Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.324
Filtrar
1.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 568, 2024 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745082

RESUMEN

Interpretations of Late Pleistocene hominin adaptative capacities by archaeologists have focused heavily on their exploitation of certain prey and documented contemporary behaviours for these species. However, we cannot assume that animal prey-taxa ecology and ethology were the same in the past as in the present, or were constant over archaeological timescales. Sequential isotope analysis of herbivore teeth has emerged as a particularly powerful method of directly reconstructing diet, ecology and mobility patterns on sub-annual scales. Here, we apply 87Sr/86Sr isotope analysis, in combination with δ18O and δ13C isotope analysis, to sequentially sampled tooth enamel of prevalent herbivore species that populated Europe during the Last Glacial Period, including Rangifer tarandus, Equus sp. and Mammuthus primigenius. Our samples come from two open-air archaeological sites in Central Germany, Königsaue and Breitenbach, associated with Middle Palaeolithic and early Upper Palaeolithic cultures, respectively. We identify potential inter- and intra-species differences in range size and movement through time, contextualised through insights into diet and the wider environment. However, homogeneous bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr across large parts of the study region prevented the identification of specific migration routes. Finally, we discuss the possible influence of large-herbivore behaviour on hominin hunting decisions at the two sites.


Asunto(s)
Isótopos de Carbono , Herbivoria , Animales , Isótopos de Carbono/análisis , Fósiles , Hominidae/fisiología , Isótopos de Estroncio/análisis , Arqueología , Europa (Continente) , Migración Animal , Esmalte Dental/química , Dieta , Alemania , Isótopos de Oxígeno/análisis
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302435, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753816

RESUMEN

Laetoli, Tanzania is one of the most important palaeontological and palaeoanthropological localities in Africa. We report on a survey of the extant terrestrial gastropod faunas of the Laetoli-Endulen area, examine their ecological associations and re-examine the utility of Pliocene fossil molluscs in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Standardised collecting at 15 sites yielded 7302 individuals representing 58 mollusc species. Significant dissimilarities were found among the faunas of three broad habitat types: forest, woodland/bushland and open (grassland and scattered, xeric shrubland). Overall, more species were recorded in the woodland/bushland sites than in the forest sites. Open sites were less diverse. Environmental factors contributing most strongly to the separation of habitat types were aridity index and elevation. The results are supplemented with new mollusc data from the Mbulu Plateau south of Lake Eyasi, and compared to the list of species cumulatively recorded from the Ngorongoro area. Some regional variation is apparent and historical factors may explain the absence of some fossil taxa from Laetoli today. Differences in seasonality separated upland forest sites on the Mbulu plateau from those at Lemagurut at Laetoli. Indicator species were identified for each habitat. These included several large-bodied species analogous to the Laetoli Pliocene fossil species that were then used for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Based on the estimated aridity index, and adopting the widely used United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) global climate classification, the four stratigraphic subunits of the Upper Laetolil Beds (3.6-3.85 Ma) would be placed in either the UNEP's Dry Sub-humid or Semi-arid climate classes, whereas the Upper Ndolanya Beds (2.66 Ma) and Lower Laetolil Beds (3.85-<4.36 Ma) would be assigned to the Humid and Semi-arid climate classes respectively. Pliocene precipitation at Laetoli is estimated as 847-965 mm per year, refining previous estimates. This is close or slightly higher than the present mean annual precipitation, and is likely to have corresponded to a mosaic of forest, woodland and bushland within a grassland matrix consistent with other reconstructions.


Asunto(s)
Clima , Ecosistema , Fósiles , Paleontología , Animales , Tanzanía , Hominidae/fisiología , Moluscos/clasificación , Moluscos/fisiología , Biodiversidad
3.
Sci Adv ; 10(14): eadl0335, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569032

RESUMEN

The rapid growth of clean energy technologies is driving a rising demand for critical minerals. In 2022 at the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15), seven major economies formed an alliance to enhance the sustainability of mining these essential decarbonization minerals. However, there is a scarcity of studies assessing the threat of mining to global biodiversity. By integrating a global mining dataset with great ape density distribution, we estimated the number of African great apes that spatially coincided with industrial mining projects. We show that up to one-third of Africa's great ape population faces mining-related risks. In West Africa in particular, numerous mining areas overlap with fragmented ape habitats, often in high-density ape regions. For 97% of mining areas, no ape survey data are available, underscoring the importance of increased accessibility to environmental data within the mining sector to facilitate research into the complex interactions between mining, climate, biodiversity, and sustainability.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Animales , Ecosistema , Biodiversidad , Minerales , África Occidental
4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2822, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561329

RESUMEN

The systematic status of the small-bodied catarrhine primate Pliobates cataloniae, from the Miocene (11.6 Ma) of Spain, is controversial because it displays a mosaic of primitive and derived features compared with extant hominoids (apes and humans). Cladistic analyses have recovered Pliobates as either a stem hominoid or as a pliopithecoid stem catarrhine (i.e., preceding the cercopithecoid-hominoid divergence). Here, we describe additional dental remains of P. cataloniae from another locality that display unambiguous synapomorphies of crouzeliid pliopithecoids. Our cladistic analyses support a close phylogenetic link with poorly-known small crouzeliids from Europe based on (cranio)dental characters but recover pliopithecoids as stem hominoids when postcranial characters are included. We conclude that Pliobates is a derived stem catarrhine that shows postcranial convergences with modern apes in the elbow and wrist joints-thus clarifying pliopithecoid evolution and illustrating the plausibility of independent acquisition of postcranial similarities between hylobatids and hominids.


Asunto(s)
Fósiles , Hominidae , Animales , Humanos , Filogenia , Primates , Cercopithecidae , Evolución Biológica
5.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 75(1)2024 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583436

RESUMEN

The treatment of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is extremely challenging due to the complex clinical presentation and prognosis of APE related to the patient's hemodynamic status and insufficient arterial blood flow and right ventricular overload. Protective efficacy against cardiovascular diseases of curcumin, a common natural polyphenolic compound, which has antithrombotic properties and reduces platelet accumulation in the circulation by inhibiting thromboxane synthesis has been demonstrated. However, the direct effect of curcumin on APE has rarely been studied. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of curcumin in APE and associated myocardial injury to provide new insights into curcumin as a promising competitive new target for the treatment of APE. A suspension of 12 mg/kg microspheres was injected intravenously into rats. An APE rat model was built. Before modeling, intragastric 100 mg/kg curcumin was given, and/or lentiviral plasmid vector targeting microRNA-145-5p or insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) was injected. Pulmonary artery pressure was measured to assess right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP). Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed on liver tissues and myocardial tissues of APE rats. TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling) staining and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were conducted to measure apoptosis and CyPA-CD147 expression in the myocardium, respectively. Inflammatory indices interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured by ELISA in cardiac tissues. RT-qPCR and Western blot were performed to determine the expression levels of related genes. In addition, by dual luciferase reporter assay and RIP assay, the relationship between microRNA-145-5p and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) was confirmed. In results: curcumin improved APE-induced myocardial injury, reduced myocardial tissue edema, and thrombus volume. It attenuated APE-induced myocardial inflammation and apoptosis, as well as reduced lung injury and pulmonary artery pressure. Curcumin promoted microRNA-145-5p expression in APE rat myocardium. MicroRNA-145-5p overexpression protected against APE-induced myocardial injury, and microRNA-145-5p silencing abolished the beneficial effects of curcumin in APE-induced myocardial injury. IRS1 was targeted by microRNA-145-5p. IRS1 silencing attenuated APE-induced myocardial injury, and enhanced therapeutic effect of curcumin on myocardial injury in APE rats. In conclusion, curcumin alleviates myocardial inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress induced by APE by regulating microRNA-145-5p/IRS1 axis.


