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2.
Mar Drugs ; 20(3)2022 Mar 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35323487

RESUMEN

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don is a plant belonging to the genus Catharanthus of the Apocynaceae family. It contains more than one hundred alkaloids, of which some exhibit significant pharmacological activities. Chitooligosaccharides are the only basic aminooligosaccharides with positively charged cations in nature, which can regulate plant growth and antioxidant properties. In this study, the leaves of Catharanthus roseus were sprayed with chitooligosaccharides of different molecular weights (1 kDa, 2 kDa, 3 kDa) and different concentrations (0.01 µg/mL, 0.1 µg/mL, 1 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL). The fresh weights of its root, stem and leaf were all improved after chitooligosaccharides treatments. More importantly, the chitooligosaccharides elicitor strongly stimulated the accumulation of vindoline and catharanthine in the leaves, especially with the treatment of 0.1 µg/mL 3 kDa chitooligosaccharides, the contents of them were increased by 60.68% and 141.54%, respectively. Furthermore, as the defensive responses, antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase, glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) were enhanced under chitooligosaccharides treatments. To further elucidate the underlying mechanism, qRT-PCR was used to investigate the genes expression levels of secologanin synthase (SLS), strictosidine synthase (STR), strictosidine glucosidase (SGD), tabersonine 16-hydroxylase (T16H), desacetoxyvindoline-4-hydroxylase (D4H), deacetylvindoline-4-O-acetyltransferase (DAT), peroxidase 1 (PRX1) and octadecanoid-responsive Catharanthus AP2-domain protein 3 (ORCA3). All the genes were significantly up-regulated after chitooligosaccharides treatments, and the transcription abundance of ORCA3, SLS, STR, DAT and PRX1 reached a maximal level with 0.1 µg/mL 3 kDa chitooligosaccharides treatment. All these results suggest that spraying Catharanthus roseus leaves with chitooligosaccharides, especially 0.1 µg/mL of 3 kDa chitooligosaccharides, may effectively improve the pharmaceutical value of Catharanthus roseus.


Asunto(s)
Catharanthus/efectos de los fármacos , Quitosano/farmacología , Oligosacáridos/farmacología , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/farmacología , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catharanthus/genética , Catharanthus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Catharanthus/metabolismo , Expresión Génica , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Oxidorreductasas/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Tallos de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Tallos de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Vinblastina/análogos & derivados , Vinblastina/metabolismo , Alcaloides de la Vinca/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163793

RESUMEN

The Tiller Angle Control 1 (TAC1) gene belongs to the IGT family, which mainly controls plant branch angle, thereby affecting plant form. Two members of MdTAC1 are identified in apple; the regulation of apple branch angle by MdTAC1 is still unclear. In this study, a subcellular localization analysis detected MdTAC1a in the nucleus and cell membrane, but MdTAC1b was detected in the cell membrane. Transgenic tobacco by overexpression of MdTAC1a or MdTAC1b showed enlarged leaf angles, the upregulation of several genes, such as GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox), and a sensitive response to light and gravity. According to a qRT-PCR analysis, MdTAC1a and MdTAC1b were strongly expressed in shoot tips and vegetative buds of weeping cultivars but were weakly expressed in columnar cultivars. In the MdTAC1a promoter, there were losses of 2 bp in spur cultivars and 6 bp in weeping cultivar compared with standard and columnar cultivars. An InDel marker specific to the MdTAC1a promoter was developed to distinguish apple cultivars and F1 progeny. We identified a protein, MdSRC2, that interacts with MdTAC1a, whose encoding gene which was highly expressed in trees with large branch angles. Our results indicate that differences in the MdTAC1a promoter are major contributors to branch-angle variation in apple, and the MdTAC1a interacts with MdSRC2 to affect this trait.


Asunto(s)
Malus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tabaco/crecimiento & desarrollo , Clonación Molecular , Flores/genética , Flores/crecimiento & desarrollo , Flores/metabolismo , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/crecimiento & desarrollo , Tabaco/genética , Transformación Genética
4.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263194, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192615

RESUMEN

Salt stress is the major risk to the seed germination and plant growth via affecting physiological and biochemical activities in plants. Zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) are emerged as a key agent in regulating the tolerance mechanism in plants under environmental stresses. However, the tolerance mechanisms which are regulated by ZnNPs in plants are still not fully understood. Therefore, the observation was planned to explore the role of ZnNPs (applied as priming and foliar) in reducing the harmful influence of sodium chloride (NaCl) stress on the development of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants. Varying concentrations of ZnNPs (0.1%, 0.2% & 0.3%) were employed to the spinach as seed priming and foliar, under control as well as salt stress environment. The alleviation of stress was observed in ZnNPs-applied spinach plants grown under salt stress, with a reduced rise in the concentration hydrogen peroxide, melondialdehyde and anthocyanin contents. A clear decline in soluble proteins, chlorophyll contents, ascorbic acid, sugars, and total phenolic contents was observed in stressed conditions. Exogenous ZnNPs suppressed the NaCl generated reduction in biochemical traits, and progress of spinach plants. However, ZnNPs spray at 0.3% followed by priming was the most prominent treatment in the accumulation of osmolytes and the production of antioxidant molecules in plants.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas del Metal/administración & dosificación , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Estrés Salino/fisiología , Semillas/efectos de los fármacos , Cloruro de Sodio/farmacología , Spinacia oleracea/efectos de los fármacos , Zinc/farmacología , /administración & dosificación , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/metabolismo , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Fenoles/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Semillas/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/crecimiento & desarrollo , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2851, 2022 02 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181728

RESUMEN

Plants do not have neurons but operate transmembrane ion channels and can get electrical excited by physical and chemical clues. Among them the Venus flytrap is characterized by its peculiar hapto-electric signaling. When insects collide with trigger hairs emerging the trap inner surface, the mechanical stimulus within the mechanosensory organ is translated into a calcium signal and an action potential (AP). Here we asked how the Ca2+ wave and AP is initiated in the trigger hair and how it is feed into systemic trap calcium-electrical networks. When Dionaea muscipula trigger hairs matures and develop hapto-electric excitability the mechanosensitive anion channel DmMSL10/FLYC1 and voltage dependent SKOR type Shaker K+ channel are expressed in the sheering stress sensitive podium. The podium of the trigger hair is interface to the flytrap's prey capture and processing networks. In the excitable state touch stimulation of the trigger hair evokes a rise in the podium Ca2+ first and before the calcium signal together with an action potential travel all over the trap surface. In search for podium ion channels and pumps mediating touch induced Ca2+ transients, we, in mature trigger hairs firing fast Ca2+ signals and APs, found OSCA1.7 and GLR3.6 type Ca2+ channels and ACA2/10 Ca2+ pumps specifically expressed in the podium. Like trigger hair stimulation, glutamate application to the trap directly evoked a propagating Ca2+ and electrical event. Given that anesthetics affect K+ channels and glutamate receptors in the animal system we exposed flytraps to an ether atmosphere. As result propagation of touch and glutamate induced Ca2+ and AP long-distance signaling got suppressed, while the trap completely recovered excitability when ether was replaced by fresh air. In line with ether targeting a calcium channel addressing a Ca2+ activated anion channel the AP amplitude declined before the electrical signal ceased completely. Ether in the mechanosensory organ did neither prevent the touch induction of a calcium signal nor this post stimulus decay. This finding indicates that ether prevents the touch activated, glr3.6 expressing base of the trigger hair to excite the capture organ.


