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1.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(3): 170-176, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132751

RESUMEN

Objective: To assess the effect of a permanent gun-carrying restriction on gun-related mortality in Colombia between 2008 and 2014, and determine differences in the effect of the restriction by place of death and sex. Methods: In 2012, Bogotá and Medellín introduced a permanent gun-carrying restriction. We compared gun-related mortality rates in these cities (intervention cities) with the rates in all other Colombian cities with more than 500 000 inhabitants (control cities). We used data from the Colombian National Department of Statistics to calculate monthly gun-related mortality rates between 2008 and 2014 for intervention and control cities. We used a differences-in-differences method with fixed effects to assess differences in gun-related mortality in intervention and control cities before and after the introduction of the gun-carrying restriction. We stratified effects by place of death (public area or residence) and sex. We made robustness checks to test the assumptions of the models. Findings: Gun-related deaths in the control and intervention cities decreased between 2008 and 2014; however, the decrease was greater in the intervention cities (from 20.29 to 14.93 per 100 000 population; 26.4%) than in the control cities (from 37.88 to 34.56 per 100 000 population; 8.8%). The restriction led to a 22.3% reduction in the monthly gun-related mortality rate in Bogotá and Medellín. The reduction was greater in public areas and for males. Robustness checks supported the assumptions of the models. Conclusion: The permanent restriction on carrying guns reduced gun-related deaths. This policy could be used to reduce gun-related injuries in urban centres of other countries with large numbers of gun-related deaths.


Asunto(s)
Armas de Fuego/legislación & jurisprudencia , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/mortalidad , Colombia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Propiedad
2.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 69: 101888, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056805

RESUMEN

Firearms injuries have a legal and medico-legal importance, and are especially lethal when they reach the craniofacial regions of the victim. The present study aims to identify the characteristics of craniofacial lesions resulting from firearm projectiles, to register the most affected craniofacial regions by this type of injury and to verify the demographic profile of the victims. A retrospective study was carried out on the autopsy records produced in the first semester of 2015, in five Institutes of Legal Medicine in Porto Velho, situated in the cities of João Pessoa, Vitória, Porto Alegre and Brasília. Data extracted included sex, skin color and age of the victim, craniofacial region reached, shooting distance, shape and size of the injuries and manner of death (homicide, suicide or accident). Based on the 868 reports analyzed, it was possible to observe 1700 entrance lesions of firearm projectiles in craniofacial regions. Among cases of known manner of death, homicides were the most frequent (97.0%). It was observed a higher frequency of male victims (93.3%), mixed race (62.0%), between the ages of 12 and 29 years (59.4%). In all cases considered as suicide or accident there was only one entrance wound, but in 82.8% of the homicides there were multiple gunshot wounds. The craniofacial most affected regions were temporal (25.2%) and occipital (19.8%). The most common sites of projectiles exit were the temporal (25.3%) and parietal (16.1%). All cases of suicide were related to contact shot (69.2%) or close-range shot (30.8%), and among the homicides the distant range shots were more frequent (54.0%). The shape of entrance wounds was mostly circular (56.8%) and oval (31.3%), and among the exit injuries, the lesions were irregular (43.3%) and starry (24.1%). The entrance wounds showed smaller sizes than the exit lesions (p < 0.0001). The data obtained are useful for guiding research that takes into account craniofacial trauma caused by firearm projectiles, makes it possible to compare this data with those of other countries and can base investigative conclusions based on the analyzes discussed in the present work.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos Faciales/mortalidad , Traumatismos Penetrantes de la Cabeza/mortalidad , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/mortalidad , Accidentes/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Adulto Joven
3.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 69: 101889, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056806