Asunto(s)
Curcumina , Hominidae , MicroARNs , Miocarditis , Embolia Pulmonar , Humanos , Ratas , Animales , MicroARNs/genética , MicroARNs/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacología , Curcumina/uso terapéutico , Proteínas Sustrato del Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Apoptosis , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Estrés Oxidativo , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Embolia Pulmonar/genética , Hominidae/genética , Hominidae/metabolismo
6.
PeerJ ; 12: e17039, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590700

RESUMEN

Background: Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is classified as a subset of diseases that are characterized by lung obstruction due to various types of emboli. Current clinical APE treatment using anticoagulants is frequently accompanied by high risk of bleeding complications. Recombinant hirudin (R-hirudin) has been found to have antithrombotic properties. However, the specific impact of R-hirudin on APE remains unknown. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to five groups, with thrombi injections to establish APE models. Control and APE group rats were subcutaneously injected with equal amounts of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The APE+R-hirudin low-dose, middle-dose, and high-dose groups received subcutaneous injections of hirudin at doses of 0.25 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg, and 1.0 mg/kg, respectively. Each group was subdivided into time points of 2 h, 6 h, 1 d, and 4 d, with five animals per point. Subsequently, all rats were euthanized, and serum and lung tissues were collected. Following the assessment of right ventricular pressure (RVP) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), blood gas analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA), pulmonary artery vascular testing, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot experiments were conducted. Results: R-hirudin treatment caused a significant reduction of mPAP, RVP, and Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, as well as H2O2 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, while increasing pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity. R-hirudin also decreased wall area ratio and wall thickness to diameter ratio in APE rat pulmonary arteries. Serum levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and thromboxaneB2 (TXB2) decreased, while prostaglandin (6-K-PGF1α) and NO levels increased. Moreover, R-hirudin ameliorated histopathological injuries and reduced apoptotic cells and Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), p-Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2/ERK1/2, and p-P65/P65 expression in lung tissues. Conclusion: R-hirudin attenuated pulmonary hypertension and thrombosis in APE rats, suggesting its potential as a novel treatment strategy for APE.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Hipertensión Pulmonar , Embolia Pulmonar , Trombosis , Ratas , Animales , Hipertensión Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Hirudinas/farmacología , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/uso terapéutico , Embolia Pulmonar/complicaciones , Trombosis/tratamiento farmacológico
7.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299292, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630666

RESUMEN

Recent advances in interdisciplinary archaeological research in Arabia have focused on the evolution and historical development of regional human populations as well as the diverse patterns of cultural change, migration, and adaptations to environmental fluctuations. Obtaining a comprehensive understanding of cultural developments such as the emergence and lifeways of Neolithic groups has been hindered by the limited preservation of stratified archaeological assemblages and organic remains, a common challenge in arid environments. Underground settings like caves and lava tubes, which are prevalent in Arabia but which have seen limited scientific exploration, offer promising opportunities for addressing these issues. Here, we report on an archaeological excavation and a related survey at and around Umm Jirsan lava tube in the Harrat Khaybar, north-western Saudi Arabia. Our results reveal repeated phases of human occupation of the site ranging from at least the Neolithic through to the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age. Pastoralist use of the lava tube and surrounding landscape is attested in rock art and faunal records, suggesting that Umm Jirsan was situated along a pastoral route linking key oases. Isotopic data indicates that herbivores primarily grazed on wild grasses and shrubs rather than being provided with fodder, while humans had a diet consistently high in protein but with increasing consumption of C3 plants through-time, perhaps related to the emergence of oasis agriculture. While underground and naturally sheltered localities are globally prominent in archaeology and Quaternary science, our work represents the first such combined records for Saudi Arabia and highlight the potential for interdisciplinary studies in caves and lava tubes.


