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1.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800893

RESUMEN

In order to replace the huge amounts of copper salts used in citrus orchards, alternatives have been sought in the form of organic compounds of natural origin with activity against the causative agent of citrus canker, the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. Citri. We synthesized a series of 4-alkoxy-1,2-benzene diols (alkyl-BDOs) using 1,2,4-benzenetriol (BTO) as a starting material through a three-step synthesis route and evaluated their suitability as antibacterial compounds. Our results show that alkyl ethers derived from 1,2,4-benzenetriol have bactericidal activity against X. citri, disrupting the bacterial cell membrane within 15 min. Alkyl-BDOs were also shown to remain active against the bacteria while in solution, and presented low toxicity to (human) MRC-5 cells. Therefore, we have demonstrated that 1,2,4-benzenetriol-a molecule that can be obtained from agricultural residues-is an adequate precursor for the synthesis of new compounds with activity against X. citri.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Derivados del Benceno/farmacología , Citrus/efectos de los fármacos , Fibroblastos/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Xanthomonas/patogenicidad , Antibacterianos/química , Derivados del Benceno/química , Proliferación Celular , Citrus/microbiología , Fibroblastos/citología , Humanos , Hojas de la Planta/microbiología
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805821

RESUMEN

Drought is the most serious abiotic stress, which significantly reduces crop productivity. The phytohormone ABA plays a pivotal role in regulating stomatal closing upon drought stress. Here, we characterized the physiological function of AtBBD1, which has bifunctional nuclease activity, on drought stress. We found that AtBBD1 localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm, and was expressed strongly in trichomes and stomatal guard cells of leaves, based on promoter:GUS constructs. Expression analyses revealed that AtBBD1 and AtBBD2 are induced early and strongly by ABA and drought, and that AtBBD1 is also strongly responsive to JA. We then compared phenotypes of two AtBBD1-overexpression lines (AtBBD1-OX), single knockout atbbd1, and double knockout atbbd1/atbbd2 plants under drought conditions. We did not observe any phenotypic difference among them under normal growth conditions, while OX lines had greatly enhanced drought tolerance, lower transpirational water loss, and higher proline content than the WT and KOs. Moreover, by measuring seed germination rate and the stomatal aperture after ABA treatment, we found that AtBBD1-OX and atbbd1 plants showed significantly higher and lower ABA-sensitivity, respectively, than the WT. RNA sequencing analysis of AtBBD1-OX and atbbd1 plants under PEG-induced drought stress showed that overexpression of AtBBD1 enhances the expression of key regulatory genes in the ABA-mediated drought signaling cascade, particularly by inducing genes related to ABA biosynthesis, downstream transcription factors, and other regulatory proteins, conferring AtBBD1-OXs with drought tolerance. Taken together, we suggest that AtBBD1 functions as a novel positive regulator of drought responses by enhancing the expression of ABA- and drought stress-responsive genes as well as by increasing proline content.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Adaptación Fisiológica/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Endonucleasas/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Ácido Abscísico/farmacología , Arabidopsis/efectos de los fármacos , Arabidopsis/enzimología , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/agonistas , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacología , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Sequías , Endonucleasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Endonucleasas/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacología , Células Vegetales/efectos de los fármacos , Células Vegetales/enzimología , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/enzimología , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Estomas de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Estomas de Plantas/enzimología , Estomas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente , Prolina/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico/genética , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799719

RESUMEN

Ecdysteroids (ECs) are steroid hormones originally found in the animal kingdom where they function as insect molting hormones. Interestingly, a relatively high number of these substances can also be formed in plant cells. Moreover, ECs have certain regulatory effects on plant physiology, but their role in plants still requires further study. One of the main aims of the present study was to verify a hypothesis that fenarimol, an inhibitor of the biosynthesis of ECs in the animal kingdom, also affects the content of endogenous ECs in plants using winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. as a model plant. The levels of endogenous ECs in winter wheat, including the estimation of their changes during a course of different temperature treatments, have been determined using a sensitive analytical method based on UHPLC-MS/MS. Under our experimental conditions, four substances of EC character were detected in the tissue of interest in amounts ranging from less than 1 to over 200 pg·g-1 FW: 20-hydroxyecdysone, polypodine B, turkesterone, and isovitexirone. Among them, turkesterone was observed to be the most abundant EC and accumulated mainly in the crowns and leaves of wheat. Importantly, the level of ECs was observed to be dependent on the age of the plants, as well as on growth conditions (especially temperature). Fenarimol, an inhibitor of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, was shown to significantly decrease the level of naturally occurring ECs in experimental plants, which may indicate its potential use in studies related to the biosynthesis and physiological function of these substances in plants.


Asunto(s)
Productos Biológicos/metabolismo , Ecdisteroides/biosíntesis , Pirimidinas/farmacología , Triticum/metabolismo , Productos Biológicos/química , Cromatografía Liquida/métodos , Ecdisteroides/química , Fungicidas Industriales/farmacología , Estructura Molecular , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Temperatura , Triticum/crecimiento & desarrollo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673022

RESUMEN

Grain legumes are important crops, but they are salt sensitive. This research dissected the responses of four (sub)tropical grain legumes to ionic components (Na+ and/or Cl-) of salt stress. Soybean, mungbean, cowpea, and common bean were subjected to NaCl, Na+ salts (without Cl-), Cl- salts (without Na+), and a "high cation" negative control for 57 days. Growth, leaf gas exchange, and tissue ion concentrations were assessed at different growing stages. For soybean, NaCl and Na+ salts impaired seed dry mass (30% of control), more so than Cl- salts (60% of control). All treatments impaired mungbean growth, with NaCl and Cl- salt treatments affecting seed dry mass the most (2% of control). For cowpea, NaCl had the greatest adverse impact on seed dry mass (20% of control), while Na+ salts and Cl- salts had similar intermediate effects (~45% of control). For common bean, NaCl had the greatest adverse effect on seed dry mass (4% of control), while Na+ salts and Cl- salts impaired seed dry mass to a lesser extent (~45% of control). NaCl and Na+ salts (without Cl-) affected the photosynthesis (Pn) of soybean more than Cl- salts (without Na+) (50% of control), while the reverse was true for mungbean. Na+ salts (without Cl-), Cl- salts (without Na+), and NaCl had similar adverse effects on Pn of cowpea and common bean (~70% of control). In conclusion, salt sensitivity is predominantly determined by Na+ toxicity in soybean, Cl- toxicity in mungbean, and both Na+ and Cl- toxicity in cowpea and common bean.


Asunto(s)
Cloruros/toxicidad , Phaseolus/efectos de los fármacos , Cloruro de Sodio/toxicidad , Sodio/toxicidad , Soja/efectos de los fármacos , Vigna/efectos de los fármacos , Biomasa , Phaseolus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Tolerancia a la Sal/efectos de los fármacos , Soja/crecimiento & desarrollo , Especificidad de la Especie , Vigna/clasificación , Vigna/crecimiento & desarrollo
5.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671171

RESUMEN

Olive leaf spot (OLS) caused by Fusicladiumoleagineum is mainly controlled using copper fungicides. However, the replacement of copper-based products with eco-friendly alternatives is a priority. The use of plant resistance-inducers (PRIs) or biological control agents (BCAs) could contribute in this direction. In this study we investigated the potential use of three PRIs (laminarin, acibenzolar-S-methyl, harpin) and a BCA (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB24) for the management of OLS. The tested products provided control efficacy higher than 68%. In most cases, dual applications provided higher (p < 0.05) control efficacies compared to that achieved by single applications. The highest control efficacy of 100% was achieved by laminarin. Expression analysis of the selected genes by RT-qPCR revealed different kinetics of induction. In laminarin-treated plants, for most of the tested genes a higher induction rate (p < 0.05) was observed at 3 days post application. Pal, Lox, Cuao and Mpol were the genes with the higher inductions in laminarin-treated and artificially inoculated plants. The results of this study are expected to contribute towards a better understanding of PRIs in olive culture and the optimization of OLS control, while they provide evidence for potential contributions in the reduction of copper accumulation in the environment.


