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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257739, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355883

RESUMEN

Abstract Under salt stress conditions, plant growth is reduced due to osmotic, nutritional and oxidative imbalance. However, salicylic acid acts in the mitigation of this abiotic stress by promoting an increase in growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, synthesis of osmoregulators and antioxidant enzymes. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid doses on the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings under salt stress. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, where the treatments were distributed in randomized blocks using a central composite matrix Box with five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (CEw) (0.50; 1.08; 2.50; 3.92 and 4.50 dS m-1), associated with five doses of salicylic acid (SA) (0.00; 0.22; 0.75; 1.28 and 1.50 mM), with four repetitions and each plot composed of three plants. At 40 days after sowing, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, electrolyte leakage, relative water content, and total dry mass were determined. ECw and SA application influenced the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings. Increasing the ECw reduced growth in the absence of SA. Membrane damage with the use of SA remained stable up to 3.9 dS m-1 of ECw. The relative water content independent of the CEw increased with 1.0 mM of SA. The use of SA at the concentration of 1.0 mM mitigated the deleterious effect of salinity on seedling growth up to 2.50 dS m-1 of ECw.


Resumo Em condições de estresse salino, o crescimento das plantas é reduzido, em virtude, do desequilíbrio osmótico, nutricional e oxidativo. Contudo, o ácido salicílico atua na mitigação desse estresse abiótico por promover incremento no crescimento, fotossíntese, metabolismo do nitrogênio, síntese de osmorreguladores e enzimas antioxidantes. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de doses de ácido salicílico sobre o crescimento e alterações fisiológicas de mudas de berinjela sob estresse salino. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso utilizando uma matriz composta central Box com cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa) (0,50; 1,08; 2,50; 3,92 e 4,50 dS m-1), associada a cinco doses de ácido salicílico (AS) (0,00; 0,22; 0,75; 1,28 e 1,50 mM), com quatro repetições e cada parcela composta por três plantas. Aos 40 dias após a semeadura, foram determinados a altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, área foliar, vazamento de eletrólito, teor relativo de água e massa seca total. A CEa e a aplicação de AS influenciaram no crescimento e nas alterações fisiológicas das mudas de berinjela. O aumento da CEa reduziu o crescimento na ausência de AS. O dano de membrana com o uso de AS manteve-se estável até 3,9 dS m-1 de CEa. O conteúdo relativo de água independentemente da CEa aumentou com 1 mM de SA. O uso de AS na concentração de 1 mM mitigou o efeito deletério da salinidade no crescimento das mudas até 2,50 dS m-1 de CEa.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Salicílico/farmacología , Solanum melongena/metabolismo , Fotosíntesis , Estrés Fisiológico , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Plantones , Salinidad , Tolerancia a la Sal , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2505: 33-43, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732934

RESUMEN

To understand how the plant regulates metabolism, it is important to determine where metabolites localize in the tissues and cells. Single-cell level omics approaches in plants have shown remarkable development over the last several years, and this data has been instrumental in gene discovery efforts for enzymes and transporters involved in metabolism. For metabolomics, Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful tool to map the spatial distribution of molecules in the tissue. Here, we describe the methods which we used to reveal where secondary metabolites, primarily alkaloids, localize in Catharanthus roseus stem and leaf tissues.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides , Catharanthus , Alcaloides/análisis , Catharanthus/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Masas , Metabolómica/métodos , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2505: 69-77, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732937

RESUMEN

The plant Catharanthus roseus is well known for its spatial separation of iridoid and monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA) biosynthesis at both intracellular and intercellular levels, collectively suggested by RNA in situ hybridization, enzymatic and transcriptomic studies using leaf epidermis, and fluorescent protein tagging studies. Although documented in other plant species, the long-distance transport of iridoid glycosides, such as secologanin, has not been known in C. roseus until a recent study suggested that secologanin is transported from root to shoot, by grafting low iridoid/MIA mutant scions onto wild-type stock plants. This chapter describes the in vitro cultivation of C. roseus plants and grafting techniques to enable studies concerning iridoid/MIA transport between organs. The iridoid and MIA analysis methods are also provided.


Asunto(s)
Catharanthus , Catharanthus/genética , Catharanthus/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Iridoides/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2505: 191-202, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732946

RESUMEN

Transcriptional regulation is a central piece of the highly valuable monoterpenoid indole alkaloid pathway of C. roseus , and the ultimate tool for its understanding and manipulation. Here, we describe the adaptation of the TARGET methodology to identify specific and genome-wide leaf targets of C. roseus candidate transcription factors (TFs).