Asunto(s)
Cuevas , Hominidae , Humanos , Animales , Arabia , Arabia Saudita , Arqueología/métodos , Ocupaciones
8.
J Int Med Res ; 52(4): 3000605241240938, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603613

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of sildenafil on acute pulmonary embolism (APE) using a rat model. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the sham, pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), and sildenafil groups. The sham and PTE groups received normal saline once daily via gavage for 14 consecutive days, whereas the sildenafil group received sildenafil (0.5 mg/kg/day) once daily via gavage for 14 consecutive days. Autologous emboli were prepared from blood samples collected from the left femoral artery of rats in each group on day 13, and autologous emboli were injected into the jugular vein cannula of rats in the PTE and sildenafil groups on day 14. Sham-treated rats received the same volume of saline. Right systolic ventricular pressure (RVSP) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) were used to assess pulmonary embolism, and western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect relevant markers. RESULTS: The Rho kinase signaling pathway was significantly activated in rats with APE, and sildenafil significantly inhibited this activation. CONCLUSIONS: Sildenafil protected against APE through inhibiting Rho kinase activity, thereby reducing pulmonary vasoconstriction and decreasing elevated pulmonary arterial pressure. These findings might provide new ideas for the clinical treatment of acute pulmonary thromboembolism.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Embolia Pulmonar , Ratas , Animales , Citrato de Sildenafil/farmacología , Citrato de Sildenafil/uso terapéutico , Quinasas Asociadas a rho , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Hemodinámica , Arteria Pulmonar
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(7)2024 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610452

RESUMEN

Hip-worn accelerometers are commonly used to assess habitual physical activity, but their accuracy in precisely measuring sedentary behavior (SB) is generally considered low. The angle for postural estimation (APE) method has shown promising accuracy in SB measurement. This method relies on the constant nature of Earth's gravity and the assumption that walking posture is typically upright. This study investigated how cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body mass index (BMI) are related to APE output. A total of 3475 participants with adequate accelerometer wear time were categorized into three groups according to CRF or BMI. Participants in low CRF and high BMI groups spent more time in reclining and lying postures (APE ≥ 30°) and less time in sitting and standing postures (APE < 30°) than the other groups. Furthermore, the strongest partial Spearman correlation with CRF (r = 0.284) and BMI (r = -0.320) was observed for APE values typical for standing. The findings underscore the utility of the APE method in studying associations between SB and health outcomes. Importantly, this study emphasizes the necessity of reserving the term "sedentary behavior" for studies wherein the classification of SB is based on both intensity and posture.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Conducta Sedentaria , Humanos , Animales , Postura , Posición de Pie , Sedestación
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8690, 2024 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622216

RESUMEN

In the era of artificial intelligence, privacy empowerment illusion has become a crucial means for digital enterprises and platforms to "manipulate" users and create an illusion of control. This topic has also become an urgent and pressing concern for current research. However, the existing studies are limited in terms of their perspectives and methodologies, making it challenging to fully explain why users express concerns about privacy empowerment illusion but repeatedly disclose their personal information. This study combines the associative-propositional evaluation model (APE) and cognitive load theory, using event-related potential (ERP) technology to investigate the underlying mechanisms of how the comprehensibility and interpretability of privacy empowerment illusion cues affect users' immediate attitudes and privacy disclosure behaviours; these mechanisms are mediated by psychological processing and cognitive load differences. Behavioural research results indicate that in the context of privacy empowerment illusion cues with low comprehensibility, users are more inclined to disclose their private information when faced with high interpretability than they are when faced with low interpretability. EEG results show that in the context of privacy empowerment illusion cues with low comprehensibility, high interpretability induces greater P2 amplitudes than does low interpretability; low interpretability induces greater N2 amplitudes than does high interpretability. This study extends the scopes of the APE model and cognitive load theory in the field of privacy research, providing new insights into privacy attitudes. Doing so offers a valuable framework through which digital enterprises can gain a deeper understanding of users' genuine privacy attitudes and immediate reactions under privacy empowerment illusion situations. This understanding can help increase user privacy protection and improve their overall online experience, making it highly relevant and beneficial.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Ilusiones , Humanos , Animales , Privacidad/psicología , Revelación , Señales (Psicología) , Inteligencia Artificial , Cognición
11.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301482, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593117

RESUMEN

Morphological variation in modern human dentition is still an open field of study. The understanding of dental shape and metrics is relevant for the advancement of human biology and evolution and is thus of interest in the fields of dental anthropology, as well as human anatomy and medicine. Of concern is also the variation of the inner aspects of the crown which can be investigated using the tools and methods of virtual anthropology. In this study, we explored inter- and intra-population morphometric variation of modern humans' upper third and fourth premolars (P3s and P4s, respectively) considering both the inner and outer aspects of the crown, and discrete traits. We worked by means of geometric morphometrics on 3D image data from a geographically balanced sample of human populations from five continents, to analyse the shape of the dentinal crown, and the crown outline in 78 P3s and 76 P4s from 85 individuals. For the study of dental traits, we referred to the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System integrated with more recent classification systems. The 3D shape variation of upper premolar crowns varied between short and mesio-distally broad, and tall and mesio-distally narrow. The observed shape variation was independent from the geographical origin of the populations, and resulted in extensive overlap. We noted a high pairwise correlation (r1 = 0.83) between upper P3s and P4s. We did not find any significant geographic differences in the analysed non-metric traits. Our outcomes thus suggest that geographical provenance does not play a determinant role in the shaping of the dental crown, whose genesis is under strict genetic control.


Asunto(s)
Antropología Física , Hominidae , Animales , Humanos , Diente Premolar/diagnóstico por imagen , Diente Premolar/anatomía & histología , Hominidae/anatomía & histología , Antropología , Corona del Diente/diagnóstico por imagen , Corona del Diente/anatomía & histología
12.
J Hum Evol ; 190: 103494, 2024 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564844

RESUMEN

The body proportions of extant animals help inform inferences about the behaviors of their extinct relatives, but relationships between body proportions, behavior, and phylogeny in extant primates remain unclear. Advances in behavioral data, molecular phylogenies, and multivariate analytical tools make it an opportune time to perform comprehensive comparative analyses of primate traditional limb length proportions (e.g., intermembral, humerofemoral, brachial, and crural indices), body size-adjusted long bone proportions, and principal components. In this study we used a mix of newly-collected and published data to investigate whether and how the limb length proportions of a diverse sample of primates, including monkeys, apes, and modern humans, are influenced by behavior and phylogeny. We reconfirm that the intermembral index, followed by the first principal component of traditional limb length proportions, is the single most effective variable distinguishing hominoids and other anthropoids. Combined limb length proportions and positional behaviors are strongly correlated in extant anthropoid groups, but phylogeny is a better predictor of limb length proportion variation than of behavior. We confirm convergences between members of the Atelidae and extant apes (especially Pan), members of the Hylobatidae and Pongo, and a potential divergence of Presbytis limb proportions from some other cercopithecoids, which correlate with adaptations for forelimb-dominated behaviors in some colobines. Collectively, these results substantiate hypotheses indicating that extinct hominins and other hominoid taxa can be distinguished by analyzing combinations of their limb length proportions at different taxonomic levels. From these results, we hypothesize that fossil skeletons characterized by notably disparate limb length proportions are unlikely to have exhibited similar behavioral patterns.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Hylobatidae , Humanos , Animales , Filogenia , Haplorrinos , Fósiles , Primates , Extremidad Superior , Evolución Biológica
13.
J Hum Evol ; 190: 103499, 2024 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569444

RESUMEN

Research suggests that recent modern humans have gracile skeletons in having low trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and that gracilization of the skeleton occurred in the last 10,000 years. This has been attributed to a reduction in physical activity in the Holocene. However, there has been no thorough sampling of BV/TV in Pleistocene humans due to limited access to high resolution images of fossil specimens. Therefore, our study investigates the gracilization of BV/TV in Late Pleistocene humans and recent (Holocene) modern humans to improve our understanding of the emergence of gracility. We used microcomputed tomography to measure BV/TV in the femora, humeri and metacarpals of a sample of Late Pleistocene humans from Dolní Vestonice (Czech Republic, ∼26 ka, n = 6) and Ohalo II (Israel, ∼19 ka, n = 1), and a sample of recent humans including farming groups (n = 39) and hunter-gatherers (n = 6). We predicted that 1) Late Pleistocene humans would exhibit greater femoral and humeral head BV/TV compared with recent humans and 2) among recent humans, metacarpal head BV/TV would be greater in hunter-gatherers compared with farmers. Late Pleistocene humans had higher BV/TV compared with recent humans in both the femur and humerus, supporting our first prediction, and consistent with previous findings that Late Pleistocene humans are robust as compared to recent humans. However, among recent humans, there was no significant difference in BV/TV in the metacarpals between the two subsistence groups. The results highlight the similarity in BV/TV in the hand of two human groups from different geographic locales and subsistence patterns and raise questions about assumptions of activity levels in archaeological populations and their relationships to trabecular BV/TV.


Asunto(s)
Hueso Esponjoso , Hominidae , Animales , Humanos , Microtomografía por Rayos X , Fémur , Extremidad Inferior
14.
J Hum Evol ; 190: 103528, 2024 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579429

RESUMEN

The evolution of the hominoid lineage is characterized by pervasive homoplasy, notably in regions such as the vertebral column, which plays a central role in body support and locomotion. Few isolated and fewer associated vertebrae are known for most fossil hominoid taxa, but identified specimens indicate potentially high levels of convergence in terms of both form and number. Homoplasy thus complicates attempts to identify the anatomy of the last common ancestor of hominins and other taxa and stymies reconstructions of evolutionary scenarios. One way to clarify the role of homoplasy is by investigating constraints via phenotypic integration, which assesses covariation among traits, shapes evolutionary pathways, and itself evolves in response to selection. We assessed phenotypic integration and evolvability across the subaxial (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral) vertebral column of macaques (n = 96), gibbons (n = 77), chimpanzees (n = 92), and modern humans (n = 151). We found a mid-cervical cluster that may have shifted cranially in hominoids, a persistent thoracic cluster that is most marked in chimpanzees, and an expanded lumbosacral cluster in hominoids that is most expanded in gibbons. Our results highlight the highly conserved nature of the vertebral column. Taxa appear to exploit existing patterns of integration and ontogenetic processes to shift, expand, or reduce cluster boundaries. Gibbons appear to be the most highly derived taxon in our sample, possibly in response to their highly specialized locomotion.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Pan troglodytes , Humanos , Animales , Hylobates , Evolución Biológica , Hominidae/anatomía & histología , Sacro
15.
J Hum Evol ; 190: 103498, 2024 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581918

RESUMEN

The Homa Peninsula, in southwestern Kenya, continues to yield insights into Oldowan hominin landscape behaviors. The Late Pliocene locality of Nyayanga (∼3-2.6 Ma) preserves some of the oldest Oldowan tools. At the Early Pleistocene locality of Kanjera South (∼2 Ma) toolmakers procured a diversity of raw materials from over 10 km away and strategically reduced them in a grassland-dominated ecosystem. Here, we report findings from Sare-Abururu, a younger (∼1.7 Ma) Oldowan locality approximately 12 km southeast of Kanjera South and 18 km east of Nyayanga. Sare-Abururu has yielded 1754 artifacts in relatively undisturbed low-energy silts and sands. Stable isotopic analysis of pedogenic carbonates suggests that hominin activities were carried out in a grassland-dominated setting with similar vegetation structure as documented at Kanjera South. The composition of a nearby paleo-conglomerate indicates that high-quality stone raw materials were locally abundant. Toolmakers at Sare-Abururu produced angular fragments from quartz pebbles, representing a considerable contrast to the strategies used to reduce high quality raw materials at Kanjera South. Although lithic reduction at Sare-Abururu was technologically simple, toolmakers proficiently produced cutting edges, made few mistakes and exhibited a mastery of platform management, demonstrating that expedient technical strategies do not necessarily indicate a lack of skill or suitable raw materials. Lithic procurement and reduction patterns on the Homa Peninsula appear to reflect variation in local resource contexts rather than large-scale evolutionary changes in mobility, energy budget, or toolmaker cognition.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Animales , Kenia , Ecosistema , Evolución Biológica , Carbonatos , Arqueología , Fósiles
16.
J Hum Evol ; 190: 103508, 2024 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599140

RESUMEN

The Mount Galili Formation in the Afar region, Ethiopia, samples a critical time in hominin evolution, 4.4 to 3.8 Ma, documenting the last appearance of Ardipithecus and the origin of Australopithecus. This period is also important in the evolution of cercopithecids, especially the origin of Theropithecus in general and Theropithecus oswaldi lineage in particular. Galili has provided a total of 655 cercopithecid specimens that include crania, mandibles, isolated teeth and postcrania. All the fossils were recovered from the Lasdanan (5.3-4.43 Ma), Dhidinley (4.43-3.9 Ma) and Shabeley Laag (∼3.92-3.8 Ma) Members. Here, we described and analyzed 362 fossils employing both qualitative and quantitative methods. Descriptions of the material were supplemented with dental metrics and cranial shape analysis using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Results indicate the presence of at least six cercopithecid taxa: Theropithecus oswaldi serengetensis (n = 28), Theropithecus sp. (n = 2), three non-Theropithecus papionin groups (n = 134) and one colobine-size group (n = 58). The T. o. serengetensis represents the earliest form of the lineage, documented from ∼3.9 Ma Galili sediments. The three Galili papionins include a smaller taxon, a medium-sized taxon comparable to Pliopapio alemui and a large papionin overlapping in size with Soromandrillus, Gorgopithecus and Dinopithecus. The majority of Galili colobines have closest affinities to Kuseracolobus aramisi and some overlap with other taxa. Papionins dominate the Galili cercopithecid collection, although colobines are still fairly common (approximately 25% of the sample). Thus, Galili sample is like Kanapoi (4.2-4.1 Ma) and Gona (5.2-3.9 Ma) localities but distinct from Aramis, suggesting paleoecological similarity to the former sites. On the other hand, Theropithecus is less abundant at Galili than geologically younger Hadar (3.4-3.2 Ma) and Woranso-Mille (3.8-3.6 Ma) sites. Whether this difference is due to sampling, time or landscape variation requires further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Theropithecus , Animales , Cercopithecidae , Fósiles , Etiopía , Cráneo/anatomía & histología
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8970, 2024 04 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637567

RESUMEN

Compared to their closest ape relatives, humans walk bipedally with lower metabolic cost (C) and less mechanical work to move their body center of mass (external mechanical work, WEXT). However, differences in WEXT are not large enough to explain the observed lower C: humans may also do less work to move limbs relative to their body center of mass (internal kinetic mechanical work, WINT,k). From published data, we estimated differences in WINT,k, total mechanical work (WTOT), and efficiency between humans and chimpanzees walking bipedally. Estimated WINT,k is ~ 60% lower in humans due to changes in limb mass distribution, lower stride frequency and duty factor. When summing WINT,k to WEXT, between-species differences in efficiency are smaller than those in C; variations in WTOT correlate with between-species, but not within-species, differences in C. These results partially support the hypothesis that the low cost of human walking is due to the concerted low WINT,k and WEXT.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Pan troglodytes , Animales , Humanos , Metabolismo Energético , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Caminata , Marcha
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2021): 20232738, 2024 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628118

RESUMEN

Midfacial morphology varies between hominoids, in particular between great apes and humans for which the face is small and retracted. The underlying developmental processes for these morphological differences are still largely unknown. Here, we investigate the cellular mechanism of maxillary development (bone modelling, BM), and how potential changes in this process may have shaped facial evolution. We analysed cross-sectional developmental series of gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees and present-day humans (n = 183). Individuals were organized into five age groups according to their dental development. To visualize each species's BM pattern and corresponding morphology during ontogeny, maps based on microscopic data were mapped onto species-specific age group average shapes obtained using geometric morphometrics. The amount of bone resorption was quantified and compared between species. Great apes share a highly similar BM pattern, whereas gibbons have a distinctive resorption pattern. This suggests a change in cellular activity on the hominid branch. Humans possess most of the great ape pattern, but bone resorption is high in the canine area from birth on, suggesting a key role of canine reduction in facial evolution. We also observed that humans have high levels of bone resorption during childhood, a feature not shared with other apes.


Asunto(s)
Resorción Ósea , Hominidae , Animales , Humanos , Hominidae/anatomía & histología , Hylobates , Estudios Transversales , Gorilla gorilla , Pan troglodytes , Morfogénesis , Evolución Biológica
19.
Anim Cogn ; 27(1): 28, 2024 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553650

RESUMEN

The ability to make sense of and predict others' actions is foundational for many socio-cognitive abilities. Dogs (Canis familiaris) constitute interesting comparative models for the study of action perception due to their marked sensitivity to human actions. We tested companion dogs (N = 21) in two screen-based eye-tracking experiments, adopting a task previously used with human infants and apes, to assess which aspects of an agent's action dogs consider relevant to the agent's underlying intentions. An agent was shown repeatedly acting upon the same one of two objects, positioned in the same location. We then presented the objects in swapped locations and the agent approached the objects centrally (Experiment 1) or the old object in the new location or the new object in the old location (Experiment 2). Dogs' anticipatory fixations and looking times did not reflect an expectation that agents should have continued approaching the same object nor the same location as witnessed during the brief familiarization phase; this contrasts with some findings with infants and apes, but aligns with findings in younger infants before they have sufficient motor experience with the observed action. However, dogs' pupil dilation and latency to make an anticipatory fixation suggested that, if anything, dogs expected the agents to keep approaching the same location rather than the same object, and their looking times showed sensitivity to the animacy of the agents. We conclude that dogs, lacking motor experience with the observed actions of grasping or kicking performed by a human or inanimate agent, might interpret such actions as directed toward a specific location rather than a specific object. Future research will need to further probe the suitability of anticipatory looking as measure of dogs' socio-cognitive abilities given differences between the visual systems of dogs and primates.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Hominidae , Humanos , Perros , Animales
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(13): e2318903121, 2024 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466876

RESUMEN

Two recently published analyses make cases for severe bottlenecking of human populations occurring in the late Early Pleistocene, one case at about 0.9 Mya based on a genomic analysis of modern human populations and the low number of hominin sites of this age in Africa and the other at about 1.1 Mya based on an age inventory of sites of hominin presence in Eurasia. Both models point to climate change as the bottleneck trigger, albeit manifested at very different times, and have implications for human migrations as a mechanism to elude extinction at bottlenecking. Here, we assess the climatic and chronologic components of these models and suggest that the several hundred-thousand-year difference is largely an artifact of biases in the chronostratigraphic record of Eurasian hominin sites. We suggest that the best available data are consistent with the Galerian hypothesis expanded from Europe to Eurasia as a major migration pulse of fauna including hominins in the late Early Pleistocene as a consequence of the opening of land routes from Africa facilitated by a large sea level drop associated with the first major ice age of the Pleistocene and concurrent with widespread aridity across Africa that occurred during marine isotope stage 22 at ~0.9 Mya. This timing agrees with the independently dated bottleneck from genomic analysis of modern human populations and allows speculations about the relative roles of climate forcing on the survival of hominins.


Asunto(s)
Hominidae , Animales , Humanos , Hominidae/genética , Fósiles , África , Europa (Continente) , Migración Humana
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...