Asunto(s)
Glucanos/farmacología , Olea/inmunología , Olea/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/inmunología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/prevención & control , Hojas de la Planta/microbiología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Olea/genética , Enfermedades de las Plantas/genética , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/genética
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112097, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667736

RESUMEN

Plant ZIP genes represent an important transporter family and may be involved in cadmium (Cd) accumulation and Cd resistance. In order to explore the function of SmZIP isolated from Salix matsudana, the roles of SmZIP in Cd tolerance, uptake, translocation, and distribution were determined in the present investigation. The transgenic SmZIP tobacco was found to respond to external Cd stress differently from WT tobacco by exhibiting a higher growth rate and more vigorous phenotype. The overexpression of SmZIP in tobacco resulted in the reduction of Cd stress-induced phytotoxic effects. Compared to WT tobacco, the Cd content of the root, stem, and leaf in the transgenic tobacco increased, and the zinc, iron, copper, and manganese contents also increased. The assimilation factor, translocation factor and bioconcentration factor of Cd were improved. The scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis results of the root maturation zone exposed to Cd for 24 h showed that Cd was transferred through the root epidermis, cortex, and vascular cylinder and migrated to the aboveground parts via the vascular cylinder, resulting in the transgenic tobacco accumulating more Cd than the WT plants. Based on the transverse section of the leaf main vein and leaf blade, Cd was transported through the vascular tissues to the leaves and accumulated more greatly in the leaf epidermis, but less in the leaf mesophyll cells, following the overexpression of SmZIP to reduce the photosynthetic toxicity. The overexpression of SmZIP resulted in the redistribution of Cd at the subcellular level, a decrease in the percentage of Cd in the cell wall, and an increase of the Cd in the soluble fraction in both the roots and leaves. It also changed the percentage composition of different Cd chemical forms by elevating the proportion of Cd extracted using 2% HAc and 0.6 mol/L HCl, but lowering that of the Cd extracted using 1 mol/L NaCl in both the leaves and roots under 10 and 100 µmol/L Cd stress for 28 d. The results implied that SmZIP played important roles in advancing Cd uptake, accumulation, and translocation, as well as in enhancing Cd resistance by altering the Cd subcellular distribution and chemical forms in the transgenic tobacco. The study will be useful for future phytoremediation applications to clean up Cd-contaminated soil.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Tabaco/fisiología , Biodegradación Ambiental , Cadmio/análisis , Pared Celular/química , Genes de Plantas , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Salix , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Tabaco/efectos de los fármacos , Zinc/análisis
7.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 56(3): 241-250, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529073

RESUMEN

Glyphosate can generate positive effects on turfgrass maintenance as a form of growth control by decreasing the expenses associated with mowing. However, there is little information about the effects of this herbicide on turfgrasses. This study aimed to evaluate the response of bermudagrass and zoysiagrass to the herbicide glyphosate as a growth regulator. Two studies were performed in a greenhouse and repeated at different times. The treatments involved application of glyphosate at 10 different rates (0, 5.625, 11.25, 22.5, 45, 90, 180, 360, 720, and 1.440 g ae ha-1) with four replicates. Evaluations of green cover by digital analysis, injury, and plant height were performed at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after application, and shoot dry matter of clippings was determined for the last evaluation period. Bermudagrass and zoysiagrass presented variedtolerance to glyphosate toxicity. Overall, the digital analysis showed that green content was negatively influenced by the increase in visual injury caused by glyphosate application. Moreover, increasing the glyphosate rate decreased plant height and shoot dry matter in both turfgrasses. Glyphosate application rates up to 45 g ae ha-1 for bermudagrass and 90 g ae ha-1 for zoysiagrass decreased plant growth without affecting the factors analyzed in this study.


Asunto(s)
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/farmacología , Poaceae/efectos de los fármacos , Poaceae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Brasil , Cynodon/efectos de los fármacos , Cynodon/crecimiento & desarrollo , Glicina/farmacología , Glicina/toxicidad , Herbicidas/farmacología , Herbicidas/toxicidad , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/toxicidad , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Brotes de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Brotes de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Especificidad de la Especie
8.
J Food Sci ; 86(3): 803-812, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590528

RESUMEN

In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the impact of climate change on viticulture, in particular regarding its influence on grape maturity and quality. Extensive research has shown that the rise of temperatures during grape ripening accelerates the accumulation of sugars while reducing the synthesis of phenolic and aromatic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the foliar application of the plant growth regulator ethephon might delay technological grape maturity and increase grape phenolic content, improving wine quality. For this, different concentrations of ethephon were applied during two vintages to the Tempranillo grape variety at the onset of veraison. Results showed that grape sugar accumulation was delayed in one of the two vintages, whereas the treatment favored the accumulation of phenolic compounds in both vintages. In conclusion, the application of ethephon at the onset of veraison to Tempranillo grapevines helped to couple grape phenolic and technological maturity, leading to more balanced wines, either by delaying sugar accumulation or by enhancing the synthesis of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Due to the current climate change, phenolic maturity of grapes does not match with their technological maturity, which means that harvested grapes are usually very sweet but without enough color and aroma. The foliar application of the plant growth regulator-ethephon-delays technological grape maturity and increases grape phenolic content, improving wine quality and creating wines that are more balanced.


Asunto(s)
Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Compuestos Organofosforados/administración & dosificación , Fenoles/análisis , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Vitis , Antocianinas/análisis , Color , Frutas/química , Vino/análisis
9.
Plant Mol Biol ; 106(1-2): 33-48, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594577

RESUMEN

KEY MESSAGE: H2O2 priming reprograms essential proteins' expression to help plants survive, promoting responsive and unresponsive proteins adjustment to salt stress. ABSTACRT: Priming is a powerful strategy to enhance abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Despite this, there is scarce information about the mechanisms induced by H2O2 priming for salt stress tolerance, particularly on proteome modulation. Improving maize cultivation in areas subjected to salinity is imperative for the local economy and food security. Thereby, this study aimed to investigate physiological changes linked with post-translational protein events induced by foliar H2O2 priming of Zea mays plants under salt stress. As expected, salt treatment promoted a considerable accumulation of Na+ ions, a 12-fold increase. It drastically affected growth parameters and relative water content, as well as promoted adverse alteration in the proteome profile, when compared to the absence of salt conditions. Conversely, H2O2 priming was beneficial via specific proteome reprogramming, which promoted better response to salinity by 16% reduction in Na+ content and shoots growth improvement, increasing 61% in dry mass. The identified proteins were associated with photosynthesis and redox homeostasis, critical metabolic pathways for helping plants survive in saline stress by the protection of chloroplasts organization and carbon fixation, as well as state redox. This research provides new proteomic data to improve understanding and forward identifying biotechnological strategies to promote salt stress tolerance.


Asunto(s)
Peróxido de Hidrógeno/toxicidad , Proteómica , Estrés Salino/efectos de los fármacos , Zea mays/fisiología , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Fenotipo , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Potasio/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Sodio/metabolismo , Agua , Zea mays/efectos de los fármacos , Zea mays/crecimiento & desarrollo
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111965, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550080

RESUMEN

Particulate matter (PM) pollution is of great concern for human health and vegetation. In this study, we investigated the impact of PM on primary (unifoliate) leaves of Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek by exposing leaves' adaxial surface to PM. Leaves exposed to PM showed accumulation of various metal(loid)s even after removal of epicuticular wax (EW) revealing that the metals/metalloids could penetrate through the cuticular barrier. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed that even after thorough washing with water, a significant amount (~55%) of particles were retained on the leaf surface. Leaves did not show any particles on their surface post EW removal, revealing that particles adhered to EW. Exposing primary leaves to PM did not alter their size but gave rise to smaller sized trifoliate leaves. A decline in Chl a/b of PM-exposed primary leaves suggested that PM cause a shading effect on leaves. PM-exposed primary leaves also showed a decline in sugar levels. However, the trifoliate leaves did not show any variation in Chl a/b as well as sugar levels. Our findings furnish evidence for the negative effects of PM on plants and a probable dietary exposure of humans to PMs, warranting more in-depth studies on the potential risks of PMs in agricultural sector.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Vigna/fisiología , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Exposición Dietética , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Metaloides , Metales , Material Particulado/análisis , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Agua
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111688, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396020

RESUMEN

Elemental defense hypothesis suggests that toxic metals accumulated in plant tissues could enhance plant defense against herbivores and pathogens. Since over-accumulation of metals in plant organs will pose negative effects on plant health, it is necessary to find a way to alleviate metal-induced toxicity in plants while keeping or even improving plant resistance. Exogenous nitrogen (N) application was reported to have such alleviation effect while stimulating metal accumulation in plant tissues. In this study, we examined whether soil N addition in three different doses to a poplar species under cadmium (Cd) stress can simultaneously improve plant growth and resistance to four herbivorous insects and a leaf pathogen. The results showed that N application to Cd-amended soil prominently enhanced plant growth and leaf Cd accumulation. While N addition in three doses all remarkably reduced herbivore growth than control plants, only the highest N dose exerted stronger inhibition than the sole Cd-treated plants. In the paired-choice experiment, plants supplied with the highest N dose showed an enhanced deterrent effect on herbivore preference than plants exposed to sole Cd. Furthermore, plant resistance to the leaf pathogen infection was strongly enhanced as the levels of N addition increased. Leaf sugar and three main defensive chemicals were not affected by N application implied that such enhanced effect of N on plant resistance was due to increased leaf Cd accumulation. Our results suggested that the application of exogenous N over a certain amount could enhance the resistance of Cd-treated plants to leaf herbivory and pathogen infection.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Nitrógeno/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Populus/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Animales , Cadmio/metabolismo , Herbivoria/efectos de los fármacos , Lepidópteros/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/prevención & control , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/microbiología , Populus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Populus/microbiología , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111878, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418159

RESUMEN

Flavonoids participate in several plant processes such as growth and physiological protection in adverse environments. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of eCO2 and cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils on the total flavonoid and monomer contents in the leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings. Elevated CO2, Cd, and eCO2+ Cd increased the total flavonoids in the leaves relative to the control, and eCO2 mostly increased (p < 0.05) the total flavonoid content under Cd exposure. Elevated CO2 increased (p < 0.05) robinin, rutin, and acacetin contents in the leaves of 45-day seedlings and decreased (p < 0.05) the content of robinin and acacetin at 90 and 135 d under Cd exposure except for robinin at day 45 under Cd1 and acacetin on day 135 under Cd1. Quercetin content decreased (p < 0.05) under the combined conditions relative to Cd alone. Kaempferol in the leaves was only detected under eCO2 on day 135. The responses of total chlorophyll, total soluble sugars, starch, C, N, S, and the C/N ratio in the leaves to eCO2 significantly affected the synthesis of total flavonoids and monomers under Cd exposure. Overall, rutin was more sensitive to eCO2+ Cd than the other flavonoids. Cadmium, CO2, and time had significant interactive effects on the synthesis of flavonoids in the leaves of R. pseudoacacia L. seedlings. Elevated CO2 may improve the protection and defense system of seedlings grown in Cd-contaminated soils by promoting the synthesis of total flavonoids, although robinin, rutin, quercetin, and acacetin yields may reduce with time. Additionally, increased Cd in the leaves suggested that eCO2 could improve the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Dióxido de Carbono , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Robinia/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Biodegradación Ambiental , Clorofila/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Robinia/metabolismo , Plantones/efectos de los fármacos , Plantones/metabolismo
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111906, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429318

RESUMEN

In the present work, the effect of seed pre-soaking with gallic acid (GA; 3,4,5-triphydroxyl-benzoic acid) in conferring subsequent tolerance to Cd stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings was investigated. Exposing sunflower seedlings to increasing Cd concentrations (5, 10 and 20 µM) caused a gradual decrease in root and shoot biomass and increased the metal accumulation in both organs. Seed pretreatment with 75 µM GA significantly restricted Cd uptake, markedly alleviated Cd-induced plant growth inhibition, and mitigated the oxidative damages caused by this metal, as compared to plants directly exposed to Cd. GA pre-soaking prior to Cd stress also enhanced catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, while inhibiting that of superoxide dismutase. This was associated with increased levels of total thiols and glutathione along with a decreased level of oxidized glutathione in leaves. Moreover, GA pre-soaking led to changes in leaf fatty acid composition of seedlings challenged with Cd, as evidenced by the higher total lipid content and lipid unsaturation degree. As a whole, this study provides strong arguments highlighting the potential role of GA as a growth promoter for sunflower seedlings submitted to Cd stress, notably by boosting the antioxidant defense system and improving leaf membrane stability.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Cadmio/toxicidad , Ácido Gálico/farmacología , Helianthus/efectos de los fármacos , Ascorbato Peroxidasas/metabolismo , Catalasa/metabolismo , Tolerancia a Medicamentos , Glutatión/metabolismo , Helianthus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Helianthus/metabolismo , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotes de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Brotes de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Brotes de la Planta/metabolismo , Plantones/efectos de los fármacos , Plantones/crecimiento & desarrollo , Plantones/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
14.
Plant Sci ; 303: 110784, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487359

RESUMEN

Phytohormone applications are used to mimic herbivory and can induce plant defences. This study investigated (i) metabolomic changes in leaf tissues of Jacobaea vulgaris and J. aquatica after methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA) applications and (ii) the effects on a leaf-chewing, a leaf-mining and a piercing-sucking herbivore. MeJA treated leaves showed clearly different metabolomic profiles than control leaves, while the differences in metabolomic profiles between SA treated leaves and control leaves were less clear. More NMR peaks increased than decreased after MeJA treatment while this pattern was reversed after SA treatment. The leaf-chewing (Mamestra brassicae) and the leaf-mining herbivores (Liriomyza trifolii) fed less on MeJA-treated leaves compared to control and SA-treated leaves while they fed equally on the latter two. In J. aquatica but not in J. vulgaris, SA treatment reduced feeding damage by the piercing-sucking herbivore (Frankliniella occidentalis). Based on the herbivory and metabolomic data after phytohormone application, we made speculations as follows: For all three herbivore species, plants with high levels of threonine and citric acid showed less herbivory while plants with high levels of glucose showed more herbivory. Herbivory by thrips was lower on plants with high levels of alanine while it was higher on plants with high levels of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. The plant compounds that related to feeding of piercing-sucking herbivore were further verified with previous independent experiments.


Asunto(s)
Acetatos/farmacología , Asteraceae/efectos de los fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacología , Metaboloma/efectos de los fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacología , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/farmacología , Ácido Salicílico/farmacología , Animales , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Dípteros , Larva , Mariposas Nocturnas , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo
15.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(4): 1641-1647, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432379

RESUMEN

To investigate the molecular mechanism of Trichoderma L-amino acid oxidase (Th-LAAO) in protecting and in promoting growth of cabbage infected with Botrytis cinerea, a three-way interaction system was established. Cabbage leaves treated with purified Th-LAAO significantly constrained damaged leaf area caused by B. cinerea infection. In response to Th-LAAO treatment, the expression levels of genes involved in photosynthesis, such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase, Rubisco activase, and ATP synthase increased 2.54, 2.18, and 1.41 folds, respectively. The transcription levels of sucrose transport protein 1 increased 7.6 fold. As to the expression of defense-related genes, the transcription level of ascorbate peroxidase increased 1.46 fold. On the contrary, pathogenesis-related protein 1, chitinase, ß-1,3 glucanase, and glutathione S-transferase decreased significantly. Overall, the results indicated that Th-LAAO may stimulate CO2 fixation and sucrose transport and elicit host defense responses in cabbage against B. cinerea, and this elicitation of defense response is likely to contribute to induced systemic resistance of host plant.


Asunto(s)
Brassica , Resistencia a la Enfermedad , L-Aminoácido Oxidasa , Trichoderma , Botrytis/fisiología , Brassica/efectos de los fármacos , Brassica/genética , Brassica/microbiología , Resistencia a la Enfermedad/efectos de los fármacos , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Genes de Plantas/genética , L-Aminoácido Oxidasa/aislamiento & purificación , L-Aminoácido Oxidasa/farmacología , Fotosíntesis/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Plantas/prevención & control , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/microbiología , Trichoderma/química , Trichoderma/enzimología
16.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 56(3): 235-240, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449826

RESUMEN

Fertiactyl® is a foliar fertilizer with the potential to minimize the phytotoxicity effects caused by glyphosate drift in eucalyptus plants. As the interactions of the glyphosate and Fertiactyl® in tank mix on the plant behavior are not yet known, the objective was to evaluate the absorption and translocation of 14C-glyphosate, applied isolated and mixed in tank with Fertiactyl®, in young eucalyptus plants (clone I-144, Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis). The addition of Fertiactyl® to the mixture of 14C-glyphosate reduced the absorption by 94.3% in relation to the total absorbed at the end of the evaluation compared to plants treated only with 14C-glyphosate, i.e., Fertiactyl® protected the eucalyptus plants of the glyphosate intoxication by drift. The translocation rates from the treated leaves to the rest of the shoots and roots were low (<2% of the total recovered) in both treatments, suggest that restricted translocation is a mechanism of natural tolerance to glyphosate in plants of clone I-144. It is concluded that Fertiactyl®, mixed in the solution with glyphosate, protects young eucalyptus plants against glyphosate drift by reducing the amount of herbicide absorbed.


Asunto(s)
Eucalyptus/efectos de los fármacos , Fertilizantes , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/farmacocinética , Radioisótopos de Carbono/farmacocinética , Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Glicina/farmacocinética , Glicina/toxicidad , Herbicidas/toxicidad , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Brotes de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Distribución Tisular
17.
Planta ; 253(2): 43, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479798

RESUMEN

MAIN CONCLUSION: Root antioxidant defense, restricted root-to-shoot Cu translocation, altered nutrient partition, and leaf gas exchange adjustments occurred as tolerance mechanisms of soybean plants to increasing soil Cu levels. The intensive application of copper (Cu) fungicides has been related to the accumulation of this metal in agricultural soils. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increasing soil Cu levels on soybean (Glycine max) plants. Soybean was cultivated under greenhouse conditions in soils containing different Cu concentrations (11.2, 52.3, 79.4, 133.5, 164.0, 205.1, or 243.8 mg kg-1), and biochemical and morphophysiological plant responses were analyzed through linear and nonlinear regression models. Although Cu concentrations around 50 mg kg-1 promoted some positive effects on the initial development of soybean plants (e.g., increased root length and dry weight), these Cu concentrations also induced root oxidative stress and activated defense mechanisms (such as the induction of antioxidant response, N and S accumulation in the roots). At higher concentrations, Cu led to growth inhibition (mainly of the root), nutritional imbalance, and damage to the photosynthetic apparatus of soybean plants, resulting in decreased CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance. In contrast, low translocation of Cu to the leaves, conservative water use, and increased carboxylation efficiency contributed to the partial mitigation of Cu-induced stress. These responses allowed soybean plants treated with Cu levels in the soil as high as 90 mg kg-1 to maintain growth parameters higher than or similar to those of plants in the non-contaminated soil. These data provide a warning for the potentially deleterious consequences of the increasing use of Cu-based fungicides. However, it is necessary to verify how the responses to Cu contamination are affected by different types of soil and soybean cultivars.


Asunto(s)
Cobre , Modelos Estadísticos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Soja , Cobre/toxicidad , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Análisis de Regresión , Suelo/química , Soja/efectos de los fármacos
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(4): 1242-1250, 2021 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472359

RESUMEN

White leaf No.1 (WL-1) is a low temperature-induced albino tea cultivar, which sticks out from tea plants with rich amino acids. Because harmonization of chloroplast ultrastructure integrity and lower chlorophyll contents during the albinism processes is much crucial for WL-1 production under extreme weather conditions, we carried out a field experiment to investigate the regulating effects of exogenous glycinebetaine (GB) on the chloroplast ultrastructure and quality constituents in young leaves of WL-1 at different albinism stages. The internal structure of chloroplasts degenerated at the albinistic stage, and chlorophyll contents were significantly lower than those at pre-albinistic and regreening stages. Spraying GB regulated etioplast-chloroplast transition, significantly increased epigallocatechin gallate, theanine, and caffeine contents, and lowered chlorophyll content in albinistic young leaves of WL-1, thus improving its quality in some aspects, maintaining special leaf color, exerting flavor and umami, and improving antioxidant and refreshing effects. Foliar application of GB is an efficient technical measure in practice.


Asunto(s)
Betaína/farmacología , Camellia sinensis/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/química , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Frío , Color , Producción de Cultivos , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Té/química
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111675, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396007

RESUMEN

Metal bioavailability controls its behaviors in soil-plant system, especially involved in biochar amendment. This study compared a rhizospheric pore-water extraction against a BCR sequential extraction method to understand cadmium (Cd) bioavailability in two typical Chinese soils. Soils were spiked with five levels of Cd (CdCl2) and remediated with 3% corn-straw derived biochar. After 60 days of lettuce growth, Cd accumulation and enzyme activities in tissues were analyzed. Results showed that biochar increased soil properties (pH, CEC and SOM) compared to un-amended soils, but decreased contents of bioavailable Cd in soil pore-water (Cdpore-water) and BCR extracted Cd (CdFi+Fii). Contents of Cdpore-water were lower in yellow-brown soils than that in red soils. Pearson analysis showed that bioavailable Cd is negatively correlated with soil pH and CEC (p < 0.05). Cd accumulation in lettuce roots and leaves both were decreased by biochar addition, and the established linear equations proved that soil Cdpore-water is the best predictor for Cd accumulation in lettuce roots (r2 = 0.964) and in leaves (r2 = 0.953), followed by CdFi+Fii. Transfer factor (TF) values of Cd from roots to leaves were lower than 1, and slightly better correlated with soil Cdpore-water (r = -0.674, p < 0.01) than CdFi+Fii (r = -0.615, p < 0.01). Aggregated boosted tree (ABT) analyses indicated that soil properties together with Cdpore-water contribute more than 50% to root enzyme activities. Collectively, soil Cdpore-water is a promising predictor of Cd bioavailability, accumulation and toxicity in soil-plant system with biochar addition.


Asunto(s)
Bioacumulación/efectos de los fármacos , Cadmio/toxicidad , Carbón Orgánico/química , Lechuga/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Disponibilidad Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Cadmio/metabolismo , Lechuga/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Tallos de la Planta/química , Rizosfera , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Agua/química , Zea mays/química
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111643, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396163

RESUMEN

Sulfur (S) can play essential roles in protecting plants against abiotic stress, including heavy metal toxicity. However, the effect of this nutrient on plants exposed to barium (Ba) is still unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the S supply on oxidative stress and the antioxidant system of Tanzania guinea grass under exposure to Ba, grown in a nutrient solution under greenhouse conditions. It was studied the influence of S/Ba combinations in nutrient solution on oxidative stress indicators (hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, and proline) and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). The treatments consisted in thirteen S/Ba combinations in the nutrient solution (0.1/0.0; 0.1/5.0; 0.1/20.0; 1.0/2.5; 1.0/10.0; 1.9/0.0 - control; 1.9/5.0; 1.9/20.0; 2.8/2.5; 2.8/10.0; 3.7/0.0; 3.7/5.0 and 3.7/20.0 mM of S and Ba, respectively). The plants were grown for two growth periods, which consisted of fourteen days of S supply and the eight days of Ba exposure each one. The severe S deficiency decreased the superoxide dismutase activity, regardless of Ba exposure in recently expanded leaves and culms plus sheaths. However, supplemental S supply (above 1.9 mM S, which corresponds to S supply adequate to plant growth) it improved the superoxide dismutase activity in these tissues under high Ba concentrations. Conversely, the severe S deficiency increased the activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in grass leaves slightly, without Ba exposure influence. It was observed that the supplemental S supply also induced the guaiacol peroxidase activity and proline production in culms plus sheaths under high Ba rates, showing values until 2.5 and 3.1 folds higher than the control treatment, respectively. In plants under exposure to 20.0 mM Ba, the supplemental S supply decreased the malondialdehyde content in culms plus sheaths in 17% compared to 1.9 mM S. These results indicate that supplemental S supply can mitigate Ba toxicity in Tanzania guinea grass, mainly by improving superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase activities, and proline metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bario/toxicidad , Panicum/efectos de los fármacos , Prolina/metabolismo , Azufre/farmacología , Fertilizantes , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Panicum/crecimiento & desarrollo , Panicum/metabolismo , Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
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