RESUMEN

Studies on firearm fatalities in some parts of Ghana have been reported. However, the incidence and pattern of firearm fatalities in the Northern sector of Ghana have fled the spotlight. This study aimed at reporting the incidence and pattern of gunshot fatalities autopsied within 2008 and 2013 year. There were 82(91.1%) male and 8(8.9%) female victims of gunshot deaths during the study period with an average of 15 cases annually. Where 60(66.7%) of the victims aged within 21-40; years resembling the pattern observed in several parts of the world. A significant number 28(31.1%) of the victims died of multiple shots or dispersed pellets affecting several parts of the body, followed by a single shot to the chest 18(20.0%), abdomen 17(18.9%), head 14(15.6%). Collectively, entry sites like the neck and upper limb among others accounted for 13(14.4%). Robbery accounted for 44(48.9%) followed by homicides 14(15.6%) cases. Recovered pellets, nature and legal status of firearm involved were also examined, and like in several developing countries, country-made guns played a substantial role in the firearm fatalities with calls to strengthen laws governing gun acquisition and use in the country.


Asunto(s)
Heridas por Arma de Fuego/mortalidad , Accidentes/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Niño , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Ghana/epidemiología , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Adulto Joven
4.
Am Surg ; 86(1): 2-7, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077409

RESUMEN

As many have studied in the past, the real question of a presidential assassination failure or completion of the attempt should focus on the medical outlook, albeit sometimes surgical in nature. In this article, injuries sustained by various assassination attempts will be examined thoroughly to ensure they received the most appropriate medical care possible at that time and, then in turn, evaluate the medical outcomes in light of contemporary medical knowledge. The five presidents include Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William McKinley, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, and Ronald Reagan. Although the advent of Advanced Trauma Life Support has dramatically altered the care of the critically ill patient, it was rehabilitated in response to the orthopedic surgeon listed in the following paragraph.


Asunto(s)
Atención de Apoyo Vital Avanzado en Trauma/historia , Personajes , Homicidio/historia , Política , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/terapia
5.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(2): 291-294, 2020 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999248

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Detroit, Michigan, is among the leading United States cities for per-capita homicide and violent crime. Hospital- and community-based intervention programs could decrease the rate of violent-crime related injury but require a detailed understanding of the locations of violence in the community to be most effective. METHODS: We performed a retrospective geospatial analysis of all violent crimes reported within the city of Detroit from 2009-2015 comparing locations of crimes to locations of major hospitals. We calculated distances between violent crimes and trauma centers, and applied summary spatial statistics. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1 million crimes occurred in Detroit during the study period, including approximately 200,000 violent crimes. The distance between the majority of violent crimes and hospitals was less than five kilometers (3.1 miles). Among violent crimes, the closest hospital was an outlying Level II trauma center 60% of the time. CONCLUSION: Violent crimes in Detroit occur throughout the city, often closest to a Level II trauma center. Understanding geospatial components of violence relative to trauma center resources is important for effective implementation of hospital- and community-based interventions and targeted allocation of resources.


Asunto(s)
Crimen , Homicidio , Centros Traumatológicos , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Michigan , Estudios Retrospectivos , Centros Traumatológicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
6.
Forensic Sci Int ; 307: 110141, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945737

RESUMEN

AIMS: We aimed at analyzing homicide trends and patterns in Italy over the period 1980-2014. METHODS: We collected data from the Italian Mortality Database (Italian National Institute of Statistics), for the study period. Temporal trends were analyzed using joinpoint regression analysis, with estimated annual percentage change computed for each detected trend. The possible effect of the mafia subculture was examined using an indicator of mafia social penetration. Differences between age classes, genders, geographical regions, and homicide methods were also analyzed. RESULTS: The analyses showed an overall reduction in homicides during the study period, including a reduction in homicides by firearm. Further, we found significant differences between homicides involving male and female victims. A peak in male homicides, observed in the early 1990s, was significantly associated with mafia penetration. CONCLUSIONS: The overall reduction in homicides can be interpreted as an expression of a "civilizing process."


Asunto(s)
Homicidio/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Asfixia/mortalidad , Niño , Preescolar , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Armas de Fuego , Medicina Legal , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Traumatismos del Cuello/mortalidad , Distribución por Sexo , Heridas no Penetrantes/mortalidad , Heridas Penetrantes/mortalidad , Adulto Joven
7.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 103-111, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404476

RESUMEN

This study analyzes postmortem records from 260 homicide cases autopsied by the Department of Forensic Medicine in Rome from 2000 to 2014. The victims were mainly males (74%) and young (61% aged from 21 to 50 years). Although the victims were mostly Italians, the number of foreign victims (33%) has increased since 1990, primarily due to immigration. The offenders frequently used firearms (39%), particularly in multiple murders. An increase in blunt (20%) and sharp force (32%) weapons was also seen. The primary crime scene was residential (42%), and the head was the most frequently injured body region. Male victims occurred frequently in the context of organized crime (7.6%). In family or intimate-sexual relationships, women were the majority of victims (8%). Forensic pathologists play an important role during investigation. They should consider all the information available to them, including autopsy information, crime scene information, and crime investigation data.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Distribución por Sexo , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Armas/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas y Traumatismos/mortalidad , Adulto Joven
8.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 154-159, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404481

RESUMEN

Homicide is the most serious and costly criminal offense and better forensic and criminological understanding of homicidal ideation as a potential psychobehavioral precursor to homicidal conduct is critical. Using data from the 2016 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) distributed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), we found 64,910 cases of homicidal ideation among a sample of 25.6 + million-a prevalence of 0.25%. Numerous conditions conferred increased substantially the likelihood of homicidal ideation including antisocial personality disorder (2406%), schizoaffective disorder (1821%), borderline personality disorder (1557%), paranoid personality disorder (1,504%), schizophrenia (1,143%), obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (921%), brief psychotic disorder (771%), unspecified psychosis (737%), avoidant personality disorder (596%), and schizoid personality disorder (571%), delusional disorder (546%), and other psychotic disorder (504%). Homicidal ideation is comorbid with serious psychiatric and behavioral problems and has important implications for offender typologies and homicidality.


Asunto(s)
Homicidio/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Bases de Datos Factuales , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Femenino , Psiquiatría Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
9.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110046, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734574

RESUMEN

Murderers sometimes dispose of bodies in zipped suitcases in an attempt to conceal their crimes. In these cases, the species of insects found and their succession patterns are typically different from those found on exposed corpses due to hindrances or delays in colonization. Here we report a case in which an unidentified female corpse was found in a soft-shell suitcase in a wetland area among some reeds in Guangdong, China on 13 May 2018. The suitcase was unbroken and zippers were well-sealed. The victim was a young woman, naked, and curled up in the suitcase. The insect evidence we collected include (i) pupae and empty puparia of Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Muscidae), (ii) larvae, pupae and empty puparia of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) and Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). According to this insect evidence, we estimated the PMImin as 56 days. Bhadra et al. (2014) show that larvae of Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) can colonize carcasses concealed in zipped suitcases. Although the size of the zipper (7mm) in this case is larger than that described in Bhadra et al. (4mm), we did not find Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), or Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) which usually colonize fresh corpses in this area. Therefore, we deduced that the victim may have been killed in winter. After the crime was solved, the murderer confessed that he killed the victim on 5 January.


Asunto(s)
Cadáver , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Insectos/fisiología , Cambios Post Mortem , Animales , China , Homicidio , Humanos , Temperatura Ambiental
10.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 295-303, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859587

RESUMEN

A set of historic murders, known as the "Jack the Ripper murders," started in London in August 1888. The killer's identity has remained a mystery to date. Here, we describe the investigation of, to our knowledge, the only remaining physical evidence linked to these murders, recovered from one of the victims at the scene of the crime. We applied novel, minimally destructive techniques for sample recovery from forensically relevant stains on the evidence and separated single cells linked to the suspect, followed by phenotypic analysis. The mtDNA profiles of both the victim and the suspect matched the corresponding reference samples, fortifying the link of the evidence to the crime scene. Genomic DNA from single cells recovered from the evidence was amplified, and the phenotypic information acquired matched the only witness statement regarded as reliable. To our knowledge, this is the most advanced study to date regarding this case.


Asunto(s)
Vestuario , Dermatoglifia del ADN/métodos , Genética Forense/métodos , Homicidio/historia , Manchas de Sangre , Vestuario/historia , Víctimas de Crimen , Criminales , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , ADN Mitocondrial/aislamiento & purificación , Fluorescencia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Rayos Infrarrojos , Captura por Microdisección con Láser , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Análisis de la Célula Individual , Reino Unido , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
11.
Forensic Sci Int ; 307: 110117, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881372

RESUMEN

The ability to conduct accurate retrospective homicide comparative research is reliant on the publishing of robust studies that assess the specifics of homicides in a standardised manner. To address these matters at the Institute of Forensic Medicine (IFM) in Pristina, Kosovo, the IFM homicide data of the years 2006-2015 was retrospectively studied. In general, there was a year on year downward trend in the number of homicide deaths in Kosovo per 100,000 people, however it was noted that a standardisation method to record homicides in Kosovo has not been developed and as such, the data may not be complete. In addition, the analysis of the IFM data demonstrated that firearms were consistently used in 73.76 % of all homicides committed between 2006-2015 but the examination of, and the specific documentation of the types of firearms used was not recorded. This is important to provide evidence to enforce legislation to reduce the availability of these weapons and ultimately the number of homicides. Consequently, this study aimed to compare global homicide trends relative to the retrospective homicide data from Kosovo, to inform and address the need for prevention programmes and to establish standardised recording of homicides in Kosovo.


Asunto(s)
Homicidio/tendencias , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Niño , Preescolar , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Armas de Fuego/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicina Legal , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Kosovo/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/mortalidad , Adulto Joven
12.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 3(Suppl 3): e190011.supl.3, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800850

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Unspecified causes of death are among the traditional indicators of quality of information. OBJECTIVE: To verify the performance of the 60 cities in the Data for Health Initiative project and to analyze the reclassification of unspecified external causes of death (UEC). METHODS: Using the 2017 records from the Mortality Information System, the proportion and percent change in UEC were compared after investigation between project cities and other cities, and the percent of reclassification to specific external causes was calculated. RESULTS: The project cities comprised 52% (n = 11,759) of the total UEC in Brazil, of which 64.5% were reclassified after investigation, whereas the other cities reclassified 31% of UEC. Results were similar for men, youth, blacks, metropolitan cities, the Southeast region, and deaths attested by forensic institutes. In the project cities, pedestrian traffic accidents were external causes with greater reclassification. In men, the UEC was reclassified to homicides (23.8%) and accident of terrestrial transportation (ATT) (11.1%), with motorcyclists (4.4%) and pedestrians (4.3%) being the most prominent. In women, these causes were changed to other accident causes (20.8%), ATT (10.6%) and homicides (7.9%). UEC changed to ATT (18.3%) in the age groups of 0-14 years old and to homicides (32.5%) in the age groups of 15-44 years. CONCLUSION: The project cities obtained better results after investigation of UEC, enabling analysis of the reclassification to specific causes by sex and age groups.


Asunto(s)
Causas de Muerte , Certificado de Defunción , Sistemas de Información/normas , Accidentes/mortalidad , Accidentes de Tránsito/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Ciudades/epidemiología , Exactitud de los Datos , Femenino , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución por Sexo , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
13.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 61-69, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-183600

RESUMEN

Psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of IPV and is often thought to precede physical IPV. However, psychological IPV often occurs independently of other forms of IPV, and it can often emerge during routine relationship interactions. Using data from imprisoned male offenders we investigate the effect of hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on psychological IPV and the hypothesized mediating role of positive attitudes toward IPV and this effect when accounting for broader risk factors at the levels of community (social disorder), family-of-origin (conflictive climate in family of origin), and personality (antisocial personality traits) variables. The sample involved 196 male inmates of the Penitentiary Center of Villabona (Asturias, Spain). Structural equation models result showed significant total, direct and indirect effect of hostile sexism on psychological IPV, but not of benevolent sexism. When individual, family-of-origin, and community variables were considered, however, hostile sexism showed only an indirect effect on psychological IPV via positive attitudes toward abuse. These results are discussed in light of the debate of the role of sexist attitudes in the psychological IPV explanation when broader models are considered


La violencia de pareja (VP) psicológica es la forma más prevalente de VP y habitualmente suele preceder a la VP física. Sin embargo, la VP psicológica ocurre a menudo independientemente de otras formas de VP y puede darse en interacciones rutinarias con la pareja. Utilizando datos de hombres recluidos en prisión, hemos investigado el efecto del sexismo hostil y benevolente sobre la VP psicológica, así como el rol mediador de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso de la pareja. Hemos investigado también ese efecto cuando están presentes otros factores de riesgo de VP psicológica señalados en la literatura reciente están presentes: comunidad (desorden social), familia de origen (clima conflictivo en la familia de origen) y factores individuales (rasgos de personalidad antisocial). Participaron en el estudio 196 hombres internos en el Centro Penitenciario de Villabona (Asturias, España). Los resultados de los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales estimados indican un efecto total, directo e indirecto significativo del sexismo hostil sobre la VP psicológica, pero no del sexismo benevolente. Cuando las variables de la comunidad, la familia de origen y factores individuales se incorporaron al modelo únicamente el efecto indirecto del sexismo hostil a través de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso siguió siendo significativo. Los resultados se discuten en relación con el debate sobre el rol de las actitudes sexistas sobre la VP psicológica en el marco de modelos más generales de violencia


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Sexismo/psicología , Agresión/psicología , Represión Psicológica , Prisioneros/psicología , Agotamiento Psicológico/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , Violencia contra la Mujer , Conflicto (Psicología) , Homicidio/psicología
14.
PLoS Med ; 16(12): e1002978, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846474

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gun violence has shortened the average life expectancy of Americans, and better knowledge about the root causes of gun violence is crucial to its prevention. While some empirical evidence exists regarding the impacts of social and economic factors on violence and firearm homicide rates, to the author's knowledge, there has yet to be a comprehensive and comparative lagged, multilevel investigation of major social determinants of health in relation to firearm homicides and mass shootings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study used negative binomial regression models and geolocated gun homicide incident data from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015, to explore and compare the independent associations of key state-, county-, and neighborhood-level social determinants of health-social mobility, social capital, income inequality, racial and economic segregation, and social spending-with neighborhood firearm-related homicides and mass shootings in the United States, accounting for relevant state firearm laws and a variety of state, county, and neighborhood (census tract [CT]) characteristics. Latitude and longitude coordinates on firearm-related deaths were previously collected by the Gun Violence Archive, and then linked by the British newspaper The Guardian to CTs according to 2010 Census geographies. The study population consisted of all 74,134 CTs as defined for the 2010 Census in the 48 states of the contiguous US. The final sample spanned 70,579 CTs, containing an estimated 314,247,908 individuals, or 98% of the total US population in 2015. The analyses were based on 13,060 firearm-related deaths in 2015, with 11,244 non-mass shootings taking place in 8,673 CTs and 141 mass shootings occurring in 138 CTs. For area-level social determinants, lag periods of 3 to 17 years were examined based on existing theory, empirical evidence, and data availability. County-level institutional social capital (levels of trust in institutions), social mobility, income inequality, and public welfare spending exhibited robust relationships with CT-level gun homicide rates and the total numbers of combined non-mass and mass shooting homicide incidents and non-mass shooting homicide incidents alone. A 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in institutional social capital was linked to a 19% reduction in the homicide rate (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.91, p < 0.001) and a 17% decrease in the number of firearm homicide incidents (IRR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.95, p = 0.01). Upward social mobility was related to a 25% reduction in the gun homicide rate (IRR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.86, p < 0.001) and a 24% decrease in the number of homicide incidents (IRR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.67-0.87, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, 1-SD increases in the neighborhood percentages of residents in poverty and males living alone were associated with 26%-27% and 12% higher homicide rates, respectively. Study limitations include possible residual confounding by factors at the individual/household level, and lack of disaggregation of gun homicide data by gender and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: This study finds that the rich-poor gap, level of citizens' trust in institutions, economic opportunity, and public welfare spending are all related to firearm homicide rates in the US. Further establishing the causal nature of these associations and modifying these social determinants may help to address the growing gun violence epidemic and reverse recent life expectancy declines among Americans.


Asunto(s)
Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Recolección de Datos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
15.
ABCS health sci ; 44(3): 154-160, 20 dez 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047649

RESUMEN

INTRODUÇÃO: O homicídio é um problema de Saúde Pública no Brasil não raro relacionado com drogas ilícitas. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar os homicídios e os aspectos associados ao uso de drogas ilícitas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com abordagem quantitativa, realizado em João Pessoa, no estado da Paraíba, no Brasil, em 2014. Consideraram-se 424 vítimas de homicídios cujos dados foram coletados através de um instrumento próprio, analisados com auxílio de software estatístico, com Teste de Qui-Quadrado e Regressão Robusta de Poisson, considerando um nível confiança de 95% e significância estatística quando p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Predominância de vítimas de homicídios homens (93,2%), não brancos (97,2%), com até 30 anos, considerando as faixas etárias de menor de 20 anos (22,6%), de 20 a 24 (26,7%) e 25 a 29 (18,8%), com menos de sete anos de estudo (67,5%), com histórico de envolvimento com drogas ilícitas (72,5%) e de encarceramento (59,7%). Observaram-se associações entre envolvimento com drogas ilícitas e as variáveis: sexo (p=0,037), idade (p=0,002) e histórico de encarceramento (p<0,001). A prevalência ajustada de envolvimento com drogas ilícitas foi 67% maior entre aqueles com histórico de encarceramento (RP: 1,67; IC95%: 1,44-1,94) e 28% menor entre indivíduos com 30 anos ou mais (RP: 0,72; IC: 0,58-0,88). CONCLUSÃO: O homicídio está inserido em um quadro de complexas questões sociais, dentre as quais se insere o envolvimento com drogas ilícitas, e é mais prevalente entre indivíduos com histórico de encarceramento e menos prevalente entre os de mais de 30 anos.


INTRODUCTION: Homicide is a public health problem in Brazil that is often related to illicit drugs. OBJECTIVE: To characterize homicides and aspects associated with the use of illicit drugs. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach carried out in Joao Pessoa, in the state of Paraiba, Brazil, in 2014. 424 homicide victims whose data were collected through a specific instrument were considered, analyzed descriptively and analytically with the aid of statistical software, with Chi Squared Test and Robust Poisson Regression, considering a confidence level of 95% and statistical significance when p<0.05. RESULTS: Prevalence of homicide victims (93.2%), non-whites (97.2%), with up to 30 years, considering the age groups below 20 years (22.6%), 20-24 (26.7%) and 25 to 29 (18.8%), with less than seven years of study (67.5%), with a history of involvement with illicit drugs (72.5%) and incarceration (59.7%). There was an association between involvement with illicit drugs with sex (p=0.037), age (p=0.002) and history of incarceration (p<0.001). There was a 67% higher prevalence of involvement with illicit drugs among those with a history of incarceration (PR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.44-1.94) and 28% lower among individuals aged 30 years or older (PR: 0.72, CI: 0.58-0.88). CONCLUSION: Homicide is part of a complex set of social issues, including involvement with illicit drugs, which is more prevalent among young adults and individuals with a history of incarceration.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Drogas Ilícitas , Mortalidad , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos
16.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43, December 2019
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51724

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Conocer la asociación entre las condiciones sociales y económicas y las tasas de homicidios en jóvenes de 10 a 24 años de edad en México en 2017. Métodos. En este estudio ecológico se estudiaron las desigualdades sociales asociadas con los homicidios en la población de 10 a 24 años en 2017 en México a través de fuentes secundarias de información, correspondientes a las defunciones por homicidio por entidad federativa en México. Las desigualdades sociales en salud se estudiaron mediante la medición absoluta y relativa de las brechas de desigualdad y se estimaron razones de prevalencias de mortalidad con modelos de regresión de Poisson. Resultados. En 2017 se produjeron 8 094 homicidios en la población joven, que fueron más frecuentes en hombres (86,7%). Las brechas de desigualdad entre los estados fueron importantes. La desocupación de la población de mayores de 12 años, los hogares conformados por personas que no son familiares, la baja asistencia escolar y el ingreso por debajo de la línea de bienestar se asociaron de manera significativa con las tasas de homicidios. Conclusiones. La asociación de los determinantes sociales con los homicidios en la población estudiada es fuerte. Deben implementarse políticas y acciones intersectoriales que puedan ayudar a reducir las brechas de desigualdad y lograr mejores condiciones de vida y niveles de bienestar y salud de las personas y sus comunidades.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Assess the association between social and economic conditions and homicide rates in young people between 10 and 24 years of age in Mexico in 2017. Methods. This ecological study looked at the social inequalities associated with homicides in the population 10-24-year-old population in 2017 in Mexico, using secondary data sources for deaths by homicide in each Mexican state. Social inequalities in health were studied by measuring absolute and relative inequality gaps. Mortality rates were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results. In 2017, there were 8,094 homicides in the target population, predominantly in men (86.7%). There was high variance in inequality between states. Unemployment in the population over 12 years of age, households composed of people who are not family members, low school attendance rates, and income below the poverty line showed significant association with homicide rates. Conclusions. There is a strong association between social determinants and homicides in the study population. Policies and intersectoral actions should be implemented to help bridge inequality gaps and achieve better living conditions and higher levels of well-being and health for people and their communities.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Descrever a associação entre as condições socioeconômicas e as taxas de homicídios em jovens entre 10 e 24 anos no México em 2017. Métodos. Neste estudo ecológico foram examinadas as desigualdades sociais associadas aos homicídios na população entre 10 e 24 anos no México em 2017 com base em dados obtidos de fontes de informação secundárias relativos a mortes por homicídio por entidade federativa. As desigualdades sociais em saúde foram avaliadas com a mensuração absoluta e relativa das lacunas de desigualdade. As razões de prevalências de mortalidade foram estimadas com modelos de regressão de Poisson. Resultados. Em 2017, houve 8.094 homicídios na população jovem, com predomínio no sexo masculino (86,7%). As lacunas de desigualdade entre os estados foram significativas. Ociosidade juvenil (em maiores de 12 anos), domicílios constituídos por pessoas sem laços de parentesco, baixa frequência escolar e renda abaixo da linha do bem-estar foram fatores que tiveram uma associação significativa com as taxas de homicídios. Conclusões. Observou-se uma forte associação entre os determinantes sociais e os homicídios na população estudada. Políticas e ações intersetoriais devem ser implementadas para ajudar a reduzir as lacunas de desigualdade e melhorar as condições de vida, o nível de bem-estar e a saúde das pessoas e suas comunidades.


Asunto(s)
Homicidio , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , México , Homicidio , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , México , Homicidio , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud
17.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 876-886, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047660

RESUMEN

"Eu sou um pessimista ativo, porque tenho fé". Assim Muniz Sodré se declara ao conceder à Reciis uma entrevista que trata sobre a questão de raça/etnicidades em articulação com os estudos da comunicação. O professor e pesquisador argumenta que a escravidão está enraizada na forma social brasileira, pois a abolição jurídico-política não foi suficiente para abolir os espíritos escravocratas. Mas que é preciso ter fé nas movimentações e contramovimentações sensíveis do corpo do outro, negro, o qual mobiliza as barreiras de imunidade racistas. Sodré entende que a expressão lugar de fala é uma reivindicação efêmera, pois acredita na virtude do corpo como um espaço de diálogo com outros lugares. Em relação aos estudos de comunicação e raça, argumenta que as pesquisas se restringem ainda às descrições das tecnologias da mídia, assim como as pesquisas de maneira geral, mas que esses estudos "têm um papel político forte: eles fazem emergir essa classe intelectual negra que estava submersa". Muniz Sodré é professor emérito da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Habla , Grupos Étnicos , Comunicación , Cultura , Racismo , Prejuicio , Ciencias Sociales , Violencia , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Homicidio , Relaciones Interpersonales
18.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 40(4): 336-346, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688051

RESUMEN

President Kennedy sustained 2 gunshot wounds on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, while riding in the right-rear seat of the presidential limousine. The convertible top was down, and no special ballistic protection for the occupants was present.The ballistic events in the assassination and subsequent ballistic evidence were not fully understood then and continue to be misunderstood and often misrepresented today. These facts are largely the consequence of the very uncommon wound ballistic properties of the 6.5-mm Carcano bullets associated with the President's gunshot wounds and the visual responses of the President to his 2 gunshot wounds so often viewed in the 8-mm Zapruder film.An understanding of the wound ballistic characteristics associated with the John F. Kennedy assassination also applies to certain contemporary bullets. Such an understanding could assist forensic pathologists in future cases in evaluating and correctly interpreting gunshot wounds associated with these types of bullets.


Asunto(s)
Balística Forense/métodos , Homicidio/historia , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/patología , Personajes , Gobierno , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos
19.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 40(4): 312-317, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688052

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a detrimental psychiatric disorder, with an increased mortality from natural and nonnatural causes. METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of autopsy cases of all the individuals with history of schizophrenia investigated by the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland, for a 5-year period from 2008 to 2012. RESULT: A total of 391 schizophrenia patients were autopsied at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner because they died suddenly and unexpectedly. Their age ranged from 15 to 100 years with the mean age of 49.5 years. Of the 391 deaths, 191 (48.8%) were white, 185 (47.3%) were African American, and 15 (3.9%) were either Hispanic or Asian. The male and female ratio was 1.5:1. The majority of deaths (64.2%) were caused by natural diseases, 12.0% deaths were accidents, 11.5% deaths were suicides, and 9.7% deaths were homicides. The manner of death remained undetermined in 38 cases (9.7%). Of the 251 natural deaths, 198 cases (78.9%) were owing to cardiovascular diseases. Cause of death was listed as cardiac arrhythmia in 11 cases. This diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmia was made by exclusion based on death scene investigation, review of medical history, complete autopsy, and toxicological tests. Drug intoxication was the second most common cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows high fatality caused by cardiovascular diseases and drug intoxication among schizophrenia patients, which calls attention of the medical community to closely monitor the high risk factors of sudden death among schizophrenia patients.


Asunto(s)
Muerte Súbita/epidemiología , Esquizofrenia/epidemiología , Accidentes/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Médicos Forenses , Femenino , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Envenenamiento/mortalidad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
20.
Orv Hetil ; 160(47): 1864-1871, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736345

RESUMEN

Introduction: The analysis of the mortality data of patients is important. Aim: Examination of data from patients treated in the Addictological Out-patient Clinic in Józsefváros and deceased between 2001 and 2018. Method: Patients' data originated from medical records. The national and Budapest data were from the publications of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Results: The age of patients was 52.85 ± 11.81 years for women and 51.99 ± 12.47 years for men. Two-thirds, regardless of gender, were alcoholic. There were many violent deaths. A new phenomenon was the high number of drug- and murder-associated deaths. The former group was dominated by men. The latter group showed female dominance. The completed suicide rate was 14.6%. Suicide attempts occurred in 22.4% of patients. The majority of patients were skilled workers. Conclusion: Data support the view that addict patients die earlier. Leading deaths, unlike previous investigations, were violent deaths. The rate of suicide was higher than the national rate, but it was the same as previously reported, indicating a high risk of this population. Gender differences were observed with regard to violent death, requiring further elucidation. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(47): 1864-1871.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/mortalidad , Pacientes Ambulatorios/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/mortalidad , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Alcoholismo/etnología , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Femenino , Homicidio , Humanos , Hungría/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución por Sexo , Intento de Suicidio , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos
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