Asunto(s)
Calcio/química , Droseraceae/fisiología , Electricidad , Cabello/fisiología , Potenciales de Acción/genética , Anestésicos/farmacología , Calcio/metabolismo , Canales de Calcio/genética , Droseraceae/efectos de los fármacos , Éter/farmacología , Oxilipinas/química , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Transducción de Señal/genética , Tacto/fisiología , Percepción del Tacto/genética , Percepción del Tacto/fisiología
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2856, 2022 02 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190606

RESUMEN

The SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like (SPL) family play a key role in guiding the switch of plant growth from juvenile to adult phases. Populus euphratica Oliv. exhibit typical heterophylly, and is therefore an ideal model for studying leaf shape development. To investigate the role and regulated networks of SPLs in the morphogenesis of P. euphratica heteromorphic leaves. In this study, 33 P. euphratica SPL (PeuSPL) genes were identified from P. euphratica genome and transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis depicted the classification of these SPL genes into two subgroups. The expression profiles and regulatory networks of P. euphratica SPL genes analysis displayed that major P. euphratica SPL family members gradually increases from linear to broad-ovate leaves, and they were involved in the morphogenesis regulation, stress response, transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, photoperiod, and photosynthesis etc. 14 circRNAs, and 33 lncRNAs can promote the expression of 12 of the P. euphratica SPLs by co-decoying miR156 in heteromorphic leaf morphogenesis. However, it was found that the effect of PeuSPL2-4 and PeuSPL9 in leaf shape development was contrasting to their homologous genes of Arabidopsis. Therefore, it was suggested that the SPL family were evolutionarily conserved for regulation growth, but were varies in different plant for regulation of the organ development.


Asunto(s)
Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas/fisiología , Genes de Plantas/genética , Morfogénesis/genética , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Populus/genética , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo , Fotosíntesis/genética , Filogenia , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/fisiología , Populus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Populus/fisiología , ARN Circular/fisiología , ARN Largo no Codificante/fisiología , ARN de Planta/fisiología
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163762

RESUMEN

Autophagy is ubiquitously present in eukaryotes. During this process, intracellular proteins and some waste organelles are transported into lysosomes or vacuoles for degradation, which can be reused by the cell to guarantee normal cellular metabolism. However, the function of autophagy-related (ATG) proteins in oomycetes is rarely known. In this study, we identified an autophagy-related gene, PlATG6a, encoding a 514-amino-acid protein in Peronophythora litchii, which is the most destructive pathogen of litchi. The transcriptional level of PlATG6a was relatively higher in mycelium, sporangia, zoospores and cysts. We generated PlATG6a knockout mutants using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The P. litchii Δplatg6a mutants were significantly impaired in autophagy and vegetative growth. We further found that the Δplatg6a mutants displayed decreased branches of sporangiophore, leading to impaired sporangium production. PlATG6a is also involved in resistance to oxidative and salt stresses, but not in sexual reproduction. The transcription of peroxidase-encoding genes was down-regulated in Δplatg6a mutants, which is likely responsible for hypersensitivity to oxidative stress. Compared with the wild-type strain, the Δplatg6a mutants showed reduced virulence when inoculated on the litchi leaves using mycelia plugs. Overall, these results suggest a critical role for PlATG6a in autophagy, vegetative growth, sporangium production, sporangiophore development, zoospore release, pathogenesis and tolerance to salt and oxidative stresses in P. litchii.


Asunto(s)
Beclina-1/genética , Litchi/crecimiento & desarrollo , Phytophthora/crecimiento & desarrollo , Regulación hacia Arriba , Autofagia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Técnicas de Inactivación de Genes , Litchi/parasitología , Micelio/genética , Micelio/crecimiento & desarrollo , Micelio/patogenicidad , Estrés Oxidativo , Phytophthora/genética , Phytophthora/patogenicidad , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/parasitología , Reproducción Asexuada , Tolerancia a la Sal , Factores de Virulencia/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163763

RESUMEN

The root tissues play important roles in water and nutrient acquisition, environmental adaptation, and plant development. In this study, a diversity panel of 388 wheat accessions was collected to investigate nine root system architecture (RSA) traits at the three-leaf stage under two growing environments: outdoor pot culture (OPC) and indoor pot culture (IPC). Phenotypic analysis revealed that root development was faster under OPC than that under IPC and a significant correlation was observed between the nine RSA traits. The 660K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip was used for a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Significant SNPs with a threshold of -log10 (p-value) ≥ 4 were considered. Thus, 36 quantitative trait loci (QTLs), including 13 QTL clusters that were associated with more than one trait, were detected, and 31 QTLs were first identified. The QTL clusters on chromosomes 3D and 5B were associated with four and five RSA traits, respectively. Two candidate genes, TraesCS2A01G516200 and TraesCS7B01G036900, were found to be associated with more than one RSA trait using haplotype analysis, and preferentially expressed in the root tissues. These favourable alleles for RSA traits identified in this study may be useful to optimise the root system in wheat.


Asunto(s)
Mapeo Cromosómico/métodos , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo/métodos , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo , Triticum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Técnicas de Cultivo , Desequilibrio de Ligamiento , Fenotipo , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raíces de Plantas/genética , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Triticum/genética
9.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164120

RESUMEN

This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of crude extracts obtained from three Asclepiadaceae species, namely, Calotropis procera L., Peruglaria tomentosa L., and Pentatropis spiralis (Forsk.) Decne. Both butanol and aq. methanol extracts of the three species showed the highest amount of phenol and flavonoid contents, which exhibited the greatest antioxidant activity in the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical cation (ABTS), ferrous chelating effect (FIC), and hydroxyl radical (HDR) assays. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, sponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, and glycosides. LC-MS analysis was carried out to identify the major compounds from each crude extract. A total of 12 phenolic compounds in the extracts of the 3 species were identified and quantified, including 9 flavonoids, 2 hydroxybenzoic acids, and 3 hydroxycinnamic acids. The current study also revealed a good correlation between total phenolic contents and the observed antioxidant activity of the crude extracts.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/análisis , Apocynaceae/química , Flavonoides/análisis , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Apocynaceae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Cromatografía Liquida , Jordania , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Especificidad de la Especie , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
10.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164196

RESUMEN

The herbal plant Petroselinum crispum (P. crispum) (Mill) is commonly available around the world. In this study, the leaves of the herbal plant P. crispum were collected from the central region of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia, to explore their in vitro pharmacological activity. Essential oil from the leaves of P. crispum was isolated using the hydrodistillation method. The composition of P. crispum essential oil (PCEO) was determined using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 67 components were identified, representing approximately 96.02% of the total volatile composition. Myristicin was identified as the principal constituent (41.45%). The in vitro biological activity was assessed to evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory potential of PCEO. PCEO showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus among all the evaluated microbial species. In vitro anti-inflammatory evaluation using albumin and trypsin assays showed the excellent anti-inflammatory potential of PCEO compared to the standard drugs. An in silico study of the primary PCEO compound was conducted using online tools such as PASS, Swiss ADME, and Molecular docking. In silico PASS prediction results supported our in vitro findings. Swiss ADME revealed the drug likeness and safety properties of the major metabolites present in PCEO. Molecular docking results were obtained by studying the interaction of Myristicin with an antifungal (PDB: 1IYL and 3LD6), antibacterial (PDB: 1AJ6 and 1JIJ), antioxidant (PDB: 3NM8 and 1HD2), and anti-inflammatory (3N8Y and 3LN1) receptors supported the in vitro results. Therefore, PCEO or Myristicin might be valuable for developing anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial drugs.


Asunto(s)
Magnoliopsida/química , Hojas de la Planta/química , Antiinfecciosos/análisis , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Simulación por Computador , Técnicas In Vitro , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Arabia Saudita
11.
Gene ; 823: 146320, 2022 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35218893

RESUMEN

Tomato zonate spotvirus (TZSV) often incurs significant losses in many food and ornamental crops in Yunnan province, China, and the surrounding areas. The pepper (Capsicum chinensePI152225)can develop hypersensitive resistance following infection with TZSV, through an as yet unknown mechanism. The transcriptome dataset showed a total of 45.81 GB of clean data were obtained from six libraries, and the average percentage of the reads mapped to the pepper genome was over 90.00 %. A total of 1403 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained after TZSV infection, including 825significantly up-regulated genes and 578 down-regulated genes. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses indicated that most up-regulated DEGs were involved in basal defenses. RT-qPCR, and virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) were used preliminarily to identifyBBC_22506 and BBC_18917, among total of 71 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), that play a key role in mediating the auxin-induced signaling pathway that might take part in hypersensitive response (HR) conferred resistance to viral infection in pepper (PI152225) byTZSV. This is the first study on the mechanism of auxin resistance, involved in defense responses of pepper against viral diseases, which lay the foundation for further study on the pathogenic mechanism of TZSV, as well as the mechanism of resistance to TZSV, in peppers.


Asunto(s)
Capsicum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Resistencia a la Enfermedad , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/métodos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tospovirus/patogenicidad , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Capsicum/virología , Bases de Datos Genéticas , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Ontología de Genes , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/virología , RNA-Seq , Transducción de Señal
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163540

RESUMEN

Cytospora chrysosperma is the main causal agent of poplar canker disease in China, especially in some areas with poor site conditions. Pathogens secrete a large number of effectors to interfere the plant immunity and promote their infection and colonization. Nevertheless, the roles of effectors in C. chrysosperma remain poorly understood. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized a candidate effector CcSp84 from C. chrysosperma, which contained a nuclear localization signal motif at the C-terminal and was highly induced during infection stages. Transient expression of CcSp84 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves could trigger cell death. Additionally, deletion of CcSp84 significantly reduced fungal virulence to the polar twigs, while no obvious defects were observed in fungal growth and sensitivity to H2O2. Confocal microscopy revealed that CcSp84 labeled with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) was mainly accumulated in the plant nucleus. Further analysis revealed that the plant nucleus localization of CcSp84 was necessary to trigger plant immune responses, including ROS accumulation, callose deposition, and induced expression of jasmonic acid and ethylene defense-related genes. Collectively, our results suggest that CcSp84 is a virulence-related effector, and plant nucleus localization is required for its functions.


Asunto(s)
Ascomicetos/patogenicidad , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Tabaco/crecimiento & desarrollo , Factores de Virulencia/química , Factores de Virulencia/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Vías Biosintéticas , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Eliminación de Gen , Regulación Fúngica de la Expresión Génica , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Glucanos/metabolismo , Microscopía Confocal , Señales de Localización Nuclear , Inmunidad de la Planta , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dominios Proteicos , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Factores de Virulencia/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263985, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35171969

RESUMEN

Rosette morphology across Arabidopsis accessions exhibits considerable variation. Here we report a high-throughput phenotyping approach based on automatic image analysis to quantify rosette shape and dissect the underlying genetic architecture. Shape measurements of the rosettes in a core set of Recombinant Inbred Lines from an advanced mapping population (Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross or MAGIC) derived from inter-crossing 19 natural accessions. Image acquisition and analysis was scaled to extract geometric descriptors from time stamped images of growing rosettes. Shape analyses revealed heritable morphological variation at early juvenile stages and QTL mapping resulted in over 116 chromosomal regions associated with trait variation within the population. Many QTL linked to variation in shape were located near genes related to hormonal signalling and signal transduction pathways while others are involved in shade avoidance and transition to flowering. Our results suggest rosette shape arises from modular integration of sub-organ morphologies and can be considered a functional trait subjected to selective pressures of subsequent morphological traits. On an applied aspect, QTLs found will be candidates for further research on plant architecture.


Asunto(s)
Arabidopsis/genética , Cromosomas de las Plantas/genética , Variación Genética , Fenotipo , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo , Arabidopsis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Mapeo Cromosómico , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163082

RESUMEN

Gynura bicolor (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC. (G. bicolor) is a functional vegetable rich in iron (Fe) and widely grown in Asia (e.g., Japan and China). Because most Fe in the soil exists in the form of insoluble oxides or hydroxides, it is difficult for plants to obtain Fe from the soil. A comparative metabolomic and transcriptome study was carried out to investigate the effect of Fe deficiency on metabolite synthesis and gene expression in young and mature leaves of G. bicolor. Fe deficiency caused chlorosis and decreased the chlorophyll content in young leaves. The metabolomic results for young leaves showed that l-glutamate and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid lactone significantly increased and decreased, respectively. The transcriptome results showed that the expression levels of genes involved in ferric reduction oxidase 7 and 14-kDa proline-rich protein DC2.15-like were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively. However, Fe deficiency had little effect on mature leaves.


Asunto(s)
Asteraceae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Regulación del Desarrollo de la Expresión Génica , Hierro/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Asteraceae/genética , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Nutrientes/análisis , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Necrosis y Clorosis de las Plantas/estadística & datos numéricos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163093

RESUMEN

Lysine crotonylation is a newly discovered and reversible posttranslational modification involved in various biological processes, especially metabolism regulation. A total of 5159 lysine crotonylation sites in 2272 protein groups were identified. Twenty-seven motifs were found to be the preferred amino acid sequences for crotonylation sites. Functional annotation analyses revealed that most crotonylated proteins play important roles in metabolic processes and photosynthesis. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that lysine crotonylation preferentially targets a variety of important biological processes, including ribosome, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, proteasome and the TCA cycle, indicating lysine crotonylation is involved in the common mechanism of metabolic regulation. A protein interaction network analysis revealed that diverse interactions are modulated by protein crotonylation. These results suggest that lysine crotonylation is involved in a variety of biological processes. HSP70 is a crucial protein involved in protecting plant cells and tissues from thermal or abiotic stress responses, and HSP70 protein was found to be crotonylated in paper mulberry. This systematic analysis provides the first comprehensive analysis of lysine crotonylation in paper mulberry and provides important resources for further study on the regulatory mechanism and function of the lysine crotonylated proteome.


Asunto(s)
Broussonetia/metabolismo , Crotonatos/química , Lisina/química , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Procesamiento Proteico-Postraduccional , Proteoma/metabolismo , Broussonetia/genética , Broussonetia/crecimiento & desarrollo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Lisina/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 954, 2022 01 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35046463

RESUMEN

Plant species of the Brazilian Caatinga experience seasonal wet and dry extremes, requiring seasonally different leaf characteristics for optimizing water availability. We investigated if Croton blanchetianus Baill exhibits leaf morphoanatomical traits across seasons and positioning in sunlight/natural shade. Leaves of ten 1-3 m tall plants in full sunlight and ten in natural shade were assessed in May, July (wet season), October and December (dry season) 2015 for gas exchange, leaf size, lamina and midrib cross sections (14 parameters), and chloroplast structure (5 parameters). Net photosynthesis was greater during the wet season (21.6 µm-2 s-1) compared to the dry season (5.8 µm-2 s-1) and was strongly correlated with almost all measured parameters (p < 0.01). Shaded leaves in the wet season had higher specific leaf area (19.9 m2 kg-1 in full-sun and 23.1 m2 kg-1 in shade), but in the dry season they did not differ from those in full sun (7.5 m2 kg-1 and 7.2 m2 kg-1). In the wet season, the expansion of the adaxial epidermis and mesophyll lead to larger and thicker photosynthetic area of leaves. Furthermore, chloroplast thickness, length and area were also significantly larger in full sunlight (2.1 µm, 5.1 µm, 15.2 µm2; respectively) and shaded plants (2.0 µm, 5.2 µm, 14.8 µm2; respectively) during wetter months. Croton blanchetianus exhibits seasonal plasticity in leaf structure, presumably to optimize water use efficiency during seasons of water abundance and deficit. These results suggest that the species is adaptable to the increased drought stress projected by climate change scenarios.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica , Croton/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Lluvia , Estaciones del Año , Brasil , Croton/anatomía & histología , Sequías , Bosques , Hojas de la Planta/anatomía & histología
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 185, 2022 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997037

RESUMEN

The domestication of forest species has traditionally relied on productivity issues. However, today there are concerns about the potential responses of natural populations and new cultivars to extreme climatic conditions derived from climate change and how to incorporate this knowledge into the domestication programs. Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz ('Maqui') is a widely distributed native species in Chile. Its berry is considered a "super fruit" with an increasing interest in the food industry. This study investigated the phenotypic variation of growth, fruit, and ecophysiological traits of 20 A. chilensis clones originated from six provenances along the latitudinal gradient and established in a common-garden experiment in the Mediterranean zone of central Chile (center part of the species distribution). Differences among provenances were observed for most of the traits under study, especially between the northern and southernmost provenances (i.e., San Fernando versus Entre Lagos). Northern provenances showed higher development of vegetative tissue and fruit yield but lower intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEint) compared with southern ones. Clonal variation within provenances was found significant for the ripening index, WUEint, and fruit number and weight but not significant for traits related to the crown and leaf morphology. A genetic differentiation due to latitudinal cline was not evident in this study, but differences among provenances suggest local adaptation for some traits. The genotypic variation in productive traits must be considered in the outgoing domestication of the species and future selection programs.


Asunto(s)
Domesticación , Elaeocarpaceae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Jardinería , China , Elaeocarpaceae/genética , Frutas/genética , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Fenotipo , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 13, 2022 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979927

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Leaves, which are the most important organs of plants, can not only fix carbon sources through photosynthesis, but also absorb nutrients through transpiration. Leaf development directly determines the growth, flowering and fruiting of plants. There are many factors that affect leaf development, such as the growth environment, gene expression, and hormone synthesis. In this study, tomatoes were used to study the role of the transcription factor Solanum lycopersicum salt-related MYB1-like (SlSRM1-like) in the development of tomato leaves. RESULTS: Loss-of-function of the SlSRM1-like gene mediated by clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) resulted in abnormal tomato leaf morphology, including thinner leaves, wrinkled edges, raised veins, disordered edge veins, and left and right asymmetry. An analysis of the transcription levels of genes related to leaf development revealed that the expression of these genes was significantly altered in the SlSRM1-like mutants (SlSRM1-like-Ms). Moreover, the SlSRM1-like gene was expressed at higher transcription levels in young tissues than in old tissues, and its expression was also induced in response to auxin. In addition, the transcription levels of genes related to the auxin pathway, which regulates tomato growth and development, were severely affected in the SlSRM1-like-Ms. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the SlSRM1-like gene functions in the regulation of tomato leaf development through the auxin-related pathway. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we successfully knocked out the SlSRM1-like gene in the tomato variety Ailsa Craig using CRISPR technology and found that knockout of the SlSRM1-like gene resulted in abnormal development of tomato leaves. Further research indicated that SlSRM1-like regulated tomato leaf development through auxin-related pathways. The results provide an important reference for the functional study of other SRM1-like genes in plants and provide new insights into the regulation of leaf development in tomato and other plants.


Asunto(s)
Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Lycopersicon esculentum , Mutagénesis , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 371, 2022 01 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013363

RESUMEN

Calamansi or Philippine lime (Citrofortunella macrocarpa) is an important crop for local economic in Hainan Island. There is no study about Calamansi germplasm evaluation and cultivar development. In this study, Calamansi data were collected from 151 of Calamansi seedling trees, and 37 phenotypic traits were analyzed to investigate their genetic diversities. The cluster analysis and principal component analysis were conducted aiming to provide a theoretical basis for the Calamansi genetic improvement. The results of the diversity analysis revealed: (1) the diversity indexes for qualitative traits were ranged from 0.46-1.39, and the traits with the highest genetic diversity level were fruit shaped and pulp colored (H' > 1.20); and the diversity indexes for quantitative traits ranged from 0.67-2.10, with the exception of a lower in fruit juice rate (1.08) and lower in number of petals (0.67). (2) The clustering analysis of phenotypic traits have arranged the samples into 4 categories: the first group characterized by fewer flesh Segment number per fruit (SNF) and more Oil cell number (OCN); the second group had 7 samples, all characterized with larger Crown breadth (CB), higher Yield per tree (YPT), the lager leaf, the higher Ascorbic acid (AA), and less Seed number per fruit (SNPF); the third group had 25 samples characterized by smaller Tree foot diameter (TFD),smaller Fruit shape index (FSI) and higher Total soluble solids (TSS) contain; the fourth group had 87 samples, they were characterized by shorter Petiole length (PEL), larger fruit, higher Juice ratio (JR), multiple Stamen number (SN) and longer Pistil length (PIL). (3) The principal component analysis showed the values of the first 9 major components characteristic vectors were all greater than 3, the cumulative contribution rate reach 72.20%, including the traits of single fruit weight, fruit diameter, tree height, tree canopy width etc. Finally, based on the comprehensive main component value of all samples, the Calamansi individuals with higher testing scores were selected for further observation. This study concludes that Calamansi seedling populations in the Hainan Island holds great genetic diversity in varies traits, and can be useful for the Calamansi variety improvements.


Asunto(s)
Variación Biológica Poblacional , Citrus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Árboles/crecimiento & desarrollo , Citrus/genética , Análisis por Conglomerados , Productos Agrícolas/genética , Frutas/genética , Jugos de Frutas y Vegetales , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Patrón de Herencia , Fenotipo , Filogenia , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Análisis de Componente Principal , Semillas/genética , Árboles/genética
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(1)2022 01 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35052496

RESUMEN

Drought, ultraviolet-B (UV-B), and nitrogen stress are significant constraints for sweetpotato productivity. Their impact on plant growth and development can be acute, resulting in low productivity. Identifying phenotypes that govern stress tolerance in sweetpotatoes is highly desirable to develop elite cultivars with better yield. Ten sweetpotato cultivars were grown under nonstress (100% replacement of evapotranspiration (ET)), drought-stress (50% replacement of ET), UV-B (10 kJ), and low-nitrogen (20% LN) conditions. Various shoot and root morphological, physiological, and gas-exchange traits were measured at the early stage of the crop growth to assess its performance and association with the storage root number. All three stress factors caused significant changes in the physiological and root- and shoot-related traits. Drought stress reduced most shoot developmental traits (29%) to maintain root growth. UV-B stress increased the accumulation of plant pigments and decreased the photosynthetic rate. Low-nitrogen treatment decreased shoot growth (11%) and increased the root traits (18%). The highly stable and productive cultivars under all four treatments were identified using multitrait stability index analysis and weighted average of absolute scores (WAASB) analyses. Further, based on the total stress response indices, 'Evangeline', 'O'Henry', and 'Beauregard B-14' were identified as vigorous under drought; 'Evangeline', 'Orleans', and 'Covington' under UV-B; and 'Bonita', 'Orleans', and 'Beauregard B-14' cultivars showed greater tolerance to low nitrogen. The cultivars 'Vardaman' and 'NC05-198' recorded a low tolerance index across stress treatments. This information could help determine which plant phenotypes are desirable under stress treatment for better productivity. The cultivars identified as tolerant, sensitive, and well-adapted within and across stress treatments can be used as source materials for abiotic stress tolerance breeding programs.


Asunto(s)
Sequías , Ipomoea batatas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Nitrógeno/deficiencia , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Brotes de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Estrés Fisiológico , Rayos Ultravioleta/efectos adversos , Adaptación Fisiológica , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Ipomoea batatas/efectos de la radiación , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de la radiación , Brotes de la Planta/metabolismo , Brotes de la Planta/efectos de la radiación , Estaciones del Año
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