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Magy Onkol ; 65(1): 71-77, 2021 Mar 17.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730119


Our aim was to detect the effect of modulated electro-hyperthermia (mEHT) on cell viability and to examine if hyperthermia can augment the cell killing effect of various chemotherapeutic agents. B16F10 melanoma cells were treated for 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes with mEHT using LabEHY100 (OncothermTM). Cell viability was measured using MTT assay and apoptosis by annexin V/7-AAD staining using flow cytometry 24 hours post-treatment. For analyzing gene expression with qPCR cells were harvested after 60 minutes treatment. In combined protocols, cells were treated with paclitaxel (40 nM), dacarbazine (40 µM) or nutlin-3a (10 µM) after mEHT. mEHT induced nuclear translocation of p53 which in turn regulates pro- and anti-apoptotic gene expression accounting for decreased cell viability. In combination with chemotherapy, mEHT augmented the cell killing effect of dacarbazine or nutlin-3a but not that of paclitaxel determined 48 hours post-treatment. The sensitizing effect on chemotherapeutics demonstrate the efficiency of mEHT as an adjuvant modality in cancer treatment.

Hipertermia Inducida , Melanoma , Apoptosis , Línea Celular Tumoral , Homicidio , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamiento farmacológico
Am J Bioeth ; 21(2): 4-6, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534671

Racismo , Homicidio , Humanos
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 30(1): 47-55, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-197952


Spanish police makes an extensive use of intimate partner violence (IPV) risk assessment on a daily basis. Improved prediction procedures have encouraged the search for greater refinement of IPV predictors by adjusting to specific targets, such as lethal outcomes or potential victimization of children. This paper describes the evolution of the VPR5.0 tool (VioGén System Police Risk Assessment) as an algorithm aimed at improving predictability of intimate partner homicides (IPH). A sample of 2,159 records was used, 159 of whom were IPH victims. The sample was divided into two comparable groups of cases (IPH) and controls (N-IPH) to validate the results. The results showed that 13 out of 35 risk factors were significantly related to IPH with an effect size different to that of general N-IPH (with OR values ranging between 1.507 and 8.087). Binary logistic regression showed six significant factors that correctly classified 86.3% of the IPH. The new H-Scale performance parameters were comparable to those obtained in studies with the same objective (sensitivity 84%, specificity 60%, OR = 8.130, AUC = .80, PPV = .19 and NPV = .97)

La policía española hace un uso diario y extenso de la evaluación del riesgo de violencia en casos de violencia de género (VCP). El perfeccionamiento de los sistemas de predicción de VCP ha impulsado la búsqueda de procedimientos ajustados a objetivos concretos, como puede ser el resultado letal o la inclusión de menores como posibles víctimas. En el presente trabajo se describe la evolución de la herramienta VPR5.0 (Valoración Policial del Riesgo del Sistema VioGén) a un algoritmo diferenciado cuyo objetivo es predecir mejor los homicidios de mujeres por su pareja (HCP). Se analizaron 2,159 registros, 159 de los cuales correspondían a HCP, dividiendo la muestra en dos grupos comparables con casos (HCP) y controles (N-HCP) para validar los análisis. Los resultados pusieron de manifiesto que de los 35 factores de la herramienta 13 estaban asociados significativamente con el HCP, con un tamaño del efecto diferente al de N-HCP (con valores OR entre 1.507 y 8.087). La regresión logística binaria mostró seis factores significativos que clasificaban correctamente el 86.3% de los HCP. Los parámetros de rendimiento de esta escala-H resultaron comparables a los obtenidos en estudios con el mismo objetivo (sensibilidad 84%, especificidad 60%, OR = 8.130, AUC = .80, VPP = .19 y VPN = .97)

Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Homicidio/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Medición de Riesgo , Violencia de Género/psicología , Maltrato Conyugal/psicología , Violencia de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Algoritmos , Maltrato Conyugal/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Factores de Riesgo
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(2): 168-173, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504423


Objective To investigate the killing effect of humanized antibodies targeting tissue factors on colon cancer cells as well as migration-inhibiting effect. Methods Humanized anti-tissue factor antibody was purified by Protein A and gel filtration chromatography from cultured CHO-5G4.1 cells that highly express the antibody. The purity was detected by capillary SDS-PAGE. Anticoagulant activity was assessed using the prothrombin time test. Killing effect of the antibody on SW620 and SW480 colorectal cancer cells was tested using antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). The effect of antibodies on cell migration was investigated using TranswellTM assay. Gelatin zymography and Western blotting were used to detect the changes of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), MMP9, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK) after treatment with humanized anti-tissue factor antibody. Results The purity of the humanized anti-tissue factor antibody was estimated 96.9% by the two-step method. The purified antibody showed an obvious anticoagulant activity. The antibody treatment had a significant killing effect on colorectal cancer cells through ADCC and a significant inhibiting effect (99%) on cell migration. The antibody significantly inhibited expression of MMP2 and p-FAK. Conclusion The humanized anti-tissue factor antibody can effectively kill tumor cells through ADCC and inhibit cancer cell migration, which is possibly mediated by MMP2 expression through suppression of FAK signaling.

Neoplasias del Colon , Metaloproteinasa 2 de la Matriz , Línea Celular Tumoral , Movimiento Celular , Proteína-Tirosina Quinasas de Adhesión Focal , Homicidio , Humanos
Sci Total Environ ; 766: 144383, 2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421787


The dictyochophyte microalga Pseudochattonella verruculosa was responsible for the largest farmed fish mortality ever recorded in the world, with losses for the Chilean salmon industry amounting to US$ 800 M in austral summer 2016. Super-scale climatic anomalies resulted in strong vertical water column stratification that stimulated development of a dynamic P. verruculosa thin layer (up to 38 µg chl a L-1) for several weeks in Reloncaví Sound. Hydrodynamic modeling (MIKE 3D) indicated that the Sound had extremely low flushing rates (between 121 and 200 days) in summer 2016. Reported algal cell densities of 7000-20,000 cells mL-1 generated respiratory distress in fish that was unlikely due to low dissolved oxygen (permanently >4 mg L-1). Histological examination of salmon showed that gills were the most affected organ with significant tissue damage and circulatory disorders. It is possible that some of this damage was due to a diatom bloom that preceded the Pseudochattonella event, thereby rendering the fish more susceptible to Pseudochattonella. No correlation between magnitude of fish mortality and algal cell abundance nor fish age was evident. Algal cultures revealed rapid growth rates and high cell densities (up to 600,000 cells mL-1), as well as highly complex life cycle stages that can be easily overlooked in monitoring programs. In cell-based bioassays, Chilean P. verruculosa was only toxic to the RTgill-W1 cell line following exposures to high cell densities of lysed cells (>100,000 cells mL-1). Fatty acid profiles of a cultured strain showed elevated concentrations of potentially ichthyotoxic, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (69.7% ± 1.8%)- stearidonic (SDA, 18:4ω3-28.9%), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3-22.3%), suggesting that lipid peroxidation may help to explain the mortalities, though superoxide production by Pseudochattonella was low (< 0.21 ± 0.19 pmol O2- cell-1 h-1). It therefore remains unknown what the mechanisms of salmon mortality were during the Pseudochattonella bloom. Multiple mitigation strategies were used by salmon farmers during the event, with only delayed seeding of juvenile fish into the cages and towing of cages to sanctuary sites being effective. Airlift pumping, used effectively against other fish-killing HABs in the US and Canada was not effective, perhaps because it brought subsurface layers of Pseudochattonella to the surface, or and it also may have lysed the fragile cells, rendering them more lethal. The present study highlights knowledge gaps and inefficiency of contingency plans by the fish farming industry to overcome future fish-killing algal blooms under future climate change scenarios. The use of new technologies based on molecular methods for species detection, good farm practices by fish farms, and possible mitigation strategies are discussed.

Floraciones de Algas Nocivas , Estramenopilos , Animales , Canadá , Chile , Homicidio
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(1): 106-110, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397859


This study was conducted to reveal the causative factors and injury pattern of cut throat wounds. This is a retrospective study of three years done at Chattogram Medical College Morgue House from January 2014 to December 2016. This study revealed 106 cases of cut throat wounds out of the total 7300 medico-legal autopsies of which most of the victims were male (74 cases) whereas females were 32. The most affected age group was 21-30 years (both male & female) i.e. 47 cases (44.33%). Homicides in 91 cases were the prime manner of death followed by suicide 13 and 2 accidental cases. Associated injuries were found in 70 cases out of the total 106 cases of cut throat wound. Haemorrhage was the main cause of death in 58 cases (54.71%) followed by air embolism (19 cases), other causes (15 cases) and asphyxia from aspirated blood in 14 cases. Fields were the mostly observed places of occurrence i.e. in 61 cases (57.54%) followed by outside house (18 cases), within the house (11 cases), public place (10 cases) and working place (6 cases). Criminal gang violence were the predominant motivational factors i.e. in 48 cases (45.28%) followed by robbery (26 cases), love or relationship (17 cases), domestic violence (9 cases) and financial hardship in 6 cases. Butcher's knives were the most commonly used weapon i.e. in 69 cases (65.09%) followed by kitchen knives (24 cases), ramda (8 cases) and axe in 5 cases.

Faringe , Suicidio , Femenino , Homicidio , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Violencia
Harv Rev Psychiatry ; 29(1): 81-89, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417376


ABSTRACT: This article outlines a four-part strategy for future research in mental health and complementary disciplines that will broaden understanding of mass shootings and multi-victim gun homicides. First, researchers must abandon the starting assumption that acts of mass violence are driven primarily by diagnosable psychopathology in isolated "lone wolf" individuals. The destructive motivations must be situated, instead, within larger social structures and cultural scripts. Second, mental health professionals and scholars must carefully scrutinize any apparent correlation of violence with mental illness for evidence of racial bias in the official systems that define, measure, and record psychiatric diagnoses, as well as those that enforce laws and impose criminal justice sanctions. Third, to better understand the role of firearm access in the occurrence and lethality of mass shootings, research should be guided by an overarching framework that incorporates social, cultural, legal, and political, but also psychological, aspects of private gun ownership in the United States. Fourth, effective policies and interventions to reduce the incidence of mass shootings over time-and to prevent serious acts of violence more generally-will require an expanded body of well-funded interdisciplinary research that is informed and implemented through the sustained engagement of researchers with affected communities and other stakeholders in gun violence prevention. Emerging evidence that the coronavirus pandemic has produced a sharp increase both in civilian gun sales and in the social and psychological determinants of injurious behavior adds special urgency to this agenda.

Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , /complicaciones , /psicología , Correlación de Datos , Estudios Transversales , Carencia Cultural , Violencia con Armas/prevención & control , Violencia con Armas/psicología , Homicidio/prevención & control , Homicidio/psicología , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa/prevención & control , Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/complicaciones , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Psicopatología , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos
West Afr J Med ; 38(1): 59-66, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463709


BACKGROUND: Study of medicolegal autopsies (MLA) in an area helps to equip policy makers about the nature and pattern of preventable deaths in that area. OBJECTIVE: To review the pattern of MLA seen in a typical Nigerian population. METHODOLOGY: The duplicate copies of the autopsy reports issued over 12 years, were retrieved and analyzed for age, sex, cause of death, autopsy diagnosis and circumstances of death. RESULTS: A total of 1, 664 MLA were done during the period. The mean age of cases seen was 39.10±17.02, with a male to female ratio of 3.6: 1. All age groups were seen with age groups 20-29 and 30-39 years accounting for majority of cases. Homicidal deaths (45.4%) was the commonest manner of deaths, followed by accidental deaths (32.5%). There was a significant association between manner of death and sex. Sixty-two point nine percent of the homicidal deaths were due to firearm injuries. In both sexes, road traffic accident (RTA) was the major cause of accidental deaths accounting for 82.8%. There was no significant association between type of accidental death and sex, though the male to female ratio was 3.3:1. Hanging was the method of choice for suicide and accounted for 68.4% of all suicides. Cardiovascular system diseases accounted for most cases of natural deaths (59.9%), with myocardial infarction being responsible for 29.1% of all natural deaths. CONCLUSION: Unfortunately, preventable deaths due to homicides by firearm injuries and accidental deaths due to RTA are still prevalent in our environment and mainly involves young people.

Armas de Fuego , Suicidio , Heridas por Arma de Fuego , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Autopsia , Causas de Muerte , Femenino , Homicidio , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(2): e24222, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466201


ABSTRACT: The mortality rate of women due to firearms increases every day in Brazil and globally. This study aimed to evaluate the trends of firearm-related mortality in women from the years 2007 to 2016 in order to determine their profile and to associate these indicators with public policy and strategies to reduce mortality.This is an ecological time-series study using secondary data of women aged 10 to 49 years old collected through the mortality information system (SIM) in Brazil. Furthermore, independent characteristics such as education, color, race and civil status were also collected from SIM. Data was analyzed using the Join Point open source software version.There was an increase in the mortality rate of women who received 4 to the 7 years of education, were single, and brown-skinned. There was a significantly increased rate of mortality in women whose ages ranged from 20 to 29 years followed by 30 to 39 years; the rate was also significantly higher in the northeast region followed by the southeast region.There is a need for professional training to assist women in vulnerable situations.

Armas de Fuego/estadística & datos numéricos , Homicidio/tendencias , Suicidio/tendencias , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/mortalidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e39729, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1116093


Objetivo: identificar as principais causas de óbito entre adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em um município no interior do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Método: estudo descritivo, exploratório de abordagem quantitativa, a partir do levantamento de dados em registros de óbitos do município de Rio das Ostras. O desfecho foi causa básica do óbito. Os dados foram processados no Programa R. Resultados: foram observados 84 (100%) óbitos, com maior prevalência entre adolescentes de 17 a 19 anos, 49 (58,3%), do sexo masculino, 71 (84,5%) e de cor parda, 38 (45,2%). As principais causas de óbitos foram homicídio/perfuração por arma de fogo, 35 (41,7%), e acidentes, 32 (38,1%). Conclusão: o reconhecimento dessa vulnerabilidade configura importante caminho para o enfrentamento e resolução desse grave problema, sobretudo municípios localizados longe de centros urbanos, parece muitas vezes esquecido, no que tange o cumprimento de estatutos e políticas públicas a favor desse grupo etário.

Objective: to identify the main causes of death among adolescents aged 10 to 19 years in a municipality in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Method: in this exploratory, descriptive, quantitative study, based on data collected from death records in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, the basic cause of death was the outcome. The data were processed in the statistics software, R. Results: of the 84 (100%) deaths observed, prevalence was higher among adolescents aged 17 to 19 years (49; 58.3%), males (71; 84.5%), and pardos (38; 45.2%). The main causes of deaths were firearm Injury / homicide (35; 41.7%) and accidents (32; 38.1%). Conclusion: one important step towards confronting and solving this serious problem is to acknowledge this vulnerability, especially in municipalities distant from urban centers, which often seem neglected as regards compliance with statutes and public policies in favor of this age group.

Objetivo: identificar las principales causas de muerte entre adolescentes de 10 a 19 años en un municipio del estado de Río de Janeiro. Método: en este estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, cuantitativo, basado en los datos recopilados de los registros de defunciones en el municipio de Rio das Ostras, la causa básica de la muerte fue el resultado. Los datos se procesaron en el programa estadístico R. Resultados: de las 84 (100%) muertes observadas, la prevalencia fue mayor entre los adolescentes de 17 a 19 años (49; 58.3%), varones (71; 84.5%) y pardos (38; 45,2%). Las principales causas de muerte fueron lesiones por arma de fuego / homicidio (35; 41.7%) y accidentes (32; 38.1%). Conclusión: un paso importante para enfrentar y resolver este grave problema es reconocer esta vulnerabilidad, especialmente en municipios alejados de los centros urbanos, que a menudo parecen descuidados en cuanto al cumplimiento de los estatutos y las políticas públicas a favor de este grupo de edad.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Accidentes/estadística & datos numéricos , Causas de Muerte , Poblaciones Vulnerables/estadística & datos numéricos , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Factores de Edad , Vulnerabilidad Social , Mortalidad Prematura
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 54(6): 1772-1783, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143900


Resumo Entre os operadores da Segurança Pública no Rio de Janeiro, há uma visão recorrente de que o padrão de patrulhamento baseado em incursões, frequentemente associado a episódios de letalidade policial, é necessário e efetivo para redução de crimes. Para investigar essa questão, este artigo apresenta exercícios econométricos que avaliam em que medida um maior número de mortes por intervenção de agentes do Estado está associado a variações subsequentes nos indicadores criminais. A análise cobre o período de 2003 a 2019 e indica que não há uma associação entre o aumento da letalidade policial e a redução dos índices de criminalidade no nível local. Ao contrário, em alguns casos, encontra-se uma correlação significativa e positiva, ou seja, mais mortes estão correlacionadas com maior atividade criminal, embora a magnitude dos efeitos seja bem reduzida. Observa-se, também, que mortes por intervenção de agentes do Estado estão associadas a maiores resultados operacionais, mensurados por apreensão de drogas e de armas. Os resultados são condizentes com um padrão de patrulhamento cuja prioridade é o combate ao varejo do tráfico de drogas.

Resumen Una visión persistente entre los operadores de seguridad pública en Rio de Janeiro es que el patrón de patrullaje basado en redadas policiales, frecuentemente asociado con episodios de letalidad policial, es necesario y efectivo para reducir la criminalidad. Para investigar ese tema, este artículo presenta ejercicios econométricos que evalúan la medida en que un mayor número de muertes por intervenciones de agentes del Estado se asocia con variaciones posteriores en los indicadores criminales. El análisis, que abarca el período comprendido entre 2003 y 2019, indica que no existe una asociación entre el aumento de la letalidad policial y la reducción de las tasas de delincuencia a nivel local. Mientras que, en algunos casos, se encuentra una correlación significativa y positiva, es decir, se correlacionan más muertes con una mayor actividad criminal, aunque la magnitud de los efectos sea bastante reducida. Por otro lado, se observa que las muertes por intervención de agentes del Estado están asociadas con mayores resultados operativos, medidos por la incautación de drogas y de armas. Los resultados son consistentes con un patrón de patrullaje que prioriza la lucha contra el tráfico minorista de drogas.

Abstract A common view among policy makers in Public Security in Rio de Janeiro is that the patrolling pattern based on police raids, regularly associated with the use of lethal force, is both necessary and effective to reduce crime. In order to examine this issue, this article presents econometric exercises to assess in what extent a greater number of police killings is correlated with subsequent variations in criminal indicators. The analysis covers the period from 2003 to 2019 and indicates no correlation between increases in the use of lethal force by the police and reductions in crime rates at the local level. On the contrary, in some cases, a significant and positive correlation is observed, which means more police killings are correlated with greater criminal activity, although the magnitudes of the effects are rather reduced. On the other hand, we show that police killings are associated with greater operational results, as measured by drugs and weapons seizure. The results are consistent with a patrolling pattern that prioritizes the combat of retail markets for illicit drugs.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Seguridad , Violencia , Mortalidad , Conducta Criminal , Homicidio
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322481


This paper presents an empirically grounded call for a more nuanced engagement and situatedness with placial characteristics within a spatial epidemiology frame. By using qualitative data collected through interviews and observation to parameterise standard and spatial regression models, and through a critical interpretation of their results, we present initial inroads for a situated spatial epidemiology and an analytical framework for health/medical geographers to iteratively engage with data, modelling, and the context of both the subject and process of analysis. In this study, we explore the socioeconomic factors that influence homicide rates in the Brazilian state of Alagoas from a critical public health perspective. Informed by field observation and interviews with 24 youths in low-income neighbourhoods and prisons in Alagoas, we derive and critically reflect on three regression models to predict municipal homicide rates from 2016-2020. The model results indicate significant effects for the male population, persons without elementary school completion, households with reported income, divorced persons, households without piped water, and persons working outside their home municipality. These results are situated in the broader socioeconomic context, trajectories, and cycles of inequality in the study area and underscore the need for integrative and contextually engaged mixed method study design in spatial epidemiology.

Homicidio , Violencia , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Masculino , Pobreza , Factores Socioeconómicos
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 144, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331422


OBJECTIVE: To describe the level and temporal trends of homicide impunity in Brazil. METHODS: This is an ecological study that calculated two impunity indexes by dividing the total number of homicides committed in a 5-year period by the number of individuals arrested for murder (homicide impunity) or any other cause (general impunity) two years after this period. The Prais-Winsten linear regression model with serial autocorrelation correction was used to estimate the temporal trend of the impunity indexes. RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2014, 328,714 homicides were recorded in Brazil, but only 84,539 prisoners were serving sentences for this kind of crime in 2016. This shows that the number of homicides in Brazil exceeded in 244,175 the number of individuals in prisons for this crime. The impunity index ranged from 3.9 in 2006 to 3.3 in 2014. All states reached values above 1. Rio de Janeiro stood out negatively, with values above 20. São Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Distrito Federal showed the lowest impunity indexes for homicide, with values below 2. Eight states showed a downward trend in the overall impunity index. CONCLUSIONS: Most Brazilian states presented extremely high impunity indexes values. However, from 2010 to 2012, Brazilian society started to effectively combat impunity for serious violent crimes, including homicide. In São Paulo, this positive trend arose in the mid-1990s and that state currently shows impunity indexes values similar to those of developed countries.

Homicidio , Prisioneros , Brasil/epidemiología , Homicidio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 39-48, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144419


Abstract Cali is one of the cities in Colombia and Latin America with the highest rate of homicides, with around one third of homicides being attributed to street gang-related violence. In 2016, the Mayor's office from Santiago the Cali - Colombia, the Police Department and the Cisalva institute from Universidad del Valle worked together to develop an holistic intervention, "TIP -Youth without frontiers", to reduce street gang-related violence in Cali's communes. The intervention comprised six components focusing on developing personal/emotional skills, improving access to health and other public services, reducing substance use, connecting youth with employment and educational opportunities, promoting participation in sports and recreational activities, and improving the restitution of citizen rights to street gang members. This study aimed to describe the characteristics and implementation of this transformative street gang program and to describe changes in street gang-related homicides that could be associated with the implementation of this program. The program started contacting street gangs in January 2016, recruiting the first street gang members in August 2016. As of December 2018, 2.107 youth (from 84 Police identified street gangs) have participated in the program. A reduction in street gang-related homicides was observed in Cali's communes from 2015 to 2018. In intervened communes these homicides decreased on average by 80%, suggesting that the program could have contributed to the reduction of street gang-related violent behavior in these areas.

Resumen Cali es una de las ciudades de Colombia y de Latinoamérica con la tasa de homicidios más alta, con alrededor de un tercio de los homicidios atribuidos a la violencia entre pandillas. En 2016, la Alcaldía de Santiago de Cali - Colombia, la Policía Nacional y el Instituto Cisalva de la Universidad del Valle trabajaron juntos para desarrollar una intervención holística, "TIP - Jóvenes sin fronteras", con el fin de reducir la violencia relacionada con las pandillas en las comunas de Cali. La intervención abarcó seis componentes centrados en desarrollar habilidades personales/emocionales, mejorar el acceso a los servicios de salud y otros servicios públicos, reducir el consumo de sustancias, conectar a los jóvenes con oportunidades laborales y educativas, fomentar la participación en actividades deportivas y recreativas, y restituir los derechos cívicos a integrantes de las pandillas. El objetivo de este estudio era describir las características y la implementación de este programa de transformación de pandillas, y describir los cambios en la tasa de homicidios relacionados con pandillas que podrían estar asociados con la implementación de este programa. El programa comenzó contactando a las pandillas en enero del 2016, reclutando a los primeros miembros de estas en agosto del 2016. A diciembre del 2018, 2.107 jóvenes (de 84 pandillas identificadas por la policía) han participado en el programa. Se observó una reducción de los homicidios relacionados con pandillas en las comunas de Cali entre 2015 y 2018. En las comunas intervenidas, estos homicidios disminuyeron en promedio un 80%, lo que sugiere que el programa podría haber contribuido a la reducción del comportamiento violento relacionado con las pandillas en estas áreas.

Resumo Cali é uma das cidades da Colômbia e da América Latina com a maior taxa de homicídios, com cerca de um terço dos homicídios atribuídos à violência de gangues. Em 2016, a Prefeitura de Santiago de Cali - Colômbia, a Polícia Nacional e o Instituto Cisalva da Universidad del Valle trabalharam juntos para desenvolver uma intervenção holística, "TIP - Jovens sem fronteiras", a fim de reduzir a violência das gangues nas comunas de Cali. A intervenção abrangeu seis componentes focados no desenvolvimento de habilidades pessoais/emocionais, melhoria do acesso aos serviços de saúde e outros serviços públicos, redução do uso de substâncias, conexão dos jovens com oportunidades de emprego e educação, incentivo à participação em atividades esportivas e recreativas, e a restauração dos direitos cívicos para os membros das gangues. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as características e a implementação do programa de transformação de gangues e descrever as mudanças na taxa de homicídios por gangues que poderiam estar associadas à implementação deste programa. O programa começou contatando as gangues em janeiro de 2016 e foram recrutados os primeiros membros das gangues em agosto de 2016. Em dezembro de 2018, participaram do programa 2.107 jovens (de 84 gangues identificadas pela polícia). Uma redução dos homicídios relacionados a gangues nas comunas de Cali foi observada entre 2015 e 2018. Nas comunas intervencionadas, esses homicídios diminuíram em média 80%, sugerindo que o programa possa ter contribuído para a redução do comportamento violento relacionado a gangues nessas áreas.

Humanos , Homicidio , Violencia , Conflictos Armados , Criminales
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1385-1390, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001877


Homicide is the 13th leading cause of death among infants (i.e., children aged <1 year) in the United States (1). Infant homicides occurring within the first 24 hours of life (i.e., neonaticide) are primarily perpetrated by the mother, who might be of young age, unmarried, have lower educational attainment, and is most likely associated with concealment of an unintended pregnancy and nonhospital birthing (2). After the first day of life, infant homicides might be associated with other factors (e.g., child abuse and neglect or caregiver frustration) (2). A 2002 study of the age variation in homicide risk in U.S. infants during 1989-1998 found that the overall infant homicide rate was 8.3 per 100,000 person-years, and on the first day of life was 222.2 per 100,000 person-years, a homicide rate at least 10 times greater than that for any other time of life (3). Because of this period of heightened risk, by 2008 all 50 states* and Puerto Rico had enacted Safe Haven Laws. These laws allow a parent† to legally surrender an infant who might otherwise be abandoned or endangered (4). CDC analyzed infant homicides in the United States during 2008-2017 to determine whether rates changed after nationwide implementation of Safe Haven Laws, and to examine the association between infant homicide rates and state-specific Safe Haven age limits. During 2008-2017, the overall infant homicide rate was 7.2 per 100,000 person-years, and on the first day of life was 74.0 per 100,000 person-years, representing a 66.7% decrease from 1989-1998. However, the homicide rate on first day of life was still 5.4 times higher than that for any other time in life. No obvious association was found between infant homicide rates and Safe Haven age limits. States are encouraged to evaluate the effectiveness of their Safe Haven Laws and other prevention strategies to ensure they are achieving the intended benefits of preventing infant homicides. Programs and policies that strengthen economic supports, provide affordable childcare, and enhance and improve skills for young parents might contribute to the prevention of infant homicides.

Maltrato a los Niños/legislación & jurisprudencia , Niño Abandonado/legislación & jurisprudencia , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Homicidio/prevención & control , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
An. psicol ; 36(3): 380-385, oct. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195653


Existe una gran heterogeneidad regional y desconocimiento de la situación actual de la violencia de género (VdG) en los diferentes países de la Unión Europea (UE-28). El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar la prevalencia actual de la VdG y de feminicidios en la UE-28 y en particular en España. Consiste en un estudio descriptivo observacional (análisis de documentos) seleccionando y analizando datos de las diferentes modalidades de la VdG y de feminicidios en los 28 países de la UE. Letonia, Dinamarca, Reino Unido, Suecia, Bélgica, Finlandia, Eslovaquia y Luxemburgo tienen tasas más altas que la media de la UE en todos los tipos de VdG y Finlandia, Hungría, Irlanda del Norte y Letonia poseen índices de prevalencia más altos en feminicidios. Con respecto a España, el 0,13% de las mujeres fueron víctimas de VdG y se producen 2,3 feminicidios por cada 1.000.000 mujeres, situándose España entre los países con tasas más bajas. Se concluye que el maltrato psicológico es el más prevalente en la UE-28, sin embargo, existe una dificultad para la comparación de datos de los diferentes países debido a la inexistencia de una conceptualización legal común de la VdG

There is a great regional heterogeneity and ignorance of the current gender-based violence (GBV) situation in the different countries of the European Union (EU-28). The aim of this paper is to determine the current prevalence of GBV and femicides in the EU-28 and in Spain in particular. This study consists of an observational descriptive study (document analysis) which selects and analyses data belonging to the different modalities of GBV and femicides in the EU-28 countries. Latvia, Denmark, United Kingdom, Sweden, Belgium, Finland, Slovakia and Luxembourg possess higher rates than the EU average in all types of GBV while Finland, Hungary, Northern Ireland and Latvia possess higher prevalence rates in femicide. With respect to Spain, 0.13% of women were victims of GBV and 2.3 femicides occur for every 1.000.000 women, with Spain being among the countries with the lowest rates. It is therefore concluded that psychological abuse is the most prevalent within the EU-28, however, it is difficult to compare said data from different countries due to the lack of a common legal conceptuaisation of GBV

Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Homicidio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Violencia contra la Mujer , Prevalencia , Incidencia , Distribución por Edad , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , España/epidemiología
J Pastoral Care Counsel ; 74(3): 196-202, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967549


Profanity, derived from the Latin for "not sacred," has long been seen as antithetical to spirituality. Social norms around organized religion, respectability, race, gender, etc. compound this perception. In this article, I examine how the use of profanity in Clinical Pastoral Education can help students experience personal, social, and physical freedom. Association of Clinical Pastoral Education outcomes, demographic data, and a student experience provide support for this assertion.

Lenguaje , Cuidado Pastoral/educación , Afroamericanos/psicología , Afroamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Homicidio/psicología , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Racismo/psicología , Racismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Desempleo/psicología , Desempleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología