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1.
J Health Econ ; 87: 102722, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603362

RESUMEN

Exploiting high-frequency data from the Italian anti-violence helpline, police reports of domestic abuse and maltreatments, and a unique geolocalized dataset on killings of women, we show that the news coverage of a femicide triggers an increase in help-seeking behavior. The effect is detectable in the period following the news and in the province where the femicide has occurred. Additionally, help-seeking increases more when the general interest and news coverage are higher. These findings are consistent with a model in which femicide news increase expectations about future intimate partner violence in case no action is taken. Our results imply that recurrent information campaigns and public discussion can foster help-seeking from survivors of gender-based violence.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Maltrato Conyugal , Humanos , Femenino , Homicidio , Violencia , Italia
2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 1, 2023 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593442

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Incidents of suicide can be categorized into three main types: solitary suicides, suicides following homicide, and suicide pacts. Although these three suicide incidents vary by definition, no studies to-date have simultaneously examined and compared them for potential differences. The objective of the current study was to empirically and descriptively compare solitary suicides, suicides following homicide, and suicide pacts in the United States. METHODS: Restricted-access data from the National Violent Death Report System for 2003-2019 for 262,679 solitary suicides, 4,352 suicides following homicide, and 450 suicide pacts were used. Pairwise comparisons of the three suicide incident types were made for demographic factors, method of suicide, preceding circumstances, mental health status, and toxicology findings. RESULTS: Solitary suicides, suicides following homicide, and suicide pacts have distinct profiles, with statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences across all pairwise comparisons of sex, race, ethnicity, marital status, education, method of suicide, financial problems, interpersonal relationship problems, physical health problems, mental health problems, mood disorders, suicide attempt history, and opiate use at the time of death. CONCLUSION: Despite sharing a few commonalities, solitary suicides, suicides following homicide, and suicide pacts represent distinct phenomena. Each of these suicide incident types likely have their own unique prevention pathways.


Asunto(s)
Homicidio , Violencia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Causas de Muerte , Vigilancia de la Población , Estado Civil
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(2): 421-435, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651397

RESUMEN

This study compares temporal trends in violent deaths of children and adolescents and analyzes differences in incidents of violence classified and not classified as a crime. We analyzed data from the Mortality Information System and State of Maranhão Public Security Department for the period 2014 to 2020. Child and adolescent were defined as aged 0-11 and 12-17 years old, respectively. Types of violence were organized according to the groups, subgroups, and types of crimes set out in Brazil's penal code. A total of 1,326 deaths and 8,187 incidents of violence were reported, both of which were more frequent in adolescents. The most frequent types of violence in children and adolescentes, respectively, were: abduction of incapable persons (p < 0.001), abandonment of incapable persons (p = 0.045), rape of vulnerable persons (p = 0.003); homicides (p < 0.001), crimes against individual freedom (p = 0.004), crimes against sexual freedom (p < 0.001), psychological violence (p = 0.034). Domestic violence with bodily harm was more frequent in girls (p < 0.001), while severe bodily harm (p=0.002), homicide (p < 0.001), and harassment (p < 0.001) were more frequent in boys. The findings reveal differences over time in deaths and incidents of violence classified and not classified as crime among both children and adolescents.


O presente estudo compara tendências temporais de óbitos por violências contra crianças e adolescentes e analisa diferenças em ocorrências tipificadas ou não como crimes. Foram analisados dados do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade e da Secretaria de Segurança Pública do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil, de 2014-2020. Crianças e adolescentes foram definidos respectivamente como pessoas com 0-11 e 12-17 anos. Tipos de violências foram organizados segundo grupos, subgrupos e tipos penais do Código Penal Brasileiro. Foram contabilizados 1.326 óbitos e 8.187 ocorrências, mais frequentes na adolescência. Subtração de incapazes (p < 0,001), abandono de incapaz (p = 0,045) e estupro de vulnerável (p = 0,003) predominaram na infância. Homicídios (p < 0,001), crimes contra a liberdade individual (p = 0,004), crimes contra a liberdade sexual (p < 0,001) e violência psicológica (p = 0,034) foram mais frequentes na adolescência. Violência doméstica com lesão corporal predominou no sexo feminino (p < 0,001). Lesões corporais graves (p = 0,002), homicídios (p < 0,001) e constrangimento ilegal (p < 0,001) vitimizaram mais adolescentes do sexo masculino. Houve diferenças temporais em óbitos e ocorrências de violências contra crianças e adolescentes, assim como em características de violências tipificadas ou não como crimes.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Suicidio , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Humanos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Causas de Muerte , Vigilancia de la Población , Homicidio , Crimen
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 28(1): 23-36, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629567

RESUMEN

Lethal violence against women is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon in which a wide number of factors intersect and converge to make a femicide happen at a specific time and place. The main factors that contributed to the occurrence of femicides in the city of Campinas were identified from January 2018 to December 2019. Interviews were conducted with family members, friends, neighbors, witnesses, and health agents about 24 femicides using the verbal autopsy technique. The autopsies were supplemented, when possible, with information from the media and clinical autopsy reports. For the data analysis process, narratives of the cases were carried out, recovering the most important aspects of the verbal autopsies and organizing the factors found in the four levels of the ecological model of violence used by the World Health Organization: individual, relational, community, and social. The analysis was structured in categories following a deductive approach. Starting from particular cases delimited in time (2018 and 2019) and in space (municipality of Campinas) it is expected to understand the phenomenon of femicide in its broadest dimension.


A violência letal contra a mulher é um fenômeno complexo e multidimensional no qual interseccionam e confluem um amplo número de fatores para que aconteça um feminicídio em um momento e lugar específico. Identificaram-se os principais fatores que contribuíram na ocorrência de feminicídios na cidade de Campinas no período de janeiro de 2018 a dezembro de 2019. Foram feitas entrevistas com membros da família, amigos, vizinhos, testemunhas e agentes de saúde sobre 24 casos de feminicídio utilizando a técnica da autópsia verbal. As autópsias foram complementadas, quando possível, com informações veiculadas na mídia e informes de autópsia clínica. Para o processo de análise de dados, foram realizadas narrativas dos casos resgatando os aspectos mais importantes das autópsias verbais e organizando os fatores encontrados nos quatro níveis do modelo ecológico da violência utilizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde: individual, relacional, comunitário e social. Estruturou-se a análise em categorias seguindo uma abordagem dedutiva. Partindo de casos particulares delimitados no tempo (2018 e 2019) e no espaço (a cidade de Campinas), espera-se compreender o fenômeno da violência letal contra as mulheres em sua dimensão mais ampla.


Asunto(s)
Homicidio , Violencia , Femenino , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiología , Familia , Autopsia
5.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 93: 102453, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495782

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The present research aims at analyzing criminological and medico-legal characteristics of intra-familiar homicides occurred in two major Italian cities (Milano and Monza) from the beginning of 2006 to the end of 2021. METHODS: Cases were identified using the Institutional database of the Institute of Legal Medicine of Milan, where all the autopsies of victims were performed. Data about these cases were obtained from autopsies findings, preliminary investigation reports, local papers and victim relatives' interviews. In this period 11,480 autopsies were performed: 392 were homicides and, among these, 94 were confirmed as intra-familiar homicides (as a result of 84 events). Cases were classified according to the classic definition of intimate partner violence (referring only to an intra-familiar context), parricides, filicides, fratricides, familicides and grannicides. Age, sex, nationality and risk factors of the victims and perpetrators, as well as methods of murder were registered for each case. Only in some cases, motives for murder were known. RESULTS: The most frequent type of intra-familiar homicides was intimate partner violence (41.5%), followed by parricides (16%, mainly matricides), filicides (10.7%) and fratricides (6.4%). 9.6% of the total number of events were familicides. Risk factors were frequently involved, in particular among perpetrators and in the group of parricides, while among siblicides they showed minimal relevance. Overall, psychiatric pathologies were the main risk factors involved (at least 23.8%), unlike extrafamiliar homicides, where previous criminal report or involvement in illicit traffics are frequently reported among perpetrators. This finding enlightens the difficulties of caring for a relative with a mental disorder, who can become dangerous for the domestic caregiver. Furthermore, the high number of physical illness and the advanced age of victims points out the tragical consequences of the lack of social support system for these categories of people. METHODS: of murder were mainly cold steel (30-31.9%) and firearms (21-22.3%). However choking/manual ligature (9-9.6%), blunt force trauma inflicted using objects found on the scenario or bare handed (16-17%) and combined methods (11-11.7%) were frequently represented confirming the expected high level of impulsivity related to this kind of crime.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Trastornos Mentales , Humanos , Homicidio , Etnicidad , Medicina Legal
6.
Prev Med ; 166: 107377, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493866

RESUMEN

Nationally, between 2011 and 2019, suicide was the second leading cause of injury death, and about half of all suicides were firearm related. An overlooked factor connecting firearms and suicide is lead exposure. Lead bullets and primers are used throughout the US and pose danger to adults and children. Most (not all) studies link lead to mental illness, while others link lead with suicide. Research has linked lead and firearm violence, but rarely examined the relationship among firearms, lead exposure, and suicide. We collected data for cities/towns in Massachusetts between 2011 and 2019 regarding the number of firearm licenses, suicides, prevalence of blood lead levels, and covariates. We hypothesized that; 1) towns with higher levels of licensure will have higher levels of firearm suicides but licensure will have little relationship with non-firearm suicide; 2) towns with higher levels of licensures would have higher rates of lead exposure; 3) higher lead levels would be associated with higher rates of suicide by all methods. Individuals living in towns with higher rates of licensure were significantly more likely to die in firearm suicides and all suicide types. They were not more or less likely to die from non-firearm suicides. Lead was a predictor of all suicide types. Our study appears to be the first to show the established firearm suicide relationships holds within municipalities in a single state. We provide evidence concerning the link between lead exposure and suicide, particularly from firearms, and provide a glimpse into the relationship between firearm prevalence and elevated blood lead levels.


Asunto(s)
Armas de Fuego , Suicidio , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Plomo , Massachusetts/epidemiología , Violencia , Homicidio
8.
J Am Coll Surg ; 236(1): 37-44, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36519906

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There were 23,854 suicides by firearms in 2017 in the US, accounting for 60% of all gun deaths. Studying firearm-related mortalities is vital for reducing preventable gun deaths. This study aims to determine the association between state-level presence of restrictive firearm laws and suicide rates with firearms. STUDY DESIGN: This ecological study used data from the CDC Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research on decedents older than 18 years who died from intentional self-harm with firearms between 2009 and 2018. Exposures of interest were state-level restrictive firearm laws: background checks on private sales, mandatory waiting periods, and prohibited possession for domestic violence restraining orders or mental health red flags. Outcomes were rates of suicide with firearms per 100,000 persons over the 10-year period within each state. Welch's t -tests compared mean mortality rates in exposed and unexposed states. RESULTS: There were 208,621 deaths from intentional self-harm with firearms from 2009 to 2018. States with background checks, mandatory waiting periods, and prohibited possession were associated with lower suicide rates for all firearm types compared with states without these laws (p < 0.05). Only states with background checks and mandatory waiting periods were associated with lower suicide rates by handguns and large firearms (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Background checks and mandatory waiting periods correlated with fewer suicides by all firearms and specific firearm types. This reduction could be due to firearm laws directly preventing people from accessing guns or existing concurrently with other suicide prevention measures. More research should be directed to understanding how firearm laws can help reduce suicide rates.


Asunto(s)
Armas de Fuego , Suicidio , Heridas por Arma de Fuego , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Homicidio , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/epidemiología , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/prevención & control
9.
Injury ; 54(1): 154-159, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503841

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Pediatric firearm injury became the leading cause of death among U.S. children in 2020. Studies evaluating wounding patterns in military and mass casualty shootings have provided insights into treatment and potential salvageability in adults, however, similar studies in the pediatric population do not exist. Hence, our study aimed to analyze wounding patterns of pediatric firearm fatalities and associated demographics and characteristics, such as place of death, to better understand pediatric firearm injuries, potential salvageability, and opportunities to reduce firearm deaths among vulnerable pediatric populations. METHODS: A retrospective review of the National Violent Death Reporting System from 2005-2017 was performed on patients 18 and younger. Mortalities were stratified by patient age: <12 years and 13-18 years and by intent- homicide, suicide, and unintentional. Comparative and exploratory analyses of demographics, location of death and anatomic location of wounds were performed. RESULTS: Of 8,527 pediatric firearm mortalities identified, 4,728 were homicides, 3,180 were suicides and 619 were unintentional injuries. Suicide victims were most likely to be dead on scene and >90% of suicide victims suffered head/neck injuries. For victims of homicide, younger children were more likely to die on scene (61% vs 44% p < 0.001). The pattern of injury in homicides differed for younger children compared to adolescents, with younger children with more head/neck injuries and older children more thoracic, thoracoabdominal, abdominal, and junctional injuries. In both age groups, children with extremity, abdominal and thoracoabdominal injuries were more likely to die later in the emergency department or inpatient setting. CONCLUSIONS: Wounding patterns across pediatric firearm mortalities in the U.S. vary by age and intent. The majority of pediatric firearm deaths were due to head/neck injuries. Children with homicide and unintentional deaths had more wounding pattern variation, including more injuries to the thorax and abdomen, and a much lower rate of dead-on scene than suicide victims. Our study of wounding patterns among U.S. children killed by firearms highlights the complexity of these injuries and offers opportunities for tailored public health strategies across varying vulnerable pediatric populations.


Asunto(s)
Armas de Fuego , Traumatismos del Cuello , Suicidio , Heridas por Arma de Fuego , Adulto , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/epidemiología , Causas de Muerte , Violencia , Vigilancia de la Población , Homicidio
10.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278304, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516140

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Firearms cause the most suicides (60%) and homicides (36%) in the US. The high lethality and availability of firearms make them a particularly dangerous method of attempted violence. The aim of this study was to study US trends in firearm suicide and homicide mortality and years of potential life lost before age 75 (YPLL-75) between 1981 and 2020. METHODS: Data in this cross-sectional study were collected between 1981 and 2020 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s WISQARS database for fatal injury and violence. Data from the US population were considered for all age groups and were divided by racial groups and sex for analysis. RESULTS: Those most heavily impacted by firearm homicide were Black, with homicide age-adjusted death rates almost seven times higher than White people. A spike in firearm homicide deaths occurred between 2019 and 2020, with Black people having the largest increase (39%). White people had the highest rates of firearm suicide, and suicide death rates increased between 2019 and 2020. Increases in homicide and suicide YPLL-75 between 2011 and 2020 had most heavily impacted minority populations. Men had a firearm suicide rate that was seven times higher than women, and a firearm homicide rate that was five times higher than women. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that Black and White men were most impacted by firearm deaths, and that firearm homicide and suicide rates increased between 2019 and 2020 for all racial groups except Asian/Pacific Islander. Our results suggest that prevention efforts should focus on specific demographic factors and articulate the urgency to mitigate firearm-related deaths in the US.


Asunto(s)
Armas de Fuego , Suicidio , Heridas por Arma de Fuego , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Distribución por Edad , Distribución por Sexo , Homicidio , Grupos Raciales
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554869

RESUMEN

Homicide-suicide can be defined as homicide followed by the suicide of the perpetrator shortly afterward. In the so-called "homicide-delayed suicide", homicide and suicide occur but within a wide and not strictly defined timeframe. This study analyzes data concerning the suicide of 667 inmates in Italy between 2002 and 2015, considering homicide perpetrators compared to all offenders. The analyses revealed that inmates who had committed homicide were more likely to commit suicide (71% versus 45%; χ2 = 10.952, p = 0.001) and the odds of suicide increase concerning 1.58 times among homicide perpetrators. The time-to-suicide interval after homicide ranges between 0 to 9.125 days (mean = 1.687,9; SD = 2.303,1). Moreover, the intimate-homicide offenders who committed suicide had a significantly shorter survival time after the offense than did the other non-intimate offenders who died by suicide (t test, t = -3.56, df = 90, p = 0.001). The link between homicide and higher suicide risk in homicide perpetrators should be highlighted because of all the homicide offenders passing through the criminal justice system. Superior knowledge about the path of homicide-delayed suicide will be of particular use to professionals in evaluating and treating homicide inmates.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Suicidio , Humanos , Homicidio , Violencia , Muerte
13.
Riv Psichiatr ; 57(6): 273-281, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503941

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The homicide of the female partner followed by suicide of the perpetrator (Intimate Female Partner Homicide Suicide - IFPHS) has been a growing phenomenon over last years, but its psychosocial and psychopathological aspects have not been analyzed in-depth yet. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate common psychopathological elements in different IFPHS and a specific risk profile for both the couple and the male partner, with the possibility to define a new serial mental condition not classified to date. METHODS: A series of 50 cases of greater media coverage was reconstructed from the Italian newspapers in the period from 2009 to 2019 and information was collected through a predefined form. The characteristics of the perpetrators and the modalities through which the events occurred have been considered. RESULTS: No definite mental disorder is present in the history of almost all cases. A more common psychological profile is found for the homicide/suicide male partner, mainly characterized by jealousy, possessiveness, mood reactivity, rage, and impulsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: It can be hypothesized that such a severe act may express a form of mental disorder not yet classified, with main features of an acute state of mixed depressive mood, emotional discontrol and aggressive impulsiveness, on a personality basis of jealousy and possessiveness, possibly reinforced by previous dependent traits of the female partner. But the methodological limitations of gathering information from the press make it necessary the study in depth, based on more direct and objective methodologies, of such a highly dramatic and heterogeneous phenomenon.


Asunto(s)
Homicidio , Suicidio , Femenino , Masculino , Humanos , Psicopatología , Agresión , Trastornos de la Personalidad
14.
Sante Ment Que ; 47(1): 87-109, 2022.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36548794

RESUMEN

Objective Mental health services for persons presenting a first episode of psychosis include specialized interventions that are effective in treating psychosis, but they do not include treatments that prevent aggressive behaviour (AB). This article presents the results of studies in an effort to incite these services to evaluate the risk of AB and to intervene rapidly to prevent these behaviours as well as treating the psychotic disorder. Method This article presents a narrative review of the scientific studies. We have reviewed publications in French and English reporting studies, reviews, and meta-analyses focused on the antecedents, correlates, and effective treatments for AB and criminality of persons described as presenting severe mental disorder, schizophrenia, or a first episode of psychosis. Results The review of scientific studies confirms that persons developing or presenting schizophrenia are at increased risk to engage in AB, crime, and homicide relative to the general population. Before a first episode of psychosis approximately one third of patients display AB. One subgroup of these persons, those who present the highest risk of AB and criminality, have a history of conduct disorder since childhood. Another subgroup who also begin engaging in AB before a first episode of psychosis display AB as anxiety and positive symptoms increase. The association between positive psychotic symptoms and AB varies according to the phase of illness and the age of onset of AB. Further, other factors such as substance misuse (especially cannabis use), difficulty in recognizing emotions in the faces of others, impulsivity, and physical victimization are related to AB. In addition to effective treatments for psychosis and social skill training, treatment programs aimed at preventing AB and antisocial behaviours, and the associated factors are needed, as well as interventions that aim to reduce victimization. Conclusion The extant literature identifies different profiles of patients and factors associated with AB that can be identified at a first episode of psychosis. Consequently, first episode services could play an important role in preventing AB. To do this, they would need to simultaneously treat the psychosis and the AB. The implementation of such treatments would involve challenges such as convincing treatment teams of the benefits of such an approach and convincing patients needing these treatments to comply. Increasing patients' motivation and compliance remains an important challenge.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de la Conducta , Trastornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Niño , Trastornos Psicóticos/prevención & control , Trastornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/prevención & control , Agresión , Homicidio
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2244221, 2022 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36445703

RESUMEN

Importance: Firearm fatality rates in the United States have reached a 28-year high. Describing the evolution of firearm fatality rates across intents, demographics, and geography over time may highlight high-risk groups and inform interventions for firearm injury prevention. Objective: To understand variations in rates of firearm fatalities stratified by intent, demographics, and geography in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed firearm fatalities in the US from 1990 to 2021 using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Heat maps, maximum and mean fatality rate graphs, and choropleth maps of county-level rates were created to examine trends in firearm fatality rates by intent over time by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and urbanicity of individuals who died from firearms. Data were analyzed from December 2018 through September 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rates of firearm fatalities by age, sex, race, ethnicity, urbanicity, and county of individuals killed stratified by specific intent (suicide or homicide) per 100 000 persons per year. Results: There were a total of 1 110 421 firearm fatalities from 1990 to 2021 (952 984 among males [85.8%] and 157 165 among females [14.2%]; 286 075 among Black non-Hispanic individuals [25.8%], 115 616 among Hispanic individuals [10.4%], and 672 132 among White non-Hispanic individuals [60.5%]). All-intents total firearm fatality rates per 100 000 persons declined to a low of 10.1 fatalities in 2004, then increased to 14.7 fatalities (45.5% increase) by 2021. From 2014 to 2021, male and female firearm homicide rates per 100 000 persons per year increased from 5.9 to 10.9 fatalities (84.7% increase) and 1.1 to 2.0 fatalities (87.0% increase), respectively. Firearm suicide rates were highest among White non-Hispanic men aged 80 to 84 years (up to 46.8 fatalities/100 000 persons in 2021). By 2021, maximum rates of firearm homicide were up to 22.5 times higher among Black non-Hispanic men (up to 141.8 fatalities/100 000 persons aged 20-24 years) and up to 3.6 times higher among Hispanic men (up to 22.8 fatalities/100 000 persons aged 20-24 years) compared with White non-Hispanic men (up to 6.3 fatalities/100 000 persons aged 30-34 years). Males had higher rates of suicide (14.1 fatalities vs 2.0 fatalities per 100 000 persons in 2021) and homicide (10.9 fatalities vs. 2.0 fatalities per 100 000 persons in 2021) compared with females. Metropolitan areas had higher homicide rates than nonmetropolitan areas (6.6 fatalities vs 4.8 fatalities per 100 000 persons in 2021). Firearm fatalities by county level increased over time, spreading from the West to the South. From 1999 to 2011 until 2014 to 2016, fatalities per 100 000 persons per year decreased from 10.6 to 10.5 fatalities in Western states and increased from 12.8 to 13.9 fatalities in Southern states. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found marked disparities in firearm fatality rates by demographic group, which increased over the past decade. These findings suggest that public health approaches to reduce firearm violence should consider underlying demographic and geographic trends and differences by intent.


Asunto(s)
Armas de Fuego , Suicidio , Heridas por Arma de Fuego , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Femenino , Masculino , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Homicidio
17.
Psychiatr Pol ; 56(3): 591-602, 2022 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés, Polaco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342987

RESUMEN

In foreign literature, the term ?dyadic death' is used to describe a situation of a murder followed by the perpetrator's suicide. It differs from the term ?extended suicide' used in Poland. While it is recognized that the occurrence of ?dyadic death' can be caused, apart from mental disorders, by unfavorable environmental factors, ?extended suicide' is equated with the occurrence of severe depressive disorders in the perpetrator. The above-mentioned constructs describing a homicide-suicide were analyzed from the psychiatric and criminological point of view. The study shall discuss a case of a young woman who drowned her young son in a public place, and then declared her suicide intentions. An analysis of the course of mental disorders in the perpetrator, her biological burdens, situational and family conditions was carried out, and the personality factors that led to her mental decompensation were taken into account. Pathological motivational background of the perpetrator of her son's murder was clearly modified by her personality dysfunctions exacerbated by life difficulties. It differed from the motivation of a ?typical' perpetrator of ?dyadic death' or ?extended suicide' presented in the literature. Settlements in cases involving murder and subsequent suicide attempts require a thorough forensic-psychiatric and criminological analysis. In some cases, the terms describing such situations do not refer to the clinical condition of the offender but to the nature and image of the crime. Abuse of these terms may contribute to judicial errors.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Homicidio , Femenino , Humanos , Homicidio/psicología , Psiquiatría Forense , Intento de Suicidio , Medicina Legal
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2240750, 2022 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346633

RESUMEN

Importance: Firearms are easily transported over state borders; hence permissive firearm laws in one state may have an interstate association with firearm-related deaths in nearby states. Objectives: To examine whether certain firearm laws have an interstate association with firearm-related deaths in nearby states. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional observational study used data on state firearm-related deaths in the 48 contiguous states of the US between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2019. A spatial autoregressive model with fixed effects for state and year was used to evaluate within-state, interstate, and overall associations between firearm laws and firearm-related deaths. Analyses were performed during January 2022. Exposures: The following 9 types of laws were evaluated: universal background checks for all firearms purchase, background checks for handgun sales at gun shows, license requirement to purchase all firearms, state dealer license requirement for handgun sales, requirement of retaining records of handgun sales, ban on purchasing a handgun on behalf of another, prohibition of firearm possession by persons who committed violent misdemeanors, required relinquishment of firearms for persons becoming prohibited from possessing them, and discretion in granting a concealed carry permit. Main Outcomes and Measures: State-level total firearm-related death rates, suicide rates, and homicide rates. Results: In sum, the study period included 662 883 firearm-related deaths of all intents. License requirement for firearm purchase had a within-state association (effect size, -1.79 [95% CI, -2.73 to -0.84]), interstate association (effect size, -10.60 [95% CI, -17.63 to -3.56]), and overall association (effect size, -12.38 [95% CI, -19.93 to -4.83]) per 100 000 population decrease in total firearm-related deaths. This law also had within-state association (effect size, -1.26 [95% CI, -1.72 to -0.80]), interstate association (effect size, -9.01 [95% CI, -15.00 to -3.02]), and overall association (effect size, -10.27 [95% CI, -16.53 to -4.01]) per 100 000 population decrease in firearm-related homicide. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this pooled cross-sectional analysis suggest that certain firearm laws in one state were associated with other states' firearm-related deaths. Synergic legislative action in adjacent states, federal firearm legislation, and measures that reduce migration of firearms across state borders should be part of the overarching strategy to prevent firearm-related deaths.


Asunto(s)
Armas de Fuego , Suicidio , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Homicidio , Comercio
20.
Georgian Med News ; (328-329): 69-74, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318845

RESUMEN

The article deals with the issues of the psychological characteristics of the person who commits a premeditated murder in a state of strong commotion and its role in the method of investigation of the specified type of the criminal offense. The author analyzes the works of domestic and foreign authors who conducted research on the above-mentioned issue. The essence of a premeditated murder in a state of strong commotion under the legislation of Ukraine and features of criminal responsibility for its commission, as well as analysis and classification of the notion of the offender from the positions of various branches of scientific knowledge are revealed. Based on the analysis of investigative and judicial practice in criminal proceedings in a premeditated murder in a state of strong commotion, a survey of employees involved in the investigation of the investigated type of criminal offense was carried out. A criteria for the classification and development of the typical psychological characteristics of the person who committs the intentional homicide in a state of strong emotional excitement was developed. The importance of the psychological - forensic characteristics for the method of investigation of a premeditated murder in a state of strong commotion was emphasized. Depending on the role of the person and the type of behavior of the offender and the victim, the situations of the emerging of a state of intense emotional excitement are analyzed and the character of the relationship between the victim and killer in the mechanism of the crime is proved.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Homicidio , Humanos , Homicidio/psicología , Medicina Legal , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Organización Mundial de la Salud
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