of development of child psychiatry in the country is satisfactory in relation to the conditions that we had the past decade, but with the suggestion that a long way to furthering this profession and its affirmation at the global level is in the future.


Asunto(s)
Psiquiatría del Adolescente/historia , Psiquiatría Infantil/historia , Adolescente , Bosnia y Herzegovina , Niño , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Hospitales Psiquiátricos/historia , Humanos
8.
J World Fed Orthod ; 9(3S): S3-S14, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023729

RESUMEN

The idea of a global orthodontic organization, the World Federation of Orthodontists (WFO), made up of national and regional orthodontic organizations, was realized in 1995 in San Francisco at the 4th International Orthodontic Congress that was held in conjunction with the 95th annual American Association of Orthodontists meeting. This umbrella organization strives to promote quality orthodontic care, practiced and delivered by orthodontic specialists in all parts of the world. In addition, it supports its member organizations with governing principles that promote appropriate membership criteria, qualified individual leadership participation, and long-term stability of the organization over time. In response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic, the WFO has responded proactively and plans to augment its digital resources even further in the near future. This article describes the formation of the organization, the idea that germinated through the first three international orthodontic congresses, its workflow and membership criteria, the accountability and commitment it has toward its affiliates and individual members, and its plans for future years to come.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ortodoncia/historia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Sociedades Odontológicas/historia , Betacoronavirus , Congresos como Asunto/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional/historia , Objetivos Organizacionales , Pandemias
11.
Cell ; 183(2): 308-314, 2020 10 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064987

RESUMEN

The 2020 Lasker Awards, a celebration of one of the most prestigious international prizes given to individuals for extraordinary contributions to Basic and Clinical Medical Research, Pubic Health, and Special Achievement, was cancelled because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Typically, essays on the awardees and their scientific and medical contributions are solicited and published in Cell in collaboration with the Lasker Committee. This year, the Lasker Committee commissioned an essay to reflect on the historic contributions that scientists and physicians have made to our understanding of immunology and virology, and future directions in medical and basic research that have been highlighted by COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Alergia e Inmunología , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Inmunidad , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Alergia e Inmunología/historia , Animales , Distinciones y Premios , Citocinas/inmunología , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Sistema Inmunológico/citología , Inmunoglobulinas/genética , Inmunoglobulinas/inmunología , Linfocitos/citología , Pandemias , Vacunación/historia
12.
Adv Genet ; 106: 119-122, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081921

RESUMEN

WHO's pronouncement of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak as a pandemic disease came months after we published a warning that the present deepest minimum of the sunspot cycle would be likely to facilitate the onset of a viral pandemic. During a deep sunspot minimum (deepest in 100 years) such as we are now witnessing, two space related phenomena could have an effect on the disposition of viral disease and potential pandemics. With the weakening of the magnetic field in the Earth's vicinity, there would be a high flux of mutagenic cosmic rays. These processes would be likely to herald the onset of new pandemics. Neutron counts from Moscow Neutron Monitor show that the flux of cosmic rays reaching Earth in 2019 was indeed at a maximum over a timespan of half a century since 1962. It is of interest to note that immediately prior to the first recorded cases of the novel Corona virus in China a peak of cosmic rays was measured as is indicated by the Huon neutron monitor data. Recent research revealed that estimates of the timing of the most recent common ancestor of COVID-19 made with current sequence data point to emergence of the virus in late November 2019 to early December 2019, compatible with the earliest retrospectively confirmed cases and the cosmic ray spike in late November 2019. In our view, this strong cosmic ray spike was in some way connected with the onset of the outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etiología , Radiación Cósmica , Neumonía Viral/etiología , Actividad Solar , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Betacoronavirus/efectos de la radiación , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/epidemiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/etiología , Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Radiación Cósmica/efectos adversos , Planeta Tierra , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Neutrones , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5347, 2020 10 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093464

RESUMEN

In 1970, the seventh pandemic of cholera (7 P) reached both Africa and Europe. Between 1970 and 2011, several European countries reported cholera outbreaks of a few to more than 2,000 cases. We report here a whole-genome analysis of 1,324 7 P V. cholerae El Tor (7 PET) isolates, including 172 from autochthonous sporadic or outbreak cholera cases occurring between 1970 and 2011 in Europe, providing insight into the spatial and temporal spread of this pathogen across Europe. In this work, we show that the 7 PET lineage was introduced at least eight times into two main regions: Eastern and Southern Europe. Greater recurrence of the disease was observed in Eastern Europe, where it persisted until 2011. It was introduced into this region from Southern Asia, often circulating regionally in the countries bordering the Black Sea, and in the Middle East before reaching Eastern Africa on several occasions. In Southern Europe, the disease was mostly seen in individual countries during the 1970s and was imported from North and West Africa, except in 1994, when cholera was imported into Albania and Italy from the Black Sea region. These results shed light on the geographic course of cholera during the seventh pandemic and highlight the role of humans in its global dissemination.


Asunto(s)
Cólera/historia , Pandemias/historia , Cólera/epidemiología , Cólera/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Evolución Molecular , Genoma Bacteriano , Genómica , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Migración Humana/historia , Humanos , Filogenia , Ribotipificación , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Vibrio cholerae/clasificación , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Vibrio cholerae/aislamiento & purificación
17.
Lancet ; 396(10257): 1058, 2020 10 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038954
19.
Chemosphere ; 261: 128055, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113660

RESUMEN

Red deer antlers have a number of advantages that make them a unique material for monitoring trace elements. As antlers are shed and regrown every year, results of toxicological investigations can be applied to a particular region and time. We analyzed the content of four toxic (Pb, Cd, Hg, As) and three essential (Cu, Zn, Fe) trace elements in 254 red deer antler samples spanning between 1953 and 2012. Age of stags did not influence concentrations of analyzed elements in antlers, except for Zn whose level increased with age. The highest concentrations of toxic elements occurred at the beginning of the analyzed period. Levels of Pb, Hg and Zn in antlers decreased over the course of the study. Levels of Cd and As were low and presented a steady trend. Variations in the levels of the analyzed elements in red deer antlers are considered to reflect levels of exposure of animals in their habitat over the sixty-year study period. The range of essential element levels did not indicate any contamination. Environmental conditions in the Mazury Region during the last decades appeared to have improved significantly, as established by declining trends of toxic elements levels in deer antlers.


Asunto(s)
Cuernos de Venado/química , Monitoreo Biológico/métodos , Ciervos , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Oligoelementos/toxicidad , Animales , Monitoreo Biológico/historia , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Masculino , Metales Pesados/análisis , Polonia , Oligoelementos/análisis
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