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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112096, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647854

RESUMEN

Nicosulfuron is an ingredient in photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides and has been widely used in corn post-emergence weed control. In the current study, a pair of sister lines, HK301 (nicosulfuron-tolerence, NT) and HK320 (nicosulfuron-sensitive, NS), was used to study the effect of nicosulfuron in sweet maize seedlings on C4 photosynthetic enzymes and non-enzymatic substances, expression levels of key enzymes, and chloroplast structure. Nicosulfuron was sprayed at the four-leaf stage, and water was sprayed as a control. After nicosulfuron treatment, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), NADP-malic dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activities of NT were significantly higher than those of NS. Compared to NT, malate, oxaloacetic acid, and pyruvic acid significantly decreased as exposure time increased in NS. Compared to NS, nicosulfuron treatment significantly increased the expression levels of PEPC, NADP-MDH, NADP-ME, PPDK, and Rubisco genes in NT. Under nicosulfuron treatment, chloroplast ultrastructure of NS, compared to that of NT, nicosulfuron induced swelling of the chloroplast volume and reduced starch granules in NS. In general, our results indicate that in different resistant sweet maize, C4 photosynthetic enzymes activity and key genes expression play a critical role in enhancing the adaptability of plants to nicosulfuron stress at a photosynthetic physiological level.


Asunto(s)
Piridinas/toxicidad , Compuestos de Sulfonilurea/toxicidad , Zea mays/fisiología , Aclimatación , Adaptación Fisiológica , Malato Deshidrogenasa , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilasa/genética , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilasa/metabolismo , Fotosíntesis/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Piruvato Ortofosfato Diquinasa/genética , Piruvato Ortofosfato Diquinasa/metabolismo , Ribulosa-Bifosfato Carboxilasa/metabolismo , Plantones/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
2.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652855

RESUMEN

Head group-acylated chloroplast lipids were discovered in the 1960s, but interest was renewed about 15 years ago with the discovery of Arabidopsides E and G, acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols with oxidized fatty acyl chains originally identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Since then, plant biologists have applied the power of mass spectrometry to identify additional oxidized and non-oxidized chloroplast lipids and quantify their levels in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The enzyme responsible for the head-group acylation of chloroplast lipids was identified as a cytosolic protein closely associated with the chloroplast outer membrane and christened acylated galactolipid-associated phospholipase 1 (AGAP1). Despite many advances, critical questions remain about the biological functions of AGAP1 and its head group-acylated products.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/química , Galactolípidos/química , Lípidos de la Membrana/química , Acilación , Arabidopsis/química , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/sangre , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Galactolípidos/genética , Galactolípidos/metabolismo , Lípidos de la Membrana/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico/genética
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1952, 2021 03 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782393

RESUMEN

The non-protein amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been proposed to be an ancient messenger for cellular communication conserved across biological kingdoms. GABA has well-defined signalling roles in animals; however, whilst GABA accumulates in plants under stress it has not been determined if, how, where and when GABA acts as an endogenous plant signalling molecule. Here, we establish endogenous GABA as a bona fide plant signal, acting via a mechanism not found in animals. Using Arabidopsis thaliana, we show guard cell GABA production is necessary and sufficient to reduce stomatal opening and transpirational water loss, which improves water use efficiency and drought tolerance, via negative regulation of a stomatal guard cell tonoplast-localised anion transporter. We find GABA modulation of stomata occurs in multiple plants, including dicot and monocot crops. This study highlights a role for GABA metabolism in fine tuning physiology and opens alternative avenues for improving plant stress resilience.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Canales de Cloruro/genética , Glutamato Descarboxilasa/genética , Estomas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transpiración de Plantas/genética , Agua/metabolismo , Ácido gamma-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacología , Adaptación Fisiológica/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Canales de Cloruro/metabolismo , Sequías , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Glutamato Descarboxilasa/metabolismo , Proteínas Fluorescentes Verdes/genética , Proteínas Fluorescentes Verdes/metabolismo , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Estomas de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Estomas de Plantas/genética , Transpiración de Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusión/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusión/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Vicia faba/genética , Vicia faba/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672342

RESUMEN

Glandular trichome (GT) is the dominant site for artemisinin production in Artemisia annua. Several critical genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis are specifically expressed in GT. However, the molecular mechanism of differential gene expression between GT and other tissue types remains elusive. Chromatin accessibility, defined as the degree to which nuclear molecules are able to interact with chromatin DNA, reflects gene expression capacity to a certain extent. Here, we investigated and compared the landscape of chromatin accessibility in Artemisia annua leaf and GT using the Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) technique. We identified 5413 GT high accessible and 4045 GT low accessible regions, and these GT high accessible regions may contribute to GT-specific biological functions. Several GT-specific artemisinin biosynthetic genes, such as DBR2 and CYP71AV1, showed higher accessible regions in GT compared to that in leaf, implying that they might be regulated by chromatin accessibility. In addition, transcription factor binding motifs for MYB, bZIP, C2H2, and AP2 were overrepresented in the highly accessible chromatin regions associated with artemisinin biosynthetic genes in glandular trichomes. Finally, we proposed a working model illustrating the chromatin accessibility dynamics in regulating artemisinin biosynthetic gene expression. This work provided new insights into epigenetic regulation of gene expression in GT.


Asunto(s)
Artemisia annua/metabolismo , Artemisininas/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672673

RESUMEN

In this study, the changes in free amino acids of soybean leaves after ethylene application were characterized based on quantitative and metabolomic analyses. All essential and nonessential amino acids in soybean leaves were enhanced by fivefold (250 to 1284 mg/100 g) and sixfold (544 to 3478 mg/100 g), respectively, via ethylene application. In particular, it was found that asparagine is the main component, comprising approximately 41% of the total amino acids with a twenty-five fold increase (78 to 1971 mg/100 g). Moreover, arginine and branched chain amino acids (Val, Leu, and Ile) increased by about 14 and 2-5 times, respectively. The increase in free amino acid in stem was also similar to the leaves. The metabolites in treated and untreated soybean leaves were systematically identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and partial variance discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) scores and heat map analysis were given to understand the changes of each metabolite. The application of ethylene may provide good nutrient potential for soybean leaves.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Soja/química , Aminoácidos/química , Análisis Discriminante , Etilenos/química , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112113, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690006

RESUMEN

The main purpose of this work is to thoroughly describe the implementation protocol of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) method in the plant analysis. Numerous feasibility studies and recent progress in instrumentation and trends in chemical analysis make LIBS an established method in plant bioimaging. In this work, we present an easy and straightforward phytotoxicity case study with a focus on LIBS method. We intend to demonstrate in detail how to manipulate with plants after exposures and how to prepare them for analyses. Moreover, we aim to achieve 2D maps of spatial element distribution with a good resolution without any loss of sensitivity. The benefits of rapid, low-cost bioimaging are highlighted. In this study, cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) was treated with an aqueous dispersion of photon-upconversion nanoparticles (NaYF4 doped with Yb3+ and Tm3+ coated with carboxylated silica shell) in a hydroponic short-term toxicity test. After a 72-hour plant exposure, several macroscopic toxicity end-points were monitored. The translocation of Y, Yb, and Tm across the whole plant was set by employing LIBS with a lateral resolution 100 µm. The LIBS maps of rare-earth elements in B.oleracea plant grown with 50 µg/mL nanoparticle-treated and ion-treated exposures showed the root as the main storage, while the transfer via stem into leaves was minimal. On the contrary, the LIBS maps of plants exposed to the 500 µg/mL nanoparticle-treated and ion-treated uncover slightly different trends, nanoparticles as well as ions were transferred through the stem into leaves. However, the main storage organ was a root as well.


Asunto(s)
Brassica/metabolismo , Fluoruros/administración & dosificación , Nanopartículas/administración & dosificación , Dióxido de Silicio/administración & dosificación , Tulio/toxicidad , Iterbio/administración & dosificación , Itrio/administración & dosificación , Rayos Láser , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Tallos de la Planta/metabolismo , Análisis Espectral
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112124, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711578

RESUMEN

Aniline, a synthetic compound widely used in industrial and pesticide production, is a potential environmental pollutant. The removal of aniline is extremely important to minimize threats to human health and the surrounding environment. The objectives of this study were to investigate the removal efficiency and physiological response of Salix. babylonica cuttings to aniline pollution. Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, spectral reflectance and the concentration of aniline in leaves, stems and roots were analysed. The experiment showed that S. babylonica has a strong removal effect on aniline wastewater. Cuttings from S. babylonica stems and roots played an important role in accumulating aniline. However, this increase in aniline concentration was dose dependent and was not always linear. With increasing aniline concentration in S. babylonica was increasingly stressed, with negative impacts on photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and spectral reflectance index in S. babylonica leaves. These results indicate that non-stomatal limitations are the main reason for the reduction in Pn in S. babylonica leaves due to chlorophyll structure destruction under aniline stress. In addition, aniline concentrations result in an unbalanced distribution of excitation energy between the two light systems, thereby hindering photosynthetic electron transfer and restricting the efficient operation of photosynthesis. Salix babylonica can endure moderate concentrations of aniline and has potential for the phyto-management of aniline-polluted wastewater, although further studies are needed using polluted wastewater.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Anilina/metabolismo , Salix/metabolismo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Tallos de la Planta/metabolismo , Aguas Residuales/análisis
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112119, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714137

RESUMEN

Rice cultivation under cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil often results in reduced growth with excess grain Cd concentrations. A pot experiment was conducted to assess the potential of ultrasonic seed treatment to alleviate Cd stress in rice. Seeds of two aromatic rice cultivars i.e., Xiangyaxiangzhan and Meixiangzhan 2 and two non-aromatic rice cultivars i.e., Huahang 31 and Guangyan 1 were exposed to ultrasonic waves for 1.5 min in 20-40 KHz mixing frequency. The experimental treatments were comprised of untreated seeds (U0) and ultrasonic treated seeds (U1) transplanted in un-contaminated soil (H0) and Cd-contaminated soil (H1). Results revealed that Cd contents and Cd accumulation in grain in U1 were 33.33-42.31% and 12.86-57.58% lower than U0 for fragrant rice cultivars under H1. Meanwhile, biomass production was higher in U1 than U0 under H0 and better yield was assessed in U1 for all cultivars under H1. The activity of peroxidase (POD) in flag leaves was increased by 8.28-115.65% for all cultivars while malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were significantly decreased in U1 compared with U0 under H0. Conclusively, ultrasonic treatment modulated Cd distribution and accumulation in different parts while improved physiological performance as well as yield and grain quality of rice under Cd contaminated conditions.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/metabolismo , Oryza/crecimiento & desarrollo , Oryza/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Ondas Ultrasónicas , Grano Comestible/crecimiento & desarrollo , Grano Comestible/metabolismo , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Peroxidasas/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112125, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714138

RESUMEN

Phytomanagement is proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally-friendly suggestion for sustainable use of large metal-contaminated areas. In the current work, the energy crop miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) was grown in ex situ conditions on agricultural soils presenting a Cd, Pb and Zn contamination gradient. After 93 days of culture, shoot and root growth parameters were measured. Soils and plants were sampled as well to study the TE accumulation in miscanthus and the effects of this plant on TE mobility in soils. Results demonstrated that miscanthus growth depended more on the soils silt content rather than TE-contamination level. Moreover, soil organic carbon at T93 increased in the soils after miscanthus cultivation by 25.5-45.3%, whereas CaCl2-extractible TEs decreased due to complex rhizosphere processes driving plant mineral uptake, and organic carbon inputs into the rhizosphere. In the contaminated soils, miscanthus accumulated Cd, Pb and Zn mainly in roots (BCF in roots: Cd " Zn > Pb), while strongly reducing the transfer of these elements from soil to all organs and from roots to rhizomes, stems and leaves (average TFs: 0.01-0.06, 0.11-1.15 and 0.09-0.79 corresponding to Cd, Pb and Zn respectively). Therefore, miscanthus could be considered a TE-excluder, hence a potential candidate crop for coupling phytostabilization and biomass production on the studied Metaleurop TE-contaminated soils.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Biomasa , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Tallos de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Tallos de la Planta/metabolismo , Poaceae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Rizosfera
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 260: 117711, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712120

RESUMEN

The metabolites produced by plants can be enhanced by plant tissue culture. In Premma puberula Pamp., the pectin content in leaves is 30 %-40 %, and it is widely used in the food industry and medicine. However, inefficient propagation has seriously restricted the utilization of pectin resources. Therefore, we established an efficient micropropagation technology for P. puberula through comparative analysis in mature leaves of regenerated and conventionally propagated plants. The results showed that the pectin composition of their leaves was similar in terms of galacturonic acid, monosaccharide composition, degree of esterification, functional groups, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum and morphological characteristics. Furthermore, micropropagated plants had better hardness, gumminess and chewiness characteristics than conventionally propagated plants and were similar in emulsion stability, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness and viscoelasticity. Therefore, micropropagation technology will provide an important guarantee for the industrial production of pectin from P. puberula. The technical essentials include callus induction, embryoid formation, and root induction, followed by acclimatization and transplanting.


Asunto(s)
Lamiaceae/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Emulsionantes/química , Esterificación , Ácidos Hexurónicos/análisis , Lamiaceae/citología , Monosacáridos/análisis , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/aislamiento & purificación , Hojas de la Planta/citología , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Viscosidad
11.
Food Chem ; 350: 129228, 2021 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618088

RESUMEN

Microbiota influenced quality formation of ripened Pu-erh tea. To understand the effect of each tea-derived fungal strain, tea-leaves were fermented by Aspergillus pallidofulvus PT-3 (ApaPT), Aspergillus sesamicola PT-4 (AsePT) and Penicillium manginii PT-5 (PmaPT), respectively. 14 Phenolic compounds, 3 purine alkaloids, 19 free amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid contents were determined by HPLC and amino acid analyzer analysis. Additionally, UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS method was developed for LC-MS metabolomics analysis. Multivariate statistical analyses, such as PCA and HCA, exhibited that the chemical profile of PmaPT fermentation was similar to biocidal treatment, but had significant differences with ApaPT and AsePT fermentation. The differentiated metabolites (VIP > 1, p < 0.05 and FC > 1.50 or < 0.66) and one-way ANOVA revealed the impact of three fungal strains in tea-leaves fermentation. APaPT and AsePT contributed to biosynthesis of gallic acid and several flavonoids, such as kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin in the metabolism of phenolic compounds.


Asunto(s)
Aspergillus/metabolismo , Fermentación , Metabolómica , Penicillium/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Té/metabolismo , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Ácido Gálico/análisis , Quercetina/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Té/microbiología
12.
Plant Mol Biol ; 105(6): 637-654, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543390

RESUMEN

KEY MESSAGE: We demonstrate that OsNAC109 regulates senescence, growth and development via binding to the cis-element CNTCSSNNSCAVG and altering the expression of multiple senescence- and hormone-associated genes in rice. The NAC family is one of the largest transcripton factor families in plants and plays an essential role in plant development, leaf senescence and responses to biotic/abiotic stresses through modulating the expression of numerous genes. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel yellow leaf 3 (yl3) mutant exhibiting arrested-growth, increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased level of soluble proteins, increased level of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced activities of ROS scavenging enzymes, altered expression of photosynthesis and senescence/hormone-associated genes. The yellow leaf and arrested-growth trait was controlled by a single recessive gene located to chromosome 9. A single nucleotide substitution was detected in the mutant allele leading to premature termination of its coding protein. Genetic complementation could rescue the mutant phenotype while the YL3 knockout lines displayed similar phenotype to WT. YL3 was expressed in all tissues tested and predicted to encode a transcriptional factor OsNAC109 which localizes to the nucleus. It was confirmed that OsNAC109 could directly regulate the expression of OsNAP, OsNYC3, OsEATB, OsAMTR1, OsZFP185, OsMPS and OsGA2ox3 by targeting to the highly conserved cis-element CNTCSSNNSCAVG except OsSAMS1. Our results demonstrated that OsNAC109 is essential to rice leaf senescence, growth and development through regulating the expression of senescence- and phytohormone-associated genes in rice.


Asunto(s)
Oryza/crecimiento & desarrollo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alelos , Cloroplastos/ultraestructura , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Técnicas de Inactivación de Genes , Genes de Plantas/genética , Mutación , Fenotipo , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico , Factores de Transcripción , Transcriptoma
13.
Plant Mol Biol ; 105(6): 655-684, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33569692

RESUMEN

KEY MESSAGE: This study showed the systematic identification of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) involving in flag leaf senescence of rice, providing the possible lncRNA-mRNA regulatory relationships and lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA networks during leaf senescence. LncRNAs have been reported to play crucial roles in diverse biological processes. However, no systematic identification of lncRNAs associated with leaf senescence in plants has been studied. In this study, a genome-wide high throughput sequencing analysis was performed using rice flag leaves developing from normal to senescence. A total of 3953 lncRNAs and 38757 mRNAs were identified, of which 343 lncRNAs and 9412 mRNAs were differentially expressed. Through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), 22 continuously down-expressed lncRNAs targeting 812 co-expressed mRNAs and 48 continuously up-expressed lncRNAs targeting 1209 co-expressed mRNAs were considered to be significantly associated with flag leaf senescence. Gene Ontology results suggested that the senescence-associated lncRNAs targeted mRNAs involving in many biological processes, including transcription, hormone response, oxidation-reduction process and substance metabolism. Additionally, 43 senescence-associated lncRNAs were predicted to target 111 co-expressed transcription factors. Interestingly, 8 down-expressed lncRNAs and 29 up-expressed lncRNAs were found to separately target 12 and 20 well-studied senescence-associated genes (SAGs). Furthermore, analysis on the competing endogenous RNA (CeRNA) network revealed that 6 down-expressed lncRNAs possibly regulated 51 co-expressed mRNAs through 15 miRNAs, and 14 up-expressed lncRNAs possibly regulated 117 co-expressed mRNAs through 21 miRNAs. Importantly, by expression validation, a conserved miR164-NAC regulatory pathway was found to be possibly involved in leaf senescence, where lncRNA MSTRG.62092.1 may serve as a ceRNA binding with miR164a and miR164e to regulate three transcription factors. And two key lncRNAs MSTRG.31014.21 and MSTRG.31014.36 also could regulate the abscisic-acid biosynthetic gene BGIOSGA025169 (OsNCED4) and BGIOSGA016313 (NAC family) through osa-miR5809. The possible regulation networks of lncRNAs involving in leaf senescence were discussed, and several candidate lncRNAs were recommended for prior transgenic analysis. These findings will extend the understanding on the regulatory roles of lncRNAs in leaf senescence, and lay a foundation for functional research on candidate lncRNAs.


Asunto(s)
Oryza/genética , ARN Largo no Codificante/genética , Clorofila , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , MicroARNs/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo
14.
Planta ; 253(3): 73, 2021 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615406

RESUMEN

MAIN CONCLUSION: A reprogramming of secondary metabolism to acclimate to nitrogen deficiency was seen in grapevine eliciting an accumulation of strigolactones and jasmonate. This response links with photosynthetic compensation and enhanced ripening. In addition to the metabolism directly related to nitrogen assimilation, long-term nitrogen depletion may affect plant secondary metabolism, in turn affecting grapevine performance. In this work, the effect of nitrogen deficit was investigated in V. vinifera cv. Barbera potted vines following three years of deprivation, using a combination of morpho-physiological assessments and mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics. Plants grown under nitrogen limitation showed reduced growth and even more curtailed yields, lowered SPAD values, and a quite preserved leaf gas exchange, compared to plants grown under non-limiting nitrogen availability. Ripening was decidedly accelerated, and berry composition improved in terms of higher sugar and phenolic contents under nitrogen-limiting conditions. Metabolomics showed the broad involvement of secondary metabolism in acclimation to nitrogen deficiency, including a distinctive modulation of the phytohormone profile. Several nitrogen-containing metabolites were down accumulated under nitrogen-limiting conditions, including alkaloids, glucosinolates, hypoxanthine, and inosine. On the other hand, phenylpropanoids showed an accumulation trend. Concerning the recruitment of hormones, nitrogen deprivation elicited an accumulation of strigolactones and jasmonate. Noteworthy, both strigolactones and jasmonates have been previously related to increased photosynthetic efficiency under abiotic stress. Furthermore, the severe reduction of lateral shoot development we recorded in N-deprived vines is consistent with the accumulation of strigolactones. Overall, our results suggest that nitrogen deprivation induced a rather broad metabolic reprogramming, mainly including secondary metabolism and hormones profile, reflected in the modulation of photosynthetic performance, canopy growth, and possibly fruit quality.


Asunto(s)
Nitrógeno/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundario , Vitis/metabolismo , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fotosíntesis , Reguladores del Crecimiento de las Plantas , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530294

RESUMEN

Light is an important cue that stimulates both plastid development and biosynthesis of carotenoids in plants. During photomorphogenesis or de-etiolation, photoreceptors are activated and molecular factors for carotenoid and chlorophyll biosynthesis are induced thereof. In fruits, light is absorbed by chloroplasts in the early stages of ripening, which allows a gradual synthesis of carotenoids in the peel and pulp with the onset of chromoplasts' development. In roots, only a fraction of light reaches this tissue, which is not required for carotenoid synthesis, but it is essential for root development. When exposed to light, roots start greening due to chloroplast development. However, the colored taproot of carrot grown underground presents a high carotenoid accumulation together with chromoplast development, similar to citrus fruits during ripening. Interestingly, total carotenoid levels decrease in carrots roots when illuminated and develop chloroplasts, similar to normal roots exposed to light. The recent findings of the effect of light quality upon the induction of molecular factors involved in carotenoid synthesis in leaves, fruit, and roots are discussed, aiming to propose consensus mechanisms in order to contribute to the understanding of carotenoid synthesis regulation by light in plants.


Asunto(s)
Vías Biosintéticas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Desarrollo de la Planta , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de las Plantas , Plastidios/genética , Cloroplastos , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Luz , Fotosíntesis , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de la radiación , Raíces de Plantas/genética , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/efectos de la radiación
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111967, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524911

RESUMEN

Non-target effects of genetically engineered (GE) plants on aquatic Daphnia magna have been studied by feeding the species with different maize materials containing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The results of those studies were often difficult to interpret, because only one GE plant was compared to one related non-GE control. In such a setting, effects of the Cry proteins cannot be distinguished from plant background effects, in particular when the test species is nutritionally stressed. In the present study, we tested the suitability of three different maize materials, i.e., flour, leaves and pollen, from five diverse non-GE maize lines (including EXP 258, a breeding line that is closely related to a SmartStax Bt maize) as exclusive food sources for D. magna. The parameters recorded included survival, sublethal endpoints such as body size, number of moltings to first offspring, time to first offspring, number of individuals in first clutch, total number of clutches, total number of offspring, average number of offspring per clutch, and population measures such as net reproductive rate R0, generation time T and intrinsic rate of increase rm. The results showed that D. magna can survive, grow and reproduce when fed only maize materials, although the performance was poorer than when fed algae, which indicates nutritional stress. Large differences in life table and population parameters of D. magna were observed among the different maize lines. Our results suggest that confounding effects caused by nutritional stress and plant background might explain some of the conflicting results previously published on the effects of Bt crops on D. magna. Using 95% confidence intervals for the means of the five maize lines for all measured parameters of D. magna performance in our study, we captured the natural range of variation. This information is useful for the interpretation of observed differences in D. magna performance between a GE plant and its non-GE comparator as it helps judging whether observed effects are of biological relevance. If differences between a GE and comparator line are observed and their biological relevance needs to be assessed in future risk assessments of GE maize, 1) the data on natural variation of the different parameters generated by previous studies can be informative (e.g. data from our study for maize fed D. magna); 2) for additional experiments the inclusion of multiple unrelated non-GE comparators should be considered; In addition, it should be taken into account that nutritional stress can affect the outcome of the study.


Asunto(s)
Daphnia/fisiología , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/fisiología , Zea mays/fisiología , Animales , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Productos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Daphnia/efectos de los fármacos , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Harina , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Insecticidas/farmacología , Fitomejoramiento , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/metabolismo , Plantas Modificadas Genéticamente/toxicidad , Polen , Medición de Riesgo , Zea mays/metabolismo
17.
J Plant Res ; 134(2): 237-248, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591473

RESUMEN

Flooding stress nowadays is one of the major stressors for plants under climate change. This kind of stress may cause severe depression of the plant's growth through inhibition of photosynthesis and oxidative cell damage as well as changes in cell respiration. The present work aimed to study the effect of flooding stress on oxidative and antioxidative parameters in leaves of two maize hybrids (ZP 555 and ZP 606). Leaves of maize plants at the stage of three fully developed leaves were harvested after 6, 24, 72, and 144 h of applied flooding stress. Leaves were used for determination of physiological (the content of photosynthetic pigments and soluble proteins), oxidative stress parameters (the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2) as well as antioxidants (the total polyphenols content, and activity of antioxidative enzymes [catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), and Class III peroxidases (POX, EC, 1.11.1.7)]). Results indicated that flooding stress-induced time-dependent changes of measured parameters and those hybrids differ in response to stress. The noticeable difference between hybrids was detected in the H2O2 and MDA content. An increase in the activity of SOD, POX and polyphenols content, with the most pronounced changes in POX activity and polyphenols concentration, could minimize the cellular damage caused by flooding. The results of the present study suggest that a more robust antioxidative metabolism is essential under flooding stress and could be a protective strategy against oxidative damage induced by flooding in ZP 606 maize plants compared to ZP 555 plants.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Zea mays , Ascorbato Peroxidasas/metabolismo , Catalasa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Peroxidación de Lípido , Estrés Oxidativo , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 735, 2021 02 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531490

RESUMEN

Nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) are essential elements for plant growth and crop yield. Thus, improved N and C utilisation contributes to agricultural productivity and reduces the need for fertilisation. In the present study, we find that overexpression of a single rice gene, Oryza sativa plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase 1 (OSA1), facilitates ammonium absorption and assimilation in roots and enhanced light-induced stomatal opening with higher photosynthesis rate in leaves. As a result, OSA1 overexpression in rice plants causes a 33% increase in grain yield and a 46% increase in N use efficiency overall. As PM H+-ATPase is highly conserved in plants, these findings indicate that the manipulation of PM H+-ATPase could cooperatively improve N and C utilisation, potentially providing a vital tool for food security and sustainable agriculture.


Asunto(s)
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Oryza/enzimología , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , ATPasas de Translocación de Protón/metabolismo , Compuestos de Amonio/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas/fisiología , Oryza/fisiología , Fotosíntesis/genética , Fotosíntesis/fisiología , Hojas de la Planta/enzimología , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Hojas de la Planta/fisiología , Raíces de Plantas/enzimología , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Raíces de Plantas/fisiología
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1267, 2021 02 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627645

RESUMEN

Most of the aerial organs of vascular plants are covered by a protective layer known as the cuticle, the main purpose of which is to limit transpirational water loss. Cuticles consist of an amphiphilic polyester matrix, polar polysaccharides that extend from the underlying epidermal cell wall and become less prominent towards the exterior, and hydrophobic waxes that dominate the surface. Here we report that the polarity gradient caused by this architecture renders the transport of water through astomatous olive and ivy leaf cuticles directional and that the permeation is regulated by the hydration level of the cutin-rich outer cuticular layer. We further report artificial nanocomposite membranes that are inspired by the cuticles' compositionally graded architecture and consist of hydrophilic cellulose nanocrystals and a hydrophobic polymer. The structure and composition of these cuticle-inspired membranes can easily be varied and this enables a systematic investigation of the water transport mechanism.


Asunto(s)
Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/genética , Transporte Biológico/fisiología , Lípidos de la Membrana/metabolismo , Nanocompuestos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Epidermis de la Planta/metabolismo , Ceras/metabolismo
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 111977, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578101

RESUMEN

The present study focused on investigating the effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth and changes in soil health in two contrasting soil textures (silt-loam and clay). Moreover, response of rice to different methods of TiO2NPs application and phosphorous fertilizer levels were also evaluated. For toxicity assessment, pot experiment was carried out. TiO2NPs (0, 500, 750 mg kg-1) were applied and plants were grown till vegetative stage. After harvesting, physiological parameters, stress assay, soil microbial and enzymatic activities were determined. Based on the results of toxicity study, impact of three methods of TiO2NPs application (foliar, irrigation, soil) and four phosphorous fertilizer levels (0, 10, 20, 40 mg kg-1) on rice growth were assessed. During the 1st phase, results showed an adverse effect of TiO2NPs on plant growth and soil microorganisms in both soil textures at 750 mg kg-1. The H2O2 production, lipid peroxidation and leaf membrane injury index were increased by 4.3-, 2.4-, and 1.9-folds in clay soil upon 750 mg kg-1 TiO2NPs application. Likewise, at the same level of TiO2NPs; microbial biomass, dehydrogenase, and respiration were decreased by 0.91-, 0.79-, and 0.78- folds respectively. In 2nd phase, maximum shoot length, biomass, phosphorous uptake and rice grain protein content were observed under application of TiO2NPs (500 mg kg-1) through irrigation method in combination with 40 mg P kg-1. However, 20 and 40 mg P kg-1 performed equally well upon TiO2NPs application and the results were not statistically significant. The results suggest that 750 mg kg-1 of TiO2NPs negatively affect plant growth and soil enzymatic activities. Moreover, combined application of TiO2NPs (500 mg kg-1) through irrigation and 20 mg P kg-1 is recommended to be the optimum for growth of rice plant.


Asunto(s)
Oryza/fisiología , Fósforo/metabolismo , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Titanio/metabolismo , Biomasa , Arcilla , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/metabolismo , Nanopartículas , Oryza/metabolismo , Desarrollo de la Planta , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
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