Asunto(s)
Catharanthus , Plantas Medicinales , Catharanthus/genética , Catharanthus/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Alcaloides Indólicos/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinales/genética , Plantas Medicinales/metabolismo
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2505: 263-279, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732951

RESUMEN

Functional genomics analyses in planta can be hampered in non-model plants that are recalcitrant to the genetic transformation such as the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae). No stable transformation and regeneration of plantlets have been achieved with a high efficiency in this plant to date. In addition, while virus-mediated transient gene silencing has been reported a decade ago in C. roseus, tools for transient overexpression remain scarce. Here, we describe an efficient and reliable methodology for transiently overexpressing any gene of interest in C. roseus leaves. This protocol combines a vacuum-based Agroinfiltration approach and the high translational efficiency of a deconstructed virus-based binary vector (pEAQ-HT). The described methodology is robust, easy to perform, and results in high amount of transient expression in C. roseus. This protocol is expected to serve as valuable tool to enhance the in planta characterization of gene functions or even transiently knock-in novel enzymatic activities.


Asunto(s)
Catharanthus , Catharanthus/genética , Catharanthus/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Silenciador del Gen , Vectores Genéticos/genética , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Vacio
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2505: 293-299, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35732953

RESUMEN

The regeneration of a whole plant from a single cell or organ explant was a valuable task for plant biotechnology. However, important medicinal plants such as Catharanthus roseus have shown recalcitrance to regeneration protocols, thus limiting investigations on MIA metabolism and metabolic engineering in this plant system. In this chapter, successful regeneration protocols were detailed for Catharanthus roseus, either by direct shoot bud induction from leaf explants and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.


Asunto(s)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens , Catharanthus , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Catharanthus/genética , Catharanthus/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/genética , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/metabolismo , Transformación Genética
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(23): 7288-7301, 2022 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658447

RESUMEN

Solubility of growth regulators is essential for their use in agriculture. Four new cytokinin salts─6-benzylaminopurine mesylate (1), 6-(2-hydroxybenzylamino)purine mesylate (2), 6-(3-hydroxybenzylamino)purine mesylate (3), and 6-(3-methoxybenzylamino)purine mesylate (4)─were synthesized, and their crystal structures were determined to clarify structural influence on water solubility. The mesylates were several orders of magnitude more water-soluble than the parent CKs. The new salts significantly reduced chlorophyll degradation and impairment of photosystem II functionality in barley leaf segments undergoing artificial senescence and had pronounced effects on the leaves' endogenous CK pools, maintaining high concentrations of functional metabolites for several days, unlike canonical CKs. A foliar treatment with 1 and 3 increased the harvest yield of spring barley by up to 8% when compared to treatment with the parent CKs while also increasing the number of productive tillers. This effect was attributed to the higher bioavailability of the mesylate salts and the avoidance of dimethyl sulfoxide exposure.


Asunto(s)
Citocininas , Hordeum , Citocininas/metabolismo , Citocininas/farmacología , Hordeum/metabolismo , Mesilatos/metabolismo , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Sales (Química) , Agua/metabolismo
8.
Planta ; 256(1): 11, 2022 Jun 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699777

RESUMEN

MAIN CONCLUSION: OsAPL positively controls the seedling growth and grain size in rice by targeting the plasma membrane H+-ATPase-encoding gene, OsRHA1, as well as drastically affects genes encoding H+-coupled secondary active transporters. Nutrient transport is a key component of both plant growth and environmental adaptation. Photosynthates and nutrients produced in the source organs (e.g., leaves) need to be transported to the sink organs (e.g., seeds). In rice, the unloading of nutrients occurs through apoplastic transport (i.e., across the membrane via transporters) and is dependent on the efficiency and number of transporters embedded in the cell membrane. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying the regulation of these transporters remain to be determined. Here we show that rice (Oryza sativa L., Kitaake) ALTERED PHLOEM DEVELOPMENT (OsAPL), homologous to a MYB family transcription factor promoting phloem development in Arabidopsis thaliana, regulates the number of transporters in rice. Overexpression of OsAPL leads to a 10% increase in grain yield at the heading stage. OsAPL acts as a transcriptional activator of OsRHA1, which encodes a subunit of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase (primary transporter). In addition, OsAPL strongly affects the expression of genes encoding H+-coupled secondary active transporters. Decreased expression of OsAPL leads to a decreased expression level of nutrient transporter genes. Taken together, our findings suggest the involvement of OsAPL in nutrients transport and crop yield accumulation in rice.


Asunto(s)
Arabidopsis , Oryza , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Grano Comestible , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Proteínas de Transporte de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Membrana/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Oryza/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/genética
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(2): e20210236, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703694

RESUMEN

The objective of this study is to assess, in zebrafish, the effects of combining linseed oil (LO) and clove leaf essential oil (CLEO) on the incorporation of fatty acids in the muscle, oxidative markers, lipid peroxidation and expression of the PPAR-α (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α) and the SREBP-2 (Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein-2) genes. Six diets were prepared, containing combinations of LO (3, 6 and 9%) and CLEO (0.5 and 1%): 3% LO + 0.5% CLEO; 3% LO + 1% CLEO; 6% LO + 0.5% CLEO; 6% LO + 1% CLEO; 9% LO + 0.5% CLEO; 9% LO + 1% CLEO. Results showed increase in the incorporation of n-3 fatty acids in the muscle concomitantly with the addition of LO and CLEO. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were reduced and the glutathione content had increased. Lipid peroxidation was lower in the treatment with 1% CLEO, regardless of LO content. The expression of the PPAR-α and the SREBP-2 genes was higher in animals fed 9% LO + 0.5% CLEO. Therefore, for a greater incorporation and protection against the oxidative damages of n-3 fatty acids, a combined use of 9% LO with 0.5% CLEO is recommended for zebrafish.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Omega-3 , Aceites Volátiles , Syzygium , Animales , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/análisis , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/metabolismo , Aceite de Linaza/química , Aceite de Linaza/metabolismo , Aceite de Linaza/farmacología , Peroxidación de Lípido , Hígado/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Aceites Volátiles/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , PPAR alfa/análisis , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Unión a los Elementos Reguladores de Esteroles/análisis , Proteína 1 de Unión a los Elementos Reguladores de Esteroles/metabolismo , Pez Cebra/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 393: 133414, 2022 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696949

RESUMEN

The aims of this study were to investigate glucosinolate variations in Chinese cabbage cultivars at different growth periods. Glucosinolates in two types of Chinese cabbage (Xiayangbai and Zaoshu-5) at different growth periods (seeds, germination, seedling, and rosette period) were investigated. Thirteen glucosinolates were identified and quantified using UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Concentrations of the glucosinolates were significantly different between Xiayangbai and Zaoshu-5. The seed period generated the highest concentration of glucosinolates, and aliphatic glucosinolate predominated in seeds, seedling, and leaves of the rosette as well as during germination. However, the dominant glucosinolate in the roots was an aromatic glucosinolate (gluconasturtiin). In addition, glucoerucin was only found in the roots of rosettes. There were positive significant correlations with each other among gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoraphanin, glucoalyssin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin. Our results released the metabolism pathways of glucosinolates in Chinese cabbage, which provided scientific evidence to develop functional foods with higher glucosinolate.


Asunto(s)
Brassica , Glucosinolatos , Brassica/metabolismo , China , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Plantones/metabolismo
11.
Physiol Plant ; 174(3): e13734, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699652

RESUMEN

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone that mediates stress responses and regulates plant development. Several ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the G subfamily of ABC (ABCG) proteins have been reported to transport ABA. We investigated whether there are any other ABCG proteins that mediate plant developmental processes regulated by ABA in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The ABCG27 gene was upregulated in response to exogenous ABA treatment. The abcg27 knockout mutant exhibited two developmental defects: epinastic leaves and abnormally long pistils, which reduced fertility and silique length. ABCG27 expression was induced threefold when flower buds were exposed to exogenous ABA, and the promoter of ABCG27 had two ABA-responsive elements. ABA content in the pistil and true leaves were increased in the abcg27 knockout mutant. Detached abcg27 pistils exposed to exogenous ABA grew longer than those of the wild-type control. ABCG27 fused to GFP localized to the plasma membrane when expressed in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. A transcriptome analysis of the pistils and true leaves of the wild type and abcg27 knockout mutant revealed that the expression of organ development-related genes changed in the knockout mutant. In particular, the expression of trans-acting small interference (ta-si) RNA processing enzyme genes, which regulate flower and leaf development, was low in the knockout mutant. Together, these results suggest that ABCG27 most likely function as an ABA transporter at the plasma membrane, modulating ABA levels and thereby regulating the development of the pistils and leaves under normal, non-stressed conditions.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Transportadoras de Casetes de Unión a ATP/genética , Transportadoras de Casetes de Unión a ATP/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682639

RESUMEN

LncRNAs impart crucial effects on various biological processes, including biotic stress responses, abiotic stress responses, fertility and development. The apple tree is one of the four major fruit trees in the world. However, lncRNAs's roles in different tissues of apple are unknown. We identified the lncRNAs in five tissues of apples including the roots, phloem, leaves, flowers, and fruit, and predicted the intricate regulatory networks. A total of 9440 lncRNAs were obtained. LncRNA target prediction revealed 10,628 potential lncRNA-messenger RNA (mRNA) pairs, 9410 pairs functioning in a cis-acting fashion, and 1218 acting in a trans-acting fashion. Functional enrichment analysis showed that the targets were significantly enriched in molecular functions related to photosynthesis-antenna proteins, single-organism metabolic process and glutathione metabolism. Additionally, a total of 88 lncRNAs have various functions related to microRNAs (miRNAs) as miRNA precursors. Interactions between lncRNAs and miRNAs were predicted, 1341 possible interrelations between 187 mdm-miRNAs and 174 lncRNAs (1.84%) were identified. MSTRG.121644.5, MSTRG.121644.8, MSTRG.2929.2, MSTRG.3953.2, MSTRG.63448.2, MSTRG.9870.2, and MSTRG.9870.3 could participate in the functions in roots as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). MSTRG.11457.2, MSTRG.138614.2, and MSTRG.60895.2 could adopt special functions in the fruit by working with miRNAs. A further analysis showed that different tissues formed special lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA networks. MSTRG.60895.2-mdm-miR393-MD17G1009000 may participate in the anthocyanin metabolism in the fruit. These findings provide a comprehensive view of potential functions for lncRNAs, corresponding target genes, and related lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA networks, which will increase our knowledge of the underlying development mechanism in apple.


Asunto(s)
Malus , MicroARNs , ARN Largo no Codificante , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , MicroARNs/genética , MicroARNs/metabolismo , Floema/genética , Floema/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , ARN Largo no Codificante/genética , ARN Largo no Codificante/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682725

RESUMEN

The NYC-like (NOL) enzyme is considered as an essential enzyme for chlorophyll b degradation, which catalyzes the formation of 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a from chlorophyll b. The ZjNOL gene was cloned from Zoysia japonica with a completed coding sequence of 981-bp in length, encoding 326 amino acids. ZjNOL was localized on the stroma side of the thylakoid membrane, and co-localized with ZjNYC in the chloroplasts. Multiple photoregulatory elements and hormone regulatory elements were identified in the promoter region of the ZjNOL gene, and the expression level of the ZjNOL gene was dramatically up-regulated in senescence leaves, which were regulated by a variety of plant hormones. ZjNOL's ectopic expression in creeping bentgrass produced yellow leaves, thicker cortex, and smaller vascular column cells. Additionally, transgenic plants exhibited morphological alterations in their chloroplast structure, and the number of grana and thylakoids per grana stack reduced dramatically. Transgenic plants also had a lower photosynthetic rate and Fm/Fv than the control. The transgenic plants displayed a decreased chlorophyll content and a greater rate of ion leakage. The properties and activities of ZjNOL will serve as a foundation for future research into gene functions and regulatory processes.


Asunto(s)
Agrostis , Agrostis/genética , Oxidorreductasas de Alcohol , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682913

RESUMEN

Autophagy is a highly conserved cell degradation process that widely exists in eukaryotic cells. In plants, autophagy helps maintain cellular homeostasis by degrading and recovering intracellular substances through strict regulatory pathways, thus helping plants respond to a variety of developmental and environmental signals. Autophagy is involved in plant growth and development, including leaf starch degradation, senescence, anthers development, regulation of lipid metabolism, and maintenance of peroxisome mass. More and more studies have shown that autophagy plays a role in stress response and contributes to maintain plant survival. The meristem is the basis for the formation and development of new tissues and organs during the post-embryonic development of plants. The differentiation process of meristems is an extremely complex process, involving a large number of morphological and structural changes, environmental factors, endogenous hormones, and molecular regulatory mechanisms. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy relates to meristem development, affecting plant growth and development under stress conditions, especially in shoot and root apical meristem. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge about how autophagy regulates different meristems under different stress conditions and possibly provide new insights for future research.


Asunto(s)
Meristema , Desarrollo de la Planta , Autofagia , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10440, 2022 Jun 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729247

RESUMEN

Green stem disorder (GSD) of soybean is characterized by delayed leaf and stem maturation despite normal pod maturation. Previous studies have suggested that GSD occurrence is promoted by a high source-sink ratio, which is produced by thinning or shade removal at the R5 growth stage (the beginning of seed filling). Here the effects of different times and durations of shade removal after the R5 stage on GSD severity were analyzed. First, shade removal for more than 28 days after R5 increased GSD severity by more than 0.4 point in GSD score. Thinning treatment at R5 increased specific leaf weight by 23%, suppressed stem dry weight reduction, and upregulated 19 genes including those encoding vegetative storage proteins at R5 + 28d, indicating excess source ability relative to sink size. On the contrary, shade removal for 14 days after R5 decreased GSD severity by 0.5 point in GSD score. In this treatment, seed size was smaller, while seed number was significantly larger than control, suggesting that shortage of source ability relative to sink size. These results implied that soybean plants regulate GSD occurrences either positively or negatively according to a source-sink ratio during the R5 to R5 + 28d growth stages.


Asunto(s)
Fabaceae , Soja , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Semillas , Soja/metabolismo
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(5): 1320-1330, 2022 May.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730091

RESUMEN

To provide theoretical guidance and technical support for oat production in dry farming area, we exa-mined the effects of moisture and humic acid (HA) on the accumulation and distribution of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in different organs of oat, as well as the mechanism of sugar metabolism and grain weight formation of oat. Two oat cultivars, 'Mengnong Dayan 1' and 'Neiyan 5', were used as experimental material. HA and clean water (CK) were foliar sprayed under dry framing (without irrigation) and limited irrigation (irrigated twice at jointing and heading stage). The dynamics of NSC components in stems, leaves and panicles, as well as the changes of carbon metabolism-related enzyme activities at different growth stages of oats after flowering were measured. Results showed that the trend of the contents of NSC in stems, leaves and panicles, in both two oat cultivars increased firstly and then decreased with the prolong of post-anthesis time. The contents of NSC in different organs were similar between two oat cultivars. Under irrigation treatment, the fructan content in panicle for Mengnong Dayan 1 of HA was higher than that of CK, with magnitude of enhancement being significantly greater than that corresponding treatment under dry farming. Under irrigation condition, the fructan, invertase activities in leaves and grain weight per panicle for Mengnong Dayan 1 of HA were increased by 27.1%, 30.6% and 55.9% compared with CK, respectively. Further, the increase trend under irrigation was stronger than that under dry farming condition. For Mengnong Dayan 1, the 1000-grain weight and grain weight per panicle were positively correlated with the content of fructan in leaves. In conclusion, the synergistic effect of moisture and humic acid could effectively regulate the accumulation of oat fructans and the activities of carbon metabolic enzymes, consequently promoting the formation of yield.


Asunto(s)
Avena , Fructanos , Avena/metabolismo , Carbohidratos , Carbono/metabolismo , Grano Comestible/metabolismo , Fructanos/metabolismo , Sustancias Húmicas , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Triticum , Agua
17.
Plant Sci ; 321: 111256, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696901

RESUMEN

The aerial surfaces of plants are covered by a layer of cuticular wax that is composed of long-chain hydrocarbon compounds for protection against adverse environmental conditions. The current study identified a maize (Zea mays L.) APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element-binding protein (AP2/EREBP)-type transcription factor, ZmEREB46. Ectopic expression of ZmEREB46 in Arabidopsis increased the accumulation of epicuticular wax on the leaves and enhanced the drought tolerance of plants. The amounts of C24/C32 fatty acids, C32/C34 aldehydes, C32/C34 1-alcohols and C31 alkanes in zmereb46 (ZmEREB46 knockout mutant) leaves were reduced. The amount of leaf total epicuticular wax decreased approximately 50% in zmereb46. Compared to wild-type LH244 leaves, the cuticle permeability of zmereb46 leaves was increased, which resulted from decreased epicuticular wax load and a thinner cuticle layer. ZmEREB46 had transcriptional activation activity and directly bound to promoter regions of ZmCER2, ZmCER3.2 and ZmKCS1. The zmereb46 seedlings also exhibited reduced drought tolerance. These results, and the observations in ZmEREB46-overexpressing lines, suggest that ZmEREB46 is involved in cuticular metabolism by influencing the biosynthesis of very-long-chain waxes and participates in the cutin biosynthesis pathway. These results are helpful to further analyze the regulatory network of wax accumulation in maize.


Asunto(s)
Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Sequías , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Epidermis de la Planta/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Ceras/química , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
18.
Plant Sci ; 321: 111295, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696903

RESUMEN

Modern agriculture is struggling to meet the increasing food, silage and raw material demands due to the rapid growth of population and climate change. In Arabidopsis, DA1 and DAR1 are proteases that negatively regulate cell proliferation and control organ size. DA1 and DAR1 are activated by ubiquitination catalyzed by the E3 ligase BIG BROTHER (BB). Here, we characterized the DA1, DAR1 and BB gene families in maize and analyzed whether perturbation of these genes regulates organ size similar to what was observed in Arabidopsis. We generated da1_dar1a_dar1b triple CRISPR maize mutants and bb1_bb2 double mutants. Detailed phenotypic analysis showed that the size of leaf, stem, cob, and seed was not consistently enlarged in these mutants. Also overexpression of a dominant-negative DA1R333K allele, resembling the da1-1 allele of Arabidopsis which has larger leaves and seeds, did not alter the maize phenotype. The mild negative effects on plant height of the DA1R333K_bb1_bb2 mutant indicate that the genes in the DA1 pathway may control organ size in maize, albeit less obvious than in Arabidopsis.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Productos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Semillas/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
19.
Plant Sci ; 321: 111326, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696926

RESUMEN

Ultraviolet radiation (UV, 280-400 nm) as an environmental signal triggers metabolic acclimatory responses. However, how different light qualities affect UV acclimation during growth is poorly understood. Here, cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus) were grown under blue, green, red, or white light in combination with UV. Their effects on leaf metabolites were determined using untargeted metabolomics. Blue and white growth light triggered increased levels of compounds related to primary and secondary metabolism, including amino acids, phenolics, hormones, and compounds related to sugar metabolism and the TCA cycle. In contrast, supplementary UV in a blue or white light background decreased leaf content of amino acids, phenolics, sugars, and TCA-related compounds, without affecting abscisic acid, auxin, zeatin, or jasmonic acid levels. However, in plants grown under green light, UV induced increased levels of phenolics, hormones (auxin, zeatin, dihydrozeatin-7-N-dihydrozeatin, jasmonic acid), amino acids, sugars, and TCA cycle-related compounds. Plants grown under red light with UV mainly showed decreased sugar content. These findings highlight the importance of the blue light component for metabolite accumulation. Also, data on interactions of UV with green light on the one hand, and blue or white light on the other, further contributes to our understanding of light quality regulation of plant metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Cucumis sativus , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Hormonas/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Azúcares/metabolismo , Rayos Ultravioleta , Zeatina/metabolismo
20.
Plant Sci ; 321: 111330, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696929

RESUMEN

Leaf senescence and abscission play crucial role in annual plant adapting to seasonal alteration and climate changes by shortening life cycle and development process in response to abiotic and/or biotic stressors underlying phytohormones and environmental signals. Ethylene and abscisic acid are the major phytohormones that promotes leaf senescence, involving various transcription factors, such as EIN3 (ethylene-insensitive 3) and EIL (ethylene-insensitive 3-like) gene family, controlling leaf senescence through metabolite biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways. However, the roles of EIN3 regulating leaf senescence responding to environmental changes in perennial plant, especially forestry tree, remain unclear. In this study, we found that BpEIN3.1 from a subordinated to EIL3 subclade, is a transcription repressor and regulated light-dependent premature leaf senescence in birch (Betula platyphylla). BpEIN3.1 might inhibits the transcription of BpATPS1 by binding to its promoter. Shading suppressed premature leaf senescence in birch ein3.1 mutant line. Ethylene and abscisic acid biosynthesis were also reduced. In addition, abscisic acid positively regulated the expression of BpEIN3.1. This was demonstrated by the hormone-response element analysis of BpEIN3.1 promoter and its gene expression after the hormone treatments. Moreover, our results showed that abscisic acid is also involved in maintaining homeostasis. The molecular mechanism of leaf senescence provides a possibility to increasing wood production by delaying of leaf senescence.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Betula/genética , Betula/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Hormonas/metabolismo , